IB DP Geography [MASTER]

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IB DP Geography [MASTER] by Mind Map: IB DP Geography [MASTER]

1. Patterns and Change

1.1. Populations in transition

1.1.1. Population change Explain population trends and patterns in births (Crude Birth Rate), natural increase and mortality (Crude Death Rate, infant and child mortality rates), fertility and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world Analyse population pyramids Explain population momentum and its impact on population projections

1.1.2. Responses to high and low fertility Explain dependency and ageing ratios Examine the impacts of youthful and ageing populations Evaluate examples of a pro-natalist policy and an anti-natalist policy.

1.1.3. Movement responses—migration Discuss the causes of migrations, both forced and voluntary. Evaluate internal (national) and international migrations in terms of their geographic (socio-economic, political and environmental) impacts at their origins and destinations

1.1.4. Gender and change Examine gender inequalities in culture, status, education, birth ratios, health, employment, empowerment, life expectancy, family size, migration, legal rights and land tenure.

1.2. Disparities in wealth and development

1.2.1. Measurements of regional and global disparities Define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization and Human Development Index (HDI) Explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe

1.2.2. Origin of disparities Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership

1.2.3. Disparities and change Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health

1.2.4. Reducing disparities Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities

1.3. Patterns in environmental quality and sustainability

1.3.1. Atmosphere and change Describe the functioning of the atmospheric system in terms of the energy balance between solar and longwave radiation Explain the changes in this balance due to external forcings (changes in solar radiation, changes in the albedo of the atmosphere and changes in the longwave radiation returned to space) Discuss the causes and environmental consequences of global climate change

1.3.2. Soil and change Explain the causes of soil degradation Discuss the environmental and socio-economic consequences of this process, together with management strategies

1.3.3. Water and change Identify the ways in which water is utilized at the regional scale Examine the environmental and human factors affecting patterns and trends in physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity Examine the factors affecting access to safe drinking water

1.3.4. Biodiversity and change Explain the concept and importance of biodiversity in tropical rainforests Examine the causes and consequences of reduced biodiversity in this biome

1.3.5. Sustainability and the environment Define the concept of environmental sustainability Evaluate a management strategy at a local or national scale designed to achieve environmental sustainability

1.4. Patterns in resource consumption

1.4.1. Patterns of resource consumption Evaluate the ecological footprint as a measure of the relationship between population size and resource consumption Identify international variations in its size Discuss the two opposing views (neo-Malthusian and anti-Malthusian) of the relationship between population size and resource consumption

1.4.2. Changing patterns of energy consumption Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil Examine the geopolitical and environmental impacts of these changes in patterns and trends Examine the changing importance of other energy sources

1.4.3. Conservation strategies Discuss the reduction of resource consumption by conservation, waste reduction, recycling and substitution Evaluate a strategy at a local or national scale aimed at reducing the consumption of one resource

2. Global Interactions

2.1. Measuring global interactions

2.1.1. Global participation Describe and evaluate one of the following two globalization indices: the AT Kearney index or the KOF index, as a measure of global interaction Describe how the globalization index may be represented spatially

2.1.2. Global core and periphery Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions

2.2. Changing space—the shrinking world

2.2.1. Time–space convergence and the reduction in the friction of distance Explain how a reduction in the friction of distance results in time–space convergence Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of two types of transport (air, ocean, road, rail, pipeline) responsible for the flow of goods, materials and people

2.2.2. Extension and density of networks Examine the changes in a transport, internet or telecommunications network in terms of the extension of links and nodes and the intensity of use at a national or global scale Describe the role of information and communications technology (ICT) in civil society and the transmission and flow of images, ideas, information and finance Examine the contrasting rates, levels and patterns of adoption of an element of ICT in two countries

2.3. Economic interactions and flows

2.3.1. Financial flows Examine the importance of loans, debt repayment, development aid, remittances, foreign direct investment and repatriation of profits in the transfer of capital between the developed core areas and the peripheries Examine the influence of governments, world trading organizations and financial institutions (such as the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund and World Bank) in the transfer of capital

2.3.2. Labour flows Explain the causes and effects of one major flow of labour between two countries

2.3.3. Information flows Explain the role of ICT in the growth of international outsourcing

2.4. Environmental change

2.4.1. Degradation through raw material production Identify the effects of agro-industrialization and changes in international production and consumption on the physical environment Discuss the environmental consequences of increasing international demand for one raw material Examine the concept of food miles and the environmental consequences of increasing volumes of air freight

2.4.2. The effects of transnational manufacturing and services Discuss the reasons for and consequences of the relocation of polluting industries (such as some TNCs) and waste disposal (such as ICT, chemical and nuclear waste) to countries with weaker environmental controls and safety regulations

2.4.3. Transboundary pollution Describe one major pollution event affecting more than one country and examine the consequences of and responses to this event Examine the growth of environmental awareness as a consequence of these global interactions Examine the role of one international civil society organization in fostering improved environmental management

2.4.4. Homogenization of landscapes Explain the evolution of uniform urban landscapes; the effects of common commercial activity, structures, styles of construction and infrastructure

2.5. Sociocultural exchanges

2.5.1. Cultural diffusion: the process Describe cultural traits in terms of language, customs, beliefs, dress, images, music, food and technology Examine the diffusion of cultural traits resulting from the international movement of workers, tourists and commodities

2.5.2. Consumerism and culture Describe the role of TNCs and the media in spreading consumer culture Select two different branded commodities and examine the spatial and temporal pattern of adoption on a global scale

2.5.3. Sociocultural integration Examine the role of diasporas in preserving culture in one country and the adoption of minority traits by host societies Examine the impact of cultural diffusion on one indigenous and remote society through the influence of international interactions Examine the ways in which international interactions may result in the homogenization and dilution of culture. Define and exemplify the concept of cultural imperialism

2.6. Political outcomes

2.6.1. Loss of sovereignty Discuss the links between the diminishing effectiveness of political borders and the flow of goods, capital, labour and ideas, and the role of one multi-governmental organization such as the European Union (EU), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and MERCOSUR (the common market of South America) Discuss the shift of power from nation state to TNCs as a result of their economic size and dominance Compare the wealth of TNCs with that of nation states

2.6.2. Responses Examine the resurgence of nationalism in one country as it attempts to retain control of its resources and culture Discuss anti-globalization movements Discuss the attempts to control migration into one country

2.7. Global interactions at the local level

2.7.1. Defining glocalization Distinguish between the terms globalization and glocalization

2.7.2. Adoption of globalization Examine the extent to which commercial activities at a local scale have become globalized Examine the reasons why the level and rate of adoption varies from place to place

2.7.3. Local responses to globalization Discuss civil society responses to globalization; the adoption, adaptation (glocalization) or rejection of globalized goods, services and cultural traits Evaluate the relative costs and benefits of local commercial production to the producer, the consumer and the local economy, compared with the costs and benefits of globalized production

2.7.4. Alternatives Describe the role of civil societies in raising awareness of local and global environmental, social and cultural issues. Examine the role of civil societies in supporting local economic activity and strengthening local cultural values. Discuss the position held by anti-globalization groups valuate the quality of life of a contemporary non-globalized society

3. The Geography of Food and Health

3.1. Health

3.1.1. Variations in health Describe the variations in health as reflected by changes in life expectancy at national and global scales since 1950 Explain the patterns and trends in terms of differences in income and lifestyle

3.1.2. Measuring health Evaluate life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR) and child mortality, HALE (health-adjusted life expectancy), calorie intake, access to safe water and access to health services as indicators of health

3.1.3. Prevention relative to treatment Discuss the geographic factors that determine the relative emphasis placed by policy-makers, in one country or region, on prevention as opposed to treatment of disease

3.2. Food

3.2.1. Global availability of food Identify global patterns of calorie intake as one measure of food availability Distinguish between malnutrition, temporary hunger, chronic hunger and famine Discuss the concept of food security

3.2.2. Areas of food sufficiency and deficiency Explain how changes in agricultural systems, scientific and technological innovations, the expansion of the area under agriculture and the growth of agribusiness have increased the availability of food in some areas, starting with the Green Revolution and continuing since Examine the environmental, demographic, political, social and economic factors that have caused areas of food deficiency and food insecurity

3.2.3. Case study Examine the variety of causes responsible for a recent famine

3.2.4. Production and markets Examine the impacts at a variety of scales of trade barriers, agricultural subsidies, bilateral and multilateral agreements, and transnational corporations (TNCs) on the production and availability of food

3.2.5. Addressing imbalances Evaluate the relative importance of food aid, free trade and fair trade in alleviating food shortages

3.2.6. Sustainable agriculture Examine the concept of sustainable agriculture in terms of energy efficiency ratios and sustainable yields Examine the concept of food miles as an indicator of environmental impact

3.3. Disease

3.3.1. Global patterns of disease Explain the global distribution of diseases of affluence Explain the global distribution of diseases of poverty

3.3.2. The spread of disease Explain how the geographic concepts of diffusion by relocation and by expansion apply to the spread of diseases Examine the application of the concept of barriers in attempts to limit the spread of diseases Describe the factors that have enabled reduction in incidence of a disease

3.3.3. Geographic factors and impacts Examine the geographic factors responsible for the incidence and spread of two diseases Evaluate the geographic impact of these two diseases at the local, national and international scales Evaluate the management strategies that have been applied in any one country or region for one of these diseases

4. Extreme Environments

4.1. Challenging environments

4.1.1. Global distribution of extreme environments Explain the global distribution of each of the two kinds of extreme environment Describe the relief and climatic characteristics that make these environments extreme Explain how these characteristics present challenges for resource development and human habitation

4.1.2. Population Explain the other factors responsible for a low density of population in these areas: human discomfort, inaccessibility, remoteness Identify ways in which people adapt their activities to extremes of weather and climate

4.2. The physical characteristics of extreme environments

4.2.1. Glacial environment Explain the advance and retreat of glaciers and the main features resulting from the processes of erosion and deposition by glaciers

4.2.2. Periglacial environment Explain permafrost, patterned ground, solifluction, thermokarst, pingos

4.2.3. Hot, arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas) Explain weathering and the processes involved in wind- and water-formed features Explain the occurrence of flash floods

4.3. Opportunities and challenges for management

4.3.1. Agriculture Hot, arid areas: examine the opportunities for agriculture in these areas, the distinction between aridity and infertility, the importance of irrigation and risk of salinization, and the processes and factors involved in desertification

4.3.2. Mineral extraction Periglacial areas: examine the opportunities and challenges posed by permafrost and other characteristics of periglacial areas for resource development (mineral extraction and any associated settlement and communications) Hot, arid areas: examine the opportunities and challenges posed for resource development (mineral extraction and any associated settlement and communications)

4.3.3. Tourism Examine the opportunities and challenges posed by the development of tourism and any associated settlement and communications in one type of extreme environment Examine the impacts of tourism on the environment, such as mass movements and erosion, land degradation, vulnerability to hazards, aesthetic change, water usage and waste disposal

4.3.4. Sustainability Human activity Discuss the degree to which human activities in extreme environments are unsustainable Impact Discuss the potential impact of global climatic change (global warming) on the indigenous populations, settlement and economic activities in extreme environments

5. Freshwater

5.1. The water system

5.1.1. The hydrological cycle Examine the inputs, outputs, stores and transfers of the hydrological cycle Discuss the causes and consequences of the changing balance between water stored in oceans and ice

5.1.2. The water balance Explain the concept of maximum sustainable yield of freshwater in terms of a balance between inputs and outputs

5.2. Drainage basins and flooding

5.2.1. Drainage basins Examine the functioning of a drainage basin as an open system with inputs, outputs, transfers, stores and feedback loops

5.2.2. Discharge Define stream discharge Examine its relationship to stream flow and channel shape

5.2.3. Hydrographs Describe the characteristics of a hydrograph Examine the reasons for spatial and temporal (short-term and long-term) variations in hydrographs Examine the role of hydrographs in forecasting the magnitude, spatial extent and timing of floods

5.2.4. Floods Discuss the natural and human causes and consequences of a specific river flood

5.3. Management issues and strategies

5.3.1. Dams and reservoirs Examine the hydrological changes resulting from the construction of dams and reservoirs Examine the costs and benefits of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes

5.3.2. Floodplain management Explain the stream channel processes (erosion, transport, deposition) and explain the resultant landforms found on floodplains Examine the human modifications of a floodplain and their effect on the size and probability of floods Evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative stream management strategies

5.3.3. Groundwater management Explain the functioning and management of artesian basins and aquifers, distinguishing between natural and artificial recharge Examine the environmental impacts of groundwater abstraction

5.3.4. Freshwater wetland management Describe the role of wetlands as a water resource Evaluate the effectiveness of the management strategies that have been adopted in a major wetland

5.3.5. Irrigation and agriculture Examine the environmental impact of agriculture and irrigation on water quality: salinization, agro-chemical run-off, the pollution of groundwater and the eutrophication of lakes, rivers and wetlands

5.4. Competing demands for water

5.4.1. Conflicts at the local or national scale Examine the competing demands for water in a specific river basin Evaluate the strategies that have been adopted to meet these demands

5.4.2. Conflicts at the international scale Discuss an example of an international conflict related to freshwater

6. Urban Environments

6.1. Urban populations

6.1.1. Urbanization Define urbanization and explain the variation in global growth rates and patterns

6.1.2. Inward movement Explain the processes of centripetal movements (rural– urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanization/urban renewal)

6.1.3. Outward movement Explain the processes of centrifugal movements (suburbanization, counter-urbanization, urban sprawl)

6.1.4. Natural change Explain the contribution of natural change to patterns of population density within urban areas

6.1.5. The global megacity Explain the global increase in the number and location of megacities (population over 10 million)

6.2. Urban land use

6.2.1. Residential areas Explain the location of residential areas in relation to wealth, ethnicity and family status (stage in life cycle) Examine patterns of urban poverty and deprivation (such as slums, squatter settlements, areas of low-cost housing and inner-city areas) Examine the causes and effects of the movement of socio-economic groups since the 1980s

6.2.2. Areas of economic activity Explain the spatial pattern of economic activity, the zoning of urban and suburban functions and the internal structure of the central business district (CBD) Describe the informal sector; its characteristics and location in urban areas Examine the causes and effects of the movement of retailing, service and manufacturing activities to new locations, including brownfield sites

6.3. Urban stress

6.3.1. Urban microclimate Examine the effects of structures and human activity on urban microclimates, including the urban heat island effect and air pollution

6.3.2. Other types of environmental and social stress Examine the other symptoms of urban stress including congestion, overcrowding and noise, depletion of green space, waste overburden, poor quality housing, social deprivation, crime and inequality

6.4. The sustainable city

6.4.1. The city as a system Describe the city as a system in terms of: inputs—energy, water, people, materials, products, food (urban agriculture) outputs—solid, atmospheric and liquid waste, noise, people. Distinguish between a sustainable circular system where inputs are reduced and outputs are recycled and an unsustainable (open/linear) city system with uncontrolled inputs and outputs

6.4.2. Case studies Referring to at least two city case studies, discuss the concepts of: sustainable city management the urban ecological footprint.

6.4.3. Sustainable strategies Evaluate one case study of each of the following. One socially sustainable housing management strategy. One environmentally sustainable pollution management strategy. One strategy to control rapid city growth resulting from in-migration