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Acids and Bases by Mind Map: Acids and Bases
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Acids and Bases


Svante Arrhenius

acids produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions

bases produce OH- ions in aqueous solutions

Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted - Thomas Martin Lowry

acids are proton donors

bases are proton acceptors

Gilbert Newton Lewis

acids are electron pair acceptors

bases are electron pair donors



taste sour (Fun fact: the word 'acid' comes from the Latin word 'acere' which means sour)

change blue litmus red

their solutions are electrolytes (conduct electricity)

react with bases to form salt and water

evolve hydrogen gas upon reaction with an active metal

have a pH value of less than 7


taste bitter

feel slippery or soapy

turns red litmus blue

their solutions are electrolytes (conduct electricity)

react with acids to form salt water

have a pH value of more than 7

soluble bases are called alkali

Amphoteric substances

Reacts with bases and acids



strong acids (completely dissociates in water), sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid

weak acids (does not completely dissociate in water), vinegar (acetic acid), lactic acid, citric acid from fruits like lemon

Neutral substances (pH = 7)



strong bases (completely dissociates in water), sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide (limewater), potassium hydroxide

weak bases (does not completely dissociate in water), detergents, soap, aqueous ammonia

Amphoteric substances

zinc oxide

aluminium hydroxide

lead oxide


pH = log10[H+]

[H+] -> molarity of hydrogen ions

Acids: [H+] > 1x10^-7

Bases: [H+] < 1x10^-7

Neutral substances: [H+] = [OH-] = 1x10^-7