Heart Anatomy

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Heart Anatomy by Mind Map: Heart Anatomy

1. Right atrium

1.1. Posterior wall

1.1.1. Smooth

1.1.2. It is the inter atrial septum

1.1.2.1. Fossa ovalis

1.1.2.2. Anulus ovalis

1.1.2.3. Atrioventricular (AV) node

1.1.2.3.1. most anterior inferior

1.1.2.3.2. septal cusp of tricuspid

1.1.3. 3 openings

1.1.3.1. Superior vena cava

1.1.3.1.1. NO valve

1.1.3.2. Inferior vena cava

1.1.3.2.1. Rudimentary valve

1.1.3.3. coronary sinus orifice

1.1.3.3.1. between the inferior vena cava and the right AV orifice

1.1.3.3.2. Rudimentary valve

1.2. Anterior wall

1.2.1. Rough -> musculi pectinati

1.2.2. Right auricle

1.2.2.1. what separates if from the posterior wall

1.2.2.1.1. Sulcus terminalis (external)

1.2.2.1.2. Crista terminalis (internal)

1.3. Right AV valve (tricuspid)

2. Right ventricle

2.1. Openings

2.1.1. Tricuspid valve

2.1.1.1. anterior cusp

2.1.1.2. septal cusp

2.1.1.3. posterior (inferior) cusp

2.1.2. Pulmonary valve

2.1.2.1. A funnel shaped structure leads to it (the infundibulum)

2.1.2.2. right cusp

2.1.2.3. left cusp

2.1.2.4. anterior cusp

2.2. Internal structures

2.2.1. Trabeculae carneae

2.2.1.1. ridges of cardiac muscles

2.2.1.2. 3 papillary muscles, each gives chordae tendineae to 2 cusps

2.2.1.3. moderator band

2.2.1.3.1. Shortcut to convoy the right branch of the AV bundle

2.2.2. Inter ventricular wall

2.2.2.1. Membranous wall

2.2.2.1.1. very thin, superior

2.2.2.2. Muscular part

2.2.3. Lumen is crescent shape

3. Orientation

3.1. Apex

3.1.1. left ventricle

3.2. Base

3.2.1. Mainly left atrium

3.2.2. right atrium

3.3. Anterior surface

3.3.1. Mainly right ventricle

3.3.2. right atrium

3.3.3. left ventricle

3.4. Inferior surface

3.4.1. Mainly left ventricle

3.4.2. Right ventricle

3.5. Right border

3.5.1. Right atrium

3.6. Left border

3.6.1. Left ventricle

3.6.2. Left auricle

3.7. Inferior border

3.7.1. Right ventricle

3.8. Superior border

3.8.1. Vessels

4. Skeleton of the heart

4.1. Fibrous rings surrounding the heart, made of collagen

4.2. Fibrous trigons connect the rings

4.3. Make up the membranous inter ventricular septum

4.4. Function

4.4.1. electrical insulation

4.4.2. support and muscle attachment

5. Left atrium

5.1. similar structure to the right atirum

5.2. Openings

5.2.1. 4 pulmonary viens

5.2.1.1. Left superior pulmonary vien

5.2.1.2. Left inferior pulmonary vien

5.2.1.3. 2 right pulmonary viens

5.2.1.4. NO valves

5.2.2. Mitral valve (left AV)

6. Left ventricle

6.1. Openings

6.1.1. Mitral valve

6.1.1.1. Anterior cusp

6.1.1.2. Posterior cusp

6.1.2. Aortic valve

6.1.2.1. Vestibule leads to it (like the infundibulum)

6.1.2.2. right cusp

6.1.2.3. left cusp

6.1.2.4. posterior cusp

6.2. Internal structures

6.2.1. No moderator bands

6.2.2. Two papillary muscles

6.2.3. Thick walls

6.2.4. The lumen is circular in shape

7. Coronary circulation

7.1. Artries

7.1.1. Right coronary artery

7.1.1.1. Sinuatrial nodal branch (60%)

7.1.1.2. Right conus artery

7.1.1.2.1. feeds infundibulum

7.1.1.3. Right marginal branch

7.1.1.3.1. supplies right ventricle

7.1.1.4. Atrioventricular nodal branch (posterior, 65%)

7.1.1.5. Posterior inter ventricular artery (90%, right dominance)

7.1.1.5.1. supplies both ventricles posteriorly

7.1.2. Left coronary artery

7.1.2.1. Anterior inter ventricular artery

7.1.2.1.1. diagonal branch

7.1.2.1.2. left conus artery

7.1.2.1.3. supplies the bundle of HIS

7.1.2.2. Circumflex branch

7.1.2.2.1. Left marginal artery

7.2. Veins

7.2.1. Coronary sinus

7.2.1.1. Small cardiac vein

7.2.1.1.1. with right marginal

7.2.1.2. Middle cardiac vein

7.2.1.2.1. with posterior inter ventricular

7.2.1.3. Great cardiac vein

7.2.1.3.1. with anterior inter ventricular

7.2.2. Right atrium

7.2.2.1. Anterior cardiacl vein

8. Neve supply

8.1. Cardiac plexus

8.1.1. sympathetic

8.1.1.1. preganglionic fibers

8.1.1.1.1. T1-T6

8.1.1.2. Postganglionic fibers

8.1.1.2.1. cervical trunk

8.1.1.2.2. upper thoracic trunk

8.1.1.3. efferent

8.1.1.3.1. increasing rate & contraction force

8.1.1.3.2. vasoconstriction

8.1.1.4. afferent

8.1.1.4.1. referred pain

8.1.2. parasympathetic

8.1.2.1. vagus nerve

8.1.2.2. efferent

8.1.2.2.1. lowering rate & contraction force

8.1.2.2.2. vasoconstriction

8.1.2.3. afferent

8.1.2.3.1. reflexes

9. Pericardium

9.1. surface anatomy

9.1.1. posterior to the sternum, 2-6 costal cartilages

9.1.2. anterior to 5-8 thoracic vertebrae

9.2. Fibrous pericardium

9.2.1. anchors the heart and prevents over stretching

9.2.2. attached to diaphragm, sternum, and major blood vessels

9.2.3. Innervated by the phrenic nerve

9.3. Serous pericardium

9.3.1. parietal layer -> fused to the fibrous pericardium

9.3.1.1. innervated by phrenic nerve

9.3.2. visceral layer (epicardium)

9.3.2.1. innervated by sympathetic trunk & vagus (it's part of the heart)

9.3.3. both are continues around major blood vessles

9.3.4. 50 ml of pericardial fluid in the cavity between them

9.4. Pericardial sinuses

9.4.1. result during development and has NO clinical significance

9.4.2. Transverse sinus

9.4.2.1. between arteries and veins

9.4.3. Oblique sinus

9.4.3.1. within the veins

10. Large vessels of thorax

10.1. Artries

10.1.1. Ascending aorta

10.1.1.1. it's inside the pericardium

10.1.1.2. right and left coronary arteries

10.1.2. Arch of aorta

10.1.2.1. Brachiocephalic trunk

10.1.2.1.1. Right subclavian

10.1.2.1.2. Right common carotid

10.1.2.1.3. behind the right sternoclavicular joint

10.1.2.1.4. right recurrent laryngeal nerve

10.1.2.2. left common carotid

10.1.2.3. left subclavian

10.1.2.4. ligamentum arteriosum binds it with pulmonary trunk biforcation

10.1.2.5. left recurrent laryngeal nerve encircles it

10.1.3. Descending thoracic aorta

10.1.3.1. Posterior intercostals

10.1.3.2. subcostals

10.1.3.3. pericardial

10.1.3.4. oesophageal

10.1.3.5. bronchial

10.1.4. Pulmonary trunk

10.1.4.1. Right pulmonary artery

10.1.4.1.1. goes behind ascending aorta

10.1.4.2. Left pulmonary artery

10.1.4.2.1. goes in front of descending aorta

10.1.4.3. also inside the pericardium with the ascending aorta

10.2. Veins

10.2.1. Superior Vena Cava

10.2.1.1. left brachiocephalic

10.2.1.2. right brachiocephalic

10.2.1.2.1. right subclavian

10.2.1.2.2. internal jaguar

10.2.1.2.3. forms at the root of the neck

10.2.2. Azygus veins

10.2.2.1. Main Azygus vein

10.2.2.1.1. most anterior

10.2.2.1.2. on the right side

10.2.2.1.3. ascends though aortic opening of diaphragm at 5th thoracic vertebra

10.2.2.1.4. superior hemiazygos

10.2.2.1.5. Inferior hemiazygos (Accessory)

10.2.2.1.6. right subcostal

10.2.2.1.7. right ascending lumber

10.2.3. Inferior Vena Cava

10.2.4. Pulmonary veins