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Heart Anatomy by Mind Map: Heart Anatomy
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Heart Anatomy

Relevant weekly objectives Explain anatomical organisation of the great vessels, pericardium and the structures of the heart. Identify the surface anatomy of the heart and its clinical implications. Learning Objectives By the end of the lecture the students should be able to: Identify and describe external and internal structure of the heart including the pericardium. Describe the major relationships of the heart and pericardium. Identify and explain the anatomy of Coronary circulation Describe the origin, course and relationships of the great vessels in the thorax.

Right atrium

Posterior wall

Smooth

It is the inter atrial septum, Fossa ovalis, Anulus ovalis, Atrioventricular (AV) node, most anterior inferior, septal cusp of tricuspid

3 openings, Superior vena cava, NO valve, Inferior vena cava, Rudimentary valve, coronary sinus orifice, between the inferior vena cava and the right AV orifice, Rudimentary valve

Anterior wall

Rough -> musculi pectinati

Right auricle, what separates if from the posterior wall, Sulcus terminalis (external), Sinoatrial (SA) node, most posterior superior, Crista terminalis (internal)

Right AV valve (tricuspid)

Right ventricle

Openings

Tricuspid valve, anterior cusp, septal cusp, posterior (inferior) cusp

Pulmonary valve, A funnel shaped structure leads to it (the infundibulum), right cusp, left cusp, anterior cusp

Internal structures

Trabeculae carneae, ridges of cardiac muscles, 3 papillary muscles, each gives chordae tendineae to 2 cusps, moderator band, Shortcut to convoy the right branch of the AV bundle

Inter ventricular wall, Membranous wall, very thin, superior, Muscular part

Lumen is crescent shape

Orientation

Apex

left ventricle

Base

Mainly left atrium

right atrium

Anterior surface

Mainly right ventricle

right atrium

left ventricle

Inferior surface

Mainly left ventricle

Right ventricle

Right border

Right atrium

Left border

Left ventricle

Left auricle

Inferior border

Right ventricle

Superior border

Vessels

Skeleton of the heart

Fibrous rings surrounding the heart, made of collagen

Fibrous trigons connect the rings

Make up the membranous inter ventricular septum

Function

electrical insulation

support and muscle attachment

Left atrium

similar structure to the right atirum

Openings

4 pulmonary viens, Left superior pulmonary vien, Left inferior pulmonary vien, 2 right pulmonary viens, NO valves

Mitral valve (left AV)

Left ventricle

Openings

Mitral valve, Anterior cusp, Posterior cusp

Aortic valve, Vestibule leads to it (like the infundibulum), right cusp, left cusp, posterior cusp

Internal structures

No moderator bands

Two papillary muscles

Thick walls

The lumen is circular in shape

Coronary circulation

Artries

Right coronary artery, Sinuatrial nodal branch (60%), Right conus artery, feeds infundibulum, Right marginal branch, supplies right ventricle, Atrioventricular nodal branch (posterior, 65%), Posterior inter ventricular artery (90%, right dominance), supplies both ventricles posteriorly

Left coronary artery, Anterior inter ventricular artery, diagonal branch, left conus artery, for infundibulum in the left, supplies the bundle of HIS, Circumflex branch, Left marginal artery

Veins

Coronary sinus, Small cardiac vein, with right marginal, Middle cardiac vein, with posterior inter ventricular, Great cardiac vein, with anterior inter ventricular

Right atrium, Anterior cardiacl vein

Neve supply

Cardiac plexus

sympathetic, preganglionic fibers, T1-T6, Postganglionic fibers, cervical trunk, upper thoracic trunk, efferent, increasing rate & contraction force, vasoconstriction, afferent, referred pain

parasympathetic, vagus nerve, efferent, lowering rate & contraction force, vasoconstriction, afferent, reflexes

Pericardium

surface anatomy

posterior to the sternum, 2-6 costal cartilages

anterior to 5-8 thoracic vertebrae

Fibrous pericardium

anchors the heart and prevents over stretching

attached to diaphragm, sternum, and major blood vessels

Innervated by the phrenic nerve

Serous pericardium

parietal layer -> fused to the fibrous pericardium, innervated by phrenic nerve

visceral layer (epicardium), innervated by sympathetic trunk & vagus (it's part of the heart)

both are continues around major blood vessles

50 ml of pericardial fluid in the cavity between them

Pericardial sinuses

result during development and has NO clinical significance

Transverse sinus, between arteries and veins

Oblique sinus, within the veins

Large vessels of thorax

Artries

Ascending aorta, it's inside the pericardium, right and left coronary arteries

Arch of aorta, Brachiocephalic trunk, Right subclavian, Right common carotid, behind the right sternoclavicular joint, right recurrent laryngeal nerve, left common carotid, left subclavian, ligamentum arteriosum binds it with pulmonary trunk biforcation, left recurrent laryngeal nerve encircles it

Descending thoracic aorta, Posterior intercostals, subcostals, pericardial, oesophageal, bronchial

Pulmonary trunk, Right pulmonary artery, goes behind ascending aorta, Left pulmonary artery, goes in front of descending aorta, also inside the pericardium with the ascending aorta

Veins

Superior Vena Cava, left brachiocephalic, right brachiocephalic, right subclavian, internal jaguar, forms at the root of the neck

Azygus veins, Main Azygus vein, most anterior, on the right side, ascends though aortic opening of diaphragm at 5th thoracic vertebra, superior hemiazygos, joins azygos at the level of 7th thoracic vertebra, 4th to 8th intercostal veins, Inferior hemiazygos (Accessory), at the left side, joins azygos at level of 8th vertebra, left ascending lumbar, left subcostal, right subcostal, right ascending lumber

Inferior Vena Cava

Pulmonary veins