The Causes of the Civil War

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The Causes of the Civil War by Mind Map: The Causes of the Civil War

1. Missouri Compromise

1.1. 1820

1.2. Missouri Compromise

1.3. As American began moving west the issue of whether or not slavery should be allowed in the new states forming out west because an issue. The first in which this became an issue was Missouri. Its addiction to the United States threatened to upset Henry Clay persuaded Congress to approve the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise stated: 1. Maine was admitted as a free state 2. Missouri was admitted as an slave state 3. Louisiana Territory north of Missouri's southern border was free 4. Southern slave owners gained the right to pursue Escape Fugitive into free regions.

2. Wilmot Proviso

2.1. 1848

2.2. Wilmot Proviso

2.3. Since the Missouri Compromise did not apply to the large territoru gained from Mexico in 1848, Representative Favid Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed that Congress ban slavery in all Louisana Territory that might become part of the United States as a result of the Mexican American War. The proposal passed in the House but failed in the senate.

3. Free - Soil Party

3.1. 1848

3.2. In the election of 1848, both the Whig paarty and Democratic Party hoped to win by not taking a stand on the issue of slavery. Antislavery Whigs and Democrats joined forces to create a new politcal party. It called for the territory gained in the Mexican-American War to be "free soil", a place where slacery was banned.

4. Election of Zachary

4.1. 1884

4.2. In the election of 1848, the controversy over the Wilmot Proviso led to the development of the Free-Soil Party. Democrats nominated Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan, The Whigs nominated Van Buren and the Free Soil party nominated Democratic President Van Buren Senator Cass suggested that the people in each new territory should decided for theemselves whether or not to allow slavery. Zachery Taylor, a hero of the Mexican-American War won the election.

5. The Compromise of 1850

5.1. 1850

5.2. The Compromise of 1850

5.3. Gold was found in California and thousands moved to the area. Soon the territory had enough people to be admitted as a state. Since it was aboved the MIssouri Compromise line, people felt it would be a fee state. This angered the South and they threatened to decade(leave the Union). The compromise would end the debate over fugtive forever. This proprsal produced one of the greatest debates in American political history. President Taylor opposed the compromise but dies and new Presiend Millard Fillmore supported it. Congress passes five series of bills in septhember, 1850 that become known as The Compromise of 1850. 1. California was admitted to the Union as a free state 2. Slave trade was banned in the native capital. 3. Congress declared that it could not regulate the slave between slave states. Popular Sovereignty (the people would vote) would be used to determine the issue of slavery in the rest the Mexican Cession. 5. The South recieved a new fugitive slave law.

6. The Fugitive Slave Act

6.1. 1851

6.2. The Fugitive Slave Actv

6.3. Allowed special government officials tp arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave. Suspects had no rights to trial to prove that they had been fasely accused. All it took was a slaveholder or any White witness to swear that the susoect was a accused runaways if authorities requested assistance.

7. Uncle Tom's Cabin

7.1. 1854

7.2. Uncle Tom's Cabin

7.3. Written by Harriet

7.4. Written by Harriet Beaner Stin in 1852, it was a novel about kindly Uncle Tom, an enslaved man who is abused by the crel Simon Legree. The book became a best seller in the north. It shocked thousands of people who had been unconcerned with slavery before reading the book. The book caused people to view slavery to view slavery as a human, moral problem and not just a political issue. White Southerns were outraged.

8. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

8.1. 1854

8.2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

8.3. Senator Stephen Bouglas pushed though the Act in 1854 which led the nation closer to war. He wanted to see a railroad built from Illinois though the Nebraska Territory to Pacifica Coast. He suggested creating two new territories the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory. Both were above the Missouri Compromise Line and would become free states which upset the territory. To win southern support, he suggested that the issue of slavery be resolved by popular sovereignty. This would undo the Missouri Compromise.

9. "Bleeding Kansas"

9.1. 1855

9.2. Bleeding Kansas

9.3. Both pro slavery and antislavery settlers flooded to Kansas to try and win the majority. Thousands of people from Missouri enetered Kansas in March of 1855 to vote illegally in the election of a territorial legislature. Kansas had 3,000 voters but almost 8,000 people voted. Of the 39 people (legislature) elected, all but 3 supported slavery. Antislavery settlers refused to accept the results and held another second election. Kansas now had two governments. Violence broke out. In April, a proslavery sheriff was shot when he tried to arrest some antislavery settlers in the town of Lawerence. He returned the next month with 800 men and attacked the town. Three days later John Brown, an antislavery settler from Connecticut let seven men to proslavery settlement near Posttawatomic Creek and murdered five proslavery men and boys. This started widespread fighting in Kansas.

10. Bloodshed in the Senate ( Senate Charles Sumner Attacked )

10.1. 1855

10.2. Bloodshed in the Senate ( Senate Charles Summer Attacked )

10.3. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was the leading abolition senator and made fiery speeches denouncing the proslavery legislature in Kansas. In one of his speeches he singled out Andrew Butler who was an elderly senator from South Carolina who was not present when he gave his speech. A few days later his nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, marches into the senate chamber and beat Sumner with a heavy cane until he fell to the floor bloody and unconscious. Sumner never really recovered from his injuries

11. Republican Party

11.1. 1854

11.2. Republican Party

11.3. The Whig party in 1854 and many northern Whigs formed a new political party called the Republican Party. Their main goal was to stop the spread of slavery into the western territories. Their antislavery stand attracted many northern democrats and Free-Soil members. The quickly became very powerful. In the first congressional elections held just a few months after the created 11 of 16 candidates were elected to the House of Representatives. Democrats also control of two northern state Missouri. Two years later the party ran its first candidate for president, Roger B. Tanely.

12. Election of 1856

12.1. 1856

12.2. Election of 1856

12.3. First Republican candidate John C. Fremont ( army officer who help win California independence in the Mexican-American ) wages a strong anti-slavery campaign and won 11 of the 16 free states. Democrat James won the election.

13. Dred Scott vs Sanford Case

13.1. 1857

13.2. Dred Scott vs Stanford Case

13.3. Dred Scott was an enslaved person who had once been owned by a U.S. Army doctor. They had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory for a short time where slavery was illegal. They settled in Missouri. With the help of an antislavery lawyer, Scott sued for his freedom because he argued that he was free because he had lived where slavery was illegal. The case reached the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court delivered its verdict in the case on March of 1857, three days after President Buchanan took office. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote the decision for the Court. Scott wasnot a free man for two reasons 1. Scott had no right to sue in federal court because African Americans were not make not citenzens 2. merely living in free territory does not make an enslaved person free. Slaves were property and property rights were protected by the United slavery in any territory. Thus, the Missouri Compromise was unconsitition. Southerns were happy because slavery was legal in all territories. Northerns were upset because now slavery could spread to the west.

14. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates

14.1. 1858

14.2. Lincoln was chosen as the whig candidate for Senate against Senate against Senat against Douglas in 1858. Lincoln and Douglas were political and personal rivals ( both had dated Mad and she married Lincoln ) Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of public debate. Thousands gathered to hear them speak. Newapapers reported what each man said throughout the nation. Douglas defended speak and said each other state had the right to decided for or against slavery. He painted Lincoln as a dangerous obligation who wanted equality for African Americans. Lincoln took a stand against the spread of slavery. He predicted that slavery would die out on its own but in the meantime Americans had an obligation to keep it out of the western territories. Douglas won the election but Lincoln was now known throughout the nation.

15. John Brown Attacks Harper's Ferry

15.1. 1859

15.2. John Brown Attacks Harper's Ferry

15.3. John Brown was driven out of Kansas after the potlantion Creek Massacre and return to New England. He began a plot to free people in the south that were enslaved in 1859, Brown ad a small group of supporters attcked tje town of Happen Farm, Virginia. His goal was to take control of the guns that the U.S. Army had stored there. He tough that enslaved African Americans would support him. He would give them weapons and led a revolt. He gained control of the guns but troops commanded by Colenel Robert E. surrounded Brown's force before they could escape. Ten of Brown's followers were killed. Brown was wounded and captured. At his trial, he sat quietly as the court found him quilty of murder and treason. He was hanged in Virginia on December 2, 1859. Many people in the North considered him a hero. Sourtherns were shocked that Northerns though about a person who tried to led a revolt against them.

16. Political Parties Divide

16.1. 1860

16.2. Political Parties Divide

16.3. The Republican Party split into two parties during the election of 1860 because Northern Democrats refused to support slavery in the territories. Some Southerns wanted to fix the problems between the North and the South and formed the Constitution Union Party. They wanted to protect slavery and keep the nation together.

17. Election of 1860

17.1. 1860

17.2. Election of 1860

17.3. Republicans chose Ahraham Lincoln to run for president in 1860. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas their candidate. Southern Democrats chose Vice President John Brecknam of Kentucky. The Constitutional Union nominated John Bell of Tennessee. The election showed just had fragment the nation had become. Lincoln won every free state and Breckenridge won all slave states except four. Bell won Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. Douglas won Missouri. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote ut received enough electoral votes to win the election and become president

18. Southern States Second

18.1. 1860

18.2. Southern States Second

18.3. Lincoln's election made the South feel that they no long we had a voice in the national government. They believed that the President and Congress were against their treaty , especially slavery. South Carolina seceded ( left the United States ) first when news of Lincolns's election a declaration that "the union now subsistingbetween South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the United Staes of America is herby disolve. 6 more states followed South Carolina out of the Union.

19. The Confederate States Of America

19.1. 1861

19.2. The Confederate States Of America

19.3. A plan developed ny Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to compromise with the South one last time. It was presented to Congress in late February, 1861 while the South was forming its new government but it did not pass.

20. The Crittenden Plan

20.1. 1861

20.2. The Crittenden Plan

20.3. A plan developed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to compromise with the South one last time. It was presented to Congress in late February, 1861 while the South was forming its new government but it did not pass.