Causes of the Civil War

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Causes of the Civil War by Mind Map: Causes of the Civil War

1. Missouri Compromise

1.1. 1820

1.2. Missouri Compromise

1.3. As America began moving west the issue of weather or not Missouri should be allowed in the new states forming out west became an issue. The first state in which this became an issue was Missouri. It's addition to the United States threatened to upset the balance between North states and South states . In 1820, senator Henry Clay persuaded Congress to approve the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise Stated 1.maine was admitted as a free state. 2.Missouri was admitted as a slave state. 3. Louisiana Territory north of Missouris southern border was free. 4. Southern slave owners gained the right to pursue escaped fugitives into free regions

2. Wilmot Proviso

2.1. 1848

2.2. Wilmot Proviso

2.3. Since the Missouri Compromise did not apply to the large territory gained from Mexico inn1848, representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed that congress ban slavery in all territory's that might become part of the United States as a result of the Mexican-American War. The proposal passed in the house but failed in the senate .

3. Free-Soil Party

3.1. 1848

3.2. Free-Soil Party

3.3. In the election of 1848, the controversy over the Whig led to the development of the free-soil party. Democrats nominated senator slavery of Michigan, the Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor and the free-soil party nominated former democratic president Lewis Cass. Senator Cass suggested that the people in each new territory should Decied for themselves weather or not to allow slavery.

4. Election of Zachary Taylor

4.1. 1848

4.2. Election of Zachary Taylor

4.3. In the election 1848, the controversy over the Whig led to the development of the Free-Soil Party. Democrats nominated senator slavery of Michigan, the Whigs and democrats joined forces to create new political free sailor party. It called for the territory gained in the Mexican-American war. The proposal passed in the house but failed in the senate .

5. The Compromise of 1850

5.1. 1850

5.2. The Compromise Of 1850

5.3. Gold was found in California and thousands moved to the area. Soon the territory had enough people to be admitted as a state. Since it was above Missouri Compromise line, people felt it would be a free state. This angered the south and they threatened to withdraw. The compromise was proposed by senator Henry clay of Kentucky in January , 1850. He hoped this compromise would end the debate over the issues forever. This proposal produced one of the greatest debates in American political history. President Taylor apposed the compromise but died and the president Millard Fillmore signed it. Congress passes five series of bills in September, 1850 that become known as the compromise of 1850. 1. North Carolina was admitted to the the union as a free state 2. Slave trade was banned in the nations capital. 3. Congress declared that it could not regulate the slave trade between slave states. 4. Popular sovereignty would be used to determine the issue of slavery in the rest of the Mexican Cession. 5. The south received a new fugitive slave law .

6. The Fugitive Slave Act

6.1. 1850

6.2. The Fugitive Slave Act

6.3. Allowed special government officials to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave. Suspects had no right to atrial to prove that they had been falsely accused. All it took was a slaveholder or any white witness to swear that the suspect was a accused runaways if authorities requested assistance.

7. Uncle Toms Cabin

7.1. 1852

7.2. Uncle Toms Cabin

7.3. Written by Harriet beecherstowe in 1852, it was a novel about kindly Uncle Tom, an enslaved man who is abused by the cruel Simon Legree. The book became a best seller in the north. It shocked thousands of people who had been unconcerned with slavery before reading the book. The book caused people to view slavery as a human, moral problem and not just a political issue. White southerners were outraged .

8. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

8.1. 1854

8.2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act

8.3. senator stephan douglas in 1852, wich led to the nation closer to war. he wanted to see a railroad built from illinois through the nebraska territory to the pacific coast. he suggested creating two new territories the kansas territory and the nebraska territory. to win southern support , he suggested that the issue of slavery be resolved by slavery be dicidd . this would undo the missouri compromise

9. Bleeding Kansas

9.1. 1855

9.2. Bleeding Kansas

9.3. Both pro slavery and anti slavery settlers flooded to Kansas to try and win the majority. Thousands of people from Missouri entered Kansas in march of 1855 to vote illegally in the election of a territorial legislature. Kansas had 3000 voters but almost 8000 people voted. Of the 39 people elected, all but 3 supported slavery. Antislavery settlers refused to accept the results and held another election. Kansas now had two governments. Violence broke out. In April, a proslavery sheriff was shit when he tried to arrest some Antislavery settlers in the town of Lawrence. He returned the next month. With 800 men and attacked the town. Three days later John brown , an Antislavery settler from Connecticut let seven men to a proslavery settlement near pottawatamie creek and murdered five proslavery men and boys. This started widespread fighting in Kansas .

10. Bloodshed in the Senate

10.1. 1855

10.2. Bloodshed In the senate

10.3. Charles sumner of Massachusetts was the leading abolitionist senator and made fiery speeches denouncing the proslavery legislature in Kansas. In one of his speeches he singled out Andrew butler who was an alderly senator from South Carolina who was not present when he gave his speech. A few days later his nephew, congressman Preston brooks , marched into the senate chamber and beat sumner with a heavy cane until he fell to the floor bloody and unconscious. Sumner never really recovered from his injuries

11. Election of 1856

11.1. 1856

11.2. Election Of 1856

11.3. First republican candidate john c. Fremonte waged a strong anti slavery campaign and won 11 of the 16 free states. Democrat James buchanan won the election

12. Dred Scott vs. Sanford Case

12.1. 1857

12.2. Dred Scott vs. sanford case

12.3. Dred scot was An enslaved person who had once been owned by a u.s army doctor. They had lived in Illinois and Wisconsin for a short time where slavery was illegal. They settled in Missouri. With the help of an Antislavery lawyer, scot sued for his freedom because he argued that he was free because he had loved were slavery was illegal. The case reached the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court delivered its verdict in the case on march of 1857, three days after president Buchanan took office. Chief Justice roger b. Taney wrote the decision for the court. Scott was not a free man for two reasons: 1. Scott had no rights to sue in federal court because African Americans were not citizens ; 2. Merely living in free territory does not make an enslaved person free. Slaves were property and property rights were protected by the United States constitution. The ruling also said that congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory. Thus, the Missouri compromise was unconstitutional. Southerners were happy because slavery was legal in all territories. Northern ears were upset because now slavery could spread to the west .

13. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates

13.1. 1858

13.2. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates

13.3. Lincoln was chosen as the republicans candidate for senate against senator douglas in 1858. lincoln and douglas were political and personal rivals. lincoln challenged douglas to a series of public debates. thousands gathered to hear them speak. newspapers reported what each man said throughout the nation. douglas defended popular sovereignty ansd said each state had the right to decide for or aginst slavery. he painted lincoln as dangerous republican who who wanted equality for african americans. lincoln took a stand against the abolitionist to keep it out of the western territories. douglas won the elections but lincoln was now known throughout the nation

14. John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry

14.1. 1859

14.2. John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry

14.3. john brown was driven out of kansas after the pottawatomie creek massacre and returned to new england. he began a plot to free people in the south that were enslaved. in 1859, brown and a small group of supporters attacked the town of harpers ferry, virgina . his goal was to take control of the guns that the u.s army had stored there. he thought that enslaved african americans would support him. he would give them weapons and led a revolt . he gained control of the guns but troops commanded by colonel robert e lee surrounded browns force before they could escape. ten of browns followers were killed . brown was wounded and captured. at his trial, he sat quietly as the court found him guilty of murder and treason. he was hanged in virginia on december 2, 1859. many people in the north considered him a hero. southeners were shocked that northerners thought this about a person who tried to led a slave revolt aginst them .

15. Political Parties Divide

15.1. 1860

15.2. political parties divide

15.2.1. Democrats party split into two parties during the election of 1860 because Northern Democrats refused to support slavery in the territories. some southerners wanted to fix the problems between the North and the South and formed the constitution union party. they wanted to protect slavery and keep the nation together.

16. Election of 1860

16.1. 1860

16.2. Election of 1860

16.3. Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln to run for president in 1860 northern democrats nominated Stephen Douglas as their candidate. Southern democrats chose Vice President John beckridge of Kentucky. The constitutional union nominated John bell of Tennessee. The election showed just had fragmented the nation had become . Lincoln won every free state and beckenridge won all slave states except four. Bell won Kentucky, Tennessee & Virginia. Douglas won Missouri. Lincoln recieved 40% of the popular vote but recieved enough electoral votes to win the election and become president .

17. Southern States Secede

17.1. 1861

17.2. southern states secede

17.3. Lincoln's election made the south feel that they No longer had a voice in the national government they believed that the president and congress were AGINST there interest, especially slavery. South Carolina seceded first when news of Lincoln's election reached the state.they called for a special convention . On December 30,1860 the convention passed a deceleration that " the union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the United States of America is hereby dissolved . Six more states followed South Carolina out of the union.

17.4. New Node

18. The Confederate States Of America

18.1. 1861

18.2. The Confederate States Of America

18.3. in feburary of 1861, the leaders of the seven states that left the union met in montgomery, Alabama to form a new nation that they called the confederate states of america. by the time lincoln took office in march, they had written a constitution and named former senator jefferson davis as president .

19. The Crittenden Plan

19.1. 1861

19.2. The crittenden plan

19.3. A plan developed by senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky to compromise with the south one last time. It was presented to congress in late February, 1861 while the south was forming its new government but it did not pas