Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Philosophy of Teachnology

1.1. A teacher's philosophy about how they will use technology.

1.2. Similar to a teaching philosophy.

1.3. Many teachers choose to have a written statement of their philosophy of teachnology to better direct their technological practices in the classroom.

1.4. I can develop my philosophy of teachnology by asking questions like:

1.4.1. How will technology be used in my classroom to enhance the learning experience?

1.4.2. How could I use technology to motivate my students?

1.4.3. How could I educate students on being responsible, digital citizens?

2. TPACK

2.1. A framework that identifies the various domains that a teacher would need to be successful.

2.1.1. Content Knowledge (CK)- Knowledge of subject area(s).

2.1.2. Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)- Knowledge of how to teach.

2.1.3. Technological Knowledge (TK)- Knowledge of the different types of technology tools that can be integrated into teaching and how to use them.

2.2. The TPACK framework looks at the complex interplay between CK, PK and TK.

2.3. In order to effectively integrate technology in the classroom, it is important to develop a sensitivity to the dynamic relationship between the three different types of knowledge.

2.4. TPACK Venn diagram

2.5. PCK was first described by Lee Shulman. Mishra and Koehler added TK to the PCK framework, making it the TPACK framework.

3. Learning Theories

3.1. Cognitive Load

3.1.1. There are two types of memory: working memory and long term memory.

3.1.2. Working memory is where the thinking happens. It is composed of a visual scratch pad and phonetic scratch pad.

3.1.3. Overload happens when the working memory has to process too much information at once.

3.1.4. In order for the content to move from an individual's working memory to the long term memory, a person has to be able to make connections between existing knowledge and knowledge stored in the working memory.

3.1.5. Schemas are complex patterns of information stored in our long term memory.

3.1.6. Methods used in the classroom to ease cognitive load: Have less distractions; ask students to do one thing at a time.

3.2. Behaviourism

3.2.1. Behaviorism is a theory based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.

3.2.2. Response to environmental stimuli conditions behaviors.

3.2.3. Classical conditioning: natural stimulus is paired with response. Next, a neutral stimulus is paired with the natural stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus is capable of producing the same result that the natural stimulus can.

3.2.4. Operant conditioning occurs through the use of rewards and punishments.

3.2.5. Methods used in the classroom for behaviorism: lectures; drill and practice; multiple choice tests.

3.3. Constructivism

3.3.1. Based on the idea that knowledge is constructed; new knowledge is built on the foundation of existing knowledge.

3.3.2. Prior knowledge influences what new knowledge will be constructed.

3.3.3. We are active creators of our own knowledge. When we encounter something new, we need to reconcile it with our previous knowledge, changing what we believe or choosing not to include the new information.

3.3.4. Teacher is a facilitator, guiding students based on preconceptions to solve real-world problems and enhance understanding. Teachers encourage learning and reflection.

3.3.5. Student-centered approach. Students ask questions and carry out experiments to find answers rather than teacher lecturing.

3.3.6. Methods used in the classroom for constructivism: discovery-based learning; collaborative group work; scaffolding; self-guided learning; peer grading.

3.4. Connectivism

3.4.1. Learning happens when connections are made.

3.4.2. Knowledge is advancing at a rapid rate in current times. It is necessary for students to be able to keep up with the most current knowledge and to be able to assess the validity of the knowledge they come across.

3.4.3. Knowledge is socially constructed. There are so many sides to one story- it is necessary for students to be exposed to multiple perspectives.

3.4.4. Learning happens in many ways (through courses, conversations, web searches, emails, blogs, YouTube videos, etc).

3.4.5. Methods used in the classroom for constructivism: self- directed quest for knowledge; sharing of knowledge; collaborative creation of knowledge; networking.

4. Technological Theories

4.1. Media Ecology

4.1.1. Media Ecology looks at how media of communication affects the human.

4.1.2. Media Ecology is the study of media as environments.

4.1.3. Media Ecology looks at the role media plays on human behavior, thinking and feeling. It looks at how the environments of media impose roles and rules.

4.1.4. SCOT is the opposite of Media Ecology; SCOT looks at the way humans affect technology and Media Ecology looks at the way technology can affect humans.

4.1.5. Implications for education: teacher can keep track of how focused/on-task students are with the use of different technologies.

4.2. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

4.2.1. SCOT is a theory that argues that technology is shaped by humans.

4.2.2. The acceptance or rejection of a piece of technology is based on the social world rather than how well it works.

4.2.3. The Principle of Symmetry aims to assess and explain the success/failure of a piece of technology.

4.2.4. Interpretive flexibility means that the technology has different meanings and interpretations for different groups of people. The more people interpret a technology as being useful, the more successful the product is.

4.2.5. Implications for education: teacher can decide which technology is best suited for the activity planned.