An instructional problem is a situation or set of situations that have a need for material to be taught to an audience. An instructional problem presents a unique opportunity for organized learning to take place by bringing together many individuals who fill roles that can solve the Instructional Problem.
We can only hold so much in our working memories, which is why we need to present new stimuli to students in chunks that can be easily managed, which is why it is connected to sequencing.
All work or learning is inherently difficult. This is the part of the cognitive load that gets taxed with any natural attempt we do everyday.
This is the part of cognitive load which is responsible for accounting how information is presented to us. It describes more of the manner, and this part can be directly manipulated by designers.
This part of cognitive load is responsible for accounting for individual differences in working memory capacity and the concretization of knowledge as we form schemata. The automation of learning a foreign language is an excellent example of this.
This part of cognitive load deems that some learners will not learn anything but their specific goal. If the goal can be eliminated, more learning will occur.
Being able to use known and resolved examples diminish cognitive load and improves comprehension.
This is an effect that occurs when learners have to process and integrate multiple and separated sources of information. Individuals with higher working memory capacities generally have an easier time with this dual processing model.
When learners are presented with multiple modes of learning (audio, video, text), comprehension is negatively effected.
To put it simply, an Instructional Designer is a person who works with various individuals to solve an instructional problem. This includes delivering content to solve the problem in the most efficient and effective manner possible.
There are many people and principles involved in ID. They are all dependent on one another.
Learners, Learner Analysis
Methods comes straight from the ID tab because they are design choices made by the ID team. When an ID team has no control over the way they must teach something, it is not a method. However, when there is a choice, and an ID team has the freedom to choose one method over the other, it is an initial part of the design process. It is also connected to Instructional Context because, unlike conditions, instructors can choose to modify these within the Instructional Context.
Mayer's 10 principles for Instructional Design (listed in the corresponding picture) allow for the most effective cognitive manipulation of learning through multiple modalities. He also welcomes any efforts to attempt to disprove these.
Project management is completed by the Instructional designer. It is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of the instructional design method.
A Needs Assessment is a process through which a current situation is compared to an ideal situation. For example, consider what your students know, and consider what you want them to know. The gap you are trying to fill is a need. This need is a proposed solution for solving an instructional problem, which is why it is directly connected to the IP node. Its sister is the Designer because the Needs Assessment is not necessary a product of the designer's work. All the different types of needs involved in a Needs Assessment are listed in the child nodes of this one.
Normative Needs are needs that are prescribed to a population based on what experts think they need.
A Comparative Need is a need that is prescribed to a particular population based on what a similar population needed. This type of transfer is only effective if the comparison between the two groups is an appropriate one to begin with.
Felt Needs are those that a learner of a population of learners feel that they need. Sometimes, these needs are not expressed as such, but an ID team working effectively should be able to parse them out.
Expressed needs are needs that can be inferred from studies or observations. These are sometimes really hard to identify, as people are acclimated to a certain way of living, including dealing with these types of needs.
Anticipated Needs are those that the ID team and SME can anticipate a particular population needing. For example, a language teacher can anticipate that her students may need help pronouncing certain sounds based on the influence of their native language.
These needs are the reaction to a critical incident. The incident need not be something devestating or dramatic, but it must be important to a population. As a response, there is a need created. For example, if a population loses its access to a certain food, it may need to learn to adapt to cooking and preparing a new type of food.
A goal analysis is a process during which, the goals for an Instructinoal Problem are determined. Basically, what will the outcome of the instructional event be? For this reason, the tab is attached directly to the Instructional Problem tab. Also, it is connected to Objectives. Objectives are derived from Goals. Goal Analysis is a sister to Needs assessment, as it is an alternative to conducting the assessment. Rather, stakeholders simply define the goal.
A Performance Assessment is another method of identifying the needs of an Instructional Problem. It can be used as an alternative to Goal Analysis and Needs Assessment, or in conjunction with the. it also serves to inform instructional objectives.
Examining the context under which an Instructional Problem is occurring is critical in moving forward with an effective design process. The contextual analysis basically informs the design team of certain considerations they must have such as characteristics, limitations, and environment. it is directly attached to the Instructional Problem because it goes hand in hand with identifying goals and it is not a product of the ID team.
Part of understanding how to do a contextual analysis is identifying the three contextual levels. There are in the following nodes: orienting, instructional, and transfer.
Instructional Context, Instructional Conditions
These factors are part of the contextual analysis. They relate directly to all three Contextual Levels, though they do not belong directly below any of them directly.
Immediate Environmental Factors
Task Analysis is a close look at what you will expect learners to be able to know how to do when they are done learning the content. It is very much a behaviorist notion because it generalizes that there is a best possible way to deliver instruction. It is connected directly to the Instructional Problem because only the root of the problem can guide the analysis. Considerations for task analysis include Topics, Content structures, and procedures.
Topic analysis is the step in task analysis where you identify and describe the content that needs to be addressed. The content can be grouped even further into several categories such as facts, concepts, principles, procedures, interpersonal skills, and attitudes.
Content structures is another element that must be addressed during task analysis. It is essentially where you identify and come up with a detailed outline of the topics and subtopics that will be covered in a given task. It is a roadmap of sorts for the design process.
This final step in the Task Analysis includes creating procedures for the content identified in the previous step. This version is the operationalized version of the content needed to be learned. It is often helpful to create a table or a flow chart to understand the weight and the order of the multiple components of this step.
This theory, developed by Gagne, states that we have different types of learning, and they all require different types of instruction. The five categories of learning are verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Each of these types of learning require different conditions to be satisfied. It is attached to the Task Analysis because it is at this stage that instructional designers need to consider what type of learning is going to be dome.
Events of Instruction
Instructional Objectives are specific, measurable goals that students should be able to achieve once they have completed the prescribed instruction. They can be measured in the sense that evaluators should be able to observe the results and decide whether the objective has been met. This node is connected directly to the Instructional problem because it must align and keep aligning with the problem to be solved. However, it is still attached to the Instructional Problem because it is a direct answer to the problem.
The cognitive domain controls a certain sect of objectives mostly dealing with thinking through concepts. Often, these objectives align with Bloom's Taxonomy, as is how it is used in our text. There are six categories in this taxonomy, which are pictured here. They begin with the simplest of cognitive tasks and get increasingly difficult as learning progresses. The cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy is most commonly cited, which is why they are listed here together. They usually allow learners to cycle through processes of remembering, interpreting, and then problem-solving.
Bloom's Taxonomy, Creating, Evaluating, Analyzing, Applying, Understanding, Remembering
Instructional Objectives can be written in the psychomotor domain. These objectives tend to deal mostly with movement, motor-skills, and physical qualities. For example, learning to ride a bicycle is a psychomotor skill. Not everyone can do it.
Instructional Objectives coming from the affective domain are those that discuss how we deal with our emotions, feelings, reactions, and attitudes. The whole idea here is to bring about an attitude change. There are several major categories as follows: Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Internalizing These all play into how we respond to things emotionally
Behavioral Learning Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Social Judgment Theories
Social Learning Theory
Instructional Strategies are methods an instructor can use to approach the task of getting learners to do something. It is directly related to objectives because it is a consideration of achieving these objectives. It is also attached to instructional strategies because it shapes the strategic approach to teaching the content.
Initial Presentation Strategies
Generative Strategies, recall, Integration, Organizational, Elaboration, Pre-Instructional Strategies
Sequencing is a part of the Instructional Design Process in which a designer or team determines which is the best order to present target material to learners. Designers can recognize that often, SMEs do not know the best way to sequence a task. Content is ordered in such a way that the target objective will be met, which is why this node is attached to Instructional Objectives. The the types of relation are listed from this node: spatial, temporal, and physical.
Learning-related sequencing is one of Posner and Strike's (1976) Sequencing Schemes. In this scheme, content is presented based on characteristics learned in the Learner Analysis, which is why this node is connected to it. Considerations here include how old or cognitively developed/impaired learners are, how interested they are, what they already know, etc.
5 Student Learning Concepts
Concept-related Sequencing is one of Posner and Strike's (1976) Sequencing Schemes. In this scheme type, content is organized by concept. This is determined by how we primarily conceptualize things. The table here presents some of the main conceptualizations we make as Americans. However, the book, Designing Effective Instruction, does not point out that these often do not have a one-to-one cross-culture transfer equivalency.
This type of sequencing operates under the basic goal that learners will become either experts at KNOWING something or experts at DOING something. There are two distinctions here. They are outlined in the following nodes: Content Expertise Sequencing and Task Experience Sequencing.
Content Expertise Sequencing
Task Experience Sequencing
World-related sequencing schemes is one of Posner and Strike's (1976) Sequencing Schemes. Sequencing of this kind is dictated by the content and how the content shares spatial or temporal relations, and physical attributes. This information will come from an SME.
this node is directly related to the Instructional Problem in that it informs methods for handling instructional problems. These theories aim to provide the best learning experience possible.
Evaluation is a critical step in the Instructional Design process. It is directly related to the Instructional Problem here because we essentially need to know if we are addressing the problem with the implemented program.
This type of evaluation allows for informative what should come next in the instruction. It tells evaluators what people need to do next.
This type of evaluation comes at the end of a prescribed program. It judges the effectiveness of the overall program at achieving the learning goal.
This type of evaluation is iterative. It basically is employed when evaluators want to look at long-term of continuous effectiveness of an implemented program.
Validity in evaluation is thought of as making sure the tools and methods for evaluation are measuring what they say they are measuring.
In evaluation, reliability is making sure that the effectiveness of a program is going to be consistent each time the program is implemented. This can be very difficult to achieve since populations change so frequently.
In evaluation, these standards are presented on a sliding scale, meaning that a program can be evaluated based on a number of factors that will be entered as the program progresses.
These standards are considered to be set before an evaluation program begins, and they cannot change.
Planned Change in terms of instructional implementation is when policy makers and interested parties prepare and agree to enter a period of change.
Diffusion occurs in instructional implementation when a change occurs from within. This is generally more gradual than planned change or adoption.
Adoption change in instructional implementation occurs when certain influential people in a group take on new habits and pretty soon, it catches on to others.
Innovation in implementation occurs when novel ideas are brought to an organization.
This model is a plan for helping implement changes or programs. A lesson plan could be an example of this. CLER stands for: C= Configurations L= Linkages E= Environments R= Resources
This Concerns Based Adoption Model is essentially another plan for implementation. It differs from the other types of change in this list in that, it is driven for the expression of concerns either from individuals or from organizations.
The scope is the extent of the area or subject matter that something deals with. it is connected directly to the Instructional Problem because understanding the scope of the problem must come first before any other design considerations can begin.