Psych Yr 1 2nd Semester

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Psych Yr 1 2nd Semester by Mind Map: Psych Yr 1 2nd Semester

1. Sociocultural

1.1. Attribution theory

1.1.1. Errors in attribution

1.1.1.1. Self-serving bias

1.1.1.1.1. Placing an unreasonable amount of blame on situational factors when bad things happen. "It's not me, it's the teacher/test"

1.1.1.1.2. Lau & Russel

1.1.1.2. Modesty bias

1.1.1.2.1. For positive things, looking only at the situational factors (under play the dispositional factors) "I got a good grade, but that's only because the test was easy"

1.1.1.2.2. Kashima & Triandis

1.1.1.3. Fundamental Attribution

1.1.1.3.1. Dispositional vs. Situational factors

1.1.1.3.2. Ross

1.1.2. Types of errors

1.1.2.1. Situational Factors

1.1.2.1.1. Justifying a behavior by saying the situation is what is making them do a certain thing

1.1.2.2. Dispositional Factors

1.1.2.2.1. Explaining a behavior by just saying "that's just how he is"

1.2. SIT

1.2.1. Social categorization "in-groups" and "out groups"

1.2.1.1. leads to social comparison

1.2.2. assumes that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem

1.2.3. Cialdini

1.2.3.1. Cialdini Football study Kids were more likely to show team pride after a victory than after a defeat

1.2.4. Henry Tajfel

1.2.4.1. Kandinsky vs. Klee experiment (Study)

1.2.4.1.1. People were put in groups and told they liked made up artists

1.2.4.1.2. Showed that people favored people in their "in-group"

1.3. Stererotyping

1.3.1. illusory Correlations

1.3.2. Grain of truth Hypothesis

1.3.3. Gatekeepers

1.3.4. Spotlight Anxiety

1.3.4.1. Spencer et. al

1.3.4.1.1. Women and men were given math tests, and they found that women scored lower than men who were just as qualified, however both did equally as well on literature tests, because women are not stereotype threatened in that area

1.3.5. Steele and Aronson (1995)

1.3.5.1. Gave tests people, when they were told it was a genuine test of their abilities, African Americans scored lower, and when it was just a general test they matched the Europeans

1.4. General SSC

1.4.1. Social Norms

1.4.2. Social Roles

1.4.3. Social Facilitation/Loafing

1.4.4. Founding Beliefs

1.4.4.1. Humans are social animals

1.4.4.2. Humans have a social self

1.4.4.3. Culture Influences behavior

1.4.4.4. Our view of the world is resistant to change

1.5. Social Learning Theory

1.5.1. Albert Bandura

1.5.1.1. Bandura Bob Doll Study - children were shown an adult beating up a doll, and they repeated the actions shown (learning)

1.5.2. Kimball and Zabrack 1986

1.5.2.1. Children were found to have become significantly more aggressive two years after television was introduced to their town

1.5.3. Four motivations

1.5.3.1. I have no idea what this is. I think this is referring to the factors. Look this up.

1.5.4. Factors of SLT

1.5.4.1. Attention

1.5.4.2. Retention

1.5.4.3. Motor Reproduction

1.5.4.4. Motivation

1.5.4.5. Consistency

1.5.4.6. Identification with model

1.5.4.7. Rewards/Punishments

1.5.4.7.1. Vicarious Reinforcments

1.5.4.8. Liking the model

1.6. Compliance

1.6.1. Cialdini

1.6.1.1. Authority

1.6.1.2. Hazing

1.6.1.3. Liking

1.6.1.4. Reciprocity

1.6.1.4.1. Lynn and McCall (1998)

1.6.1.4.2. Door-in-the-face technique

1.6.1.5. Social Validation/Proff

1.6.1.6. Scarcity

1.6.1.7. Commitment

1.6.1.7.1. Aronson and Mills (1959)

1.6.1.7.2. foot-in-the-door technique

1.6.1.7.3. goal gradients

1.6.1.7.4. Low-balling

1.7. Conformity

1.7.1. Normative Social Influence

1.7.1.1. People have a need to be accepted by others and to belong. They are influenced by the norms of society

1.7.2. Informational Social Influence

1.7.2.1. The way people cognitively process information about a situation. Usually they look for cues from others because they don't know what to do in that situation.

1.7.3. Groupthink

1.7.4. Cognitive Dissonance

1.7.5. Asch Line Study (1951)

1.7.5.1. Asch's study looked at to what extent a person would conform to an incorrect answer on a test if the response from the other members of the group was unanimous

1.7.5.1.1. Asch paradigm (factors that influence conformity)

1.7.6. Definition: the tendency to adjust one's thoughts, feelings, or behavior in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual group

1.8. Culture

1.8.1. “surface (or objective) culture” vs. “deep (or subjective) culture”

1.8.2. Emic vs. etic approaches

1.8.3. Cultural norms

1.8.4. Geert Hofstede

1.8.4.1. Four Dimensions

1.8.4.1.1. Power Distance

1.8.4.1.2. Feminine vs. Masculine

1.8.4.1.3. Individualism vs. Collectivism

1.8.4.1.4. Uncertainty avoidance

1.8.4.2. IBM study: He analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions.

2. Cognitive

2.1. Schema Theory

2.1.1. Scripts

2.1.2. Social Schemas

2.1.3. Self Schemas

2.1.4. Bartlett Study

2.1.4.1. Twenty English participants read a traditional native american tale, The War of the Ghosts. Because these participants were all from a western society (Englnad), they struggled in understanding its meaning and the significance of some of its aspects. Bartlett used serial reproduction, meaning that one participant had to hear the story and, after a short period of time, reproduce it to another. Then the other one had to hear it and reproduce it to the next.

2.1.4.2. Rationalization

2.1.5. Some of the limitations of schema theory are that it is not entirely clear how schemas are acquired.

2.2. Memory

2.2.1. Flashbulb Memory

2.2.1.1. Brown and Kulik (1977)

2.2.1.1.1. Flashbulb memory

2.2.2. Multistore Memory

2.2.2.1. Atkinson + Shiffron Working modelModel

2.2.2.1.1. differences in types of memory stores

2.2.2.1.2. Control processes

2.2.3. Craik and Lockhart, 1972

2.2.3.1. Levels of Processing

2.2.3.1.1. Structural

2.2.3.1.2. Phonological

2.2.3.1.3. Semantic

2.2.3.1.4. Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural and phonemic).

2.2.4. Glanzer and Cunitz

2.2.4.1. Participants were asked to memorize some words. half of the participants recalled after the list (15s)and the other half recalled them after 30s while counting back in threes. This demonstrated primacy and recency and the serial position curve. The first group showed primacy and recency, and the second one just showed primacy.

2.2.4.2. Primacy effect

2.2.4.2.1. The phenomenon where people will recall the first items compared to the middle ones

2.2.4.3. Recency effect

2.2.4.3.1. People tend to remember the last items of a list compared to the middle ones

3. Biology/Cognitive Processes

3.1. Technology

3.1.1. EEG

3.1.1.1. registers patterns of voltage change in the brain. Often though of as "brain waves".

3.1.2. PET

3.1.2.1. monitors glucose metabolism in the brain

3.1.3. fMRI

3.1.3.1. provides 3D pics of the brain structures using magnetic fields and radio waves

3.2. Brain Damage

3.2.1. Clive Wearing

3.2.1.1. Suffers from extensive amnesia cause by a brain infection, provides insight into the biological foundation of different memory systems.

3.2.2. Prosapagnosia

3.2.2.1. Prosopagnosia, or face blindness, is a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing remain intact. Shows insight into different parts of the brain's functions.

3.2.3. Alzheimer's disease

3.2.3.1. Alzheimer's disease , is the most common form of dementia, or not being aware of what the hell is going on.

3.2.4. Emotion & Bio Connection