Organizational Behaviour

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Organizational Behaviour by Mind Map: Organizational Behaviour

1. Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behaviour

1.1. Defining OB

1.1.1. Investigates impact, groups / individuals / structure have in an organization and apply to improve effectiveness (use this to make a drug cartel) Consciously coordinated social unit working continuously on a common goal (like selling drugs or candy) Can help create a Customer Responsive Culture if henchmen like yo ass

1.1.2. OB MODEL: Organizational Level Group Level Individual Level Challenges at the Organizational Level - Improving Customer Service - Stimulating Innovation and Change - The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees - Improving Quality and Productivity - Developing Effective Employees - Helping Employees with Work-Life Balance - Creating a Positive Work Environment - Responding to Globalization Challenges at the Group Level - Working with Others - Workforce Diversity Challenges at Individual Level: - Differences - Job Satisfaction - Motivation - Empowerment - Behaving Ethically

1.1.3. Productivity: Measures using effectiveness and efficiency Effectiveness: achievement of goals Efficiency: Effective work output to input

1.2. Challenge In the Work Place

1.2.1. Innovation must be maintained and employees can either make or break that, and the company needs to Stimulate Creativity and tolerance for change (stimulate sounds sexual) Contractors etc. dont' feel as motivated as permanent employees Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB): behaviour that isn't part of an employee's formal job requirements but promotes effective functioning of the organization.

1.2.2. Life and Work Lines Blurry #yolo - Creation of global organizations (taking over shit) - Communication Technology (ppls got 2 phones for work and hoes) - Organizations are asking ppls to work for longer hours (less time to pimp out)

1.2.3. Positive Organizational Scholarship (seriously wtf?) - OB research on how organizations help employees to get to over 9000 and unlock potential - Focus on employee strength rather then weakness AKA how can we exploit these motherbitches more

1.2.4. Canada has faced competition from the USA, Europe and the Asians. - Employees and organizations need to get more international (note to self: need to brush up on Mandarin and Hindi)

1.3. Making Sense of Behaviour in Organizations

1.3.1. Research Methods in OB Field Studies (creeping ppl) Surveys (duherroo) Laboratory Studies (put you in a box) Case Study (Sherlock Holmes) Meta-Analyses (Fusion)

1.3.2. Contingency approach: Considers behaviour within the context in which it occurs (ie. if you're in a gang fight or in the office can you hit a bitch?)

2. Chapter 2: Perception, Personality and Emotions

2.1. Perception

2.1.1. Individuals organize and interpret impressions to give meanings to environment. If your boys hype you up errbody be like he dope behaviour based on perceptions. deep shit Attribution process guides behaviour

2.1.2. Factors Influencing perception The perceiver The Target The Situation

2.1.3. Perceptual Errors Attribution Theory Distinctiveness (does menz act the same in other situations Consensus (does other menz act the same way in this situation?) Consistency (does menz act like this err day?) Error: Tendency to underestimate external factors and estimate internal factors (be like I'm the best baller in SAF but not really b/c erone else's ankles are broken b/c they have to walk to law class) Selective Perception Error: Ppl see things based on their interests etc. Halo Effect Error: Single characteristic draws a general impression (ie. she's pretty = she must be my wifey #notreally) Contrast Effects Error: Evaluation affected by comparing to other ppl met (ie don't go out with guys that look better than you) Projection Error: Attributing one's characteristics to other ppl (I'm asian you're asian = duherroo but again #notreally) Stereotyping Error: Judge ppl based on perception on the group that person is from (too many to chose from)

2.2. Personality

2.2.1. Predicts behaviour and how ppl react to others. Don't front

2.2.2. Shit's important when hiring ppl

2.2.3. Evaluate Personality Self-reporting Survey (judge myself = I'm awesome) Observer-Rating Surveys (independent assessment of personality = I'm not awesome anymore)

2.2.4. Personality Traits: Characteristics that describe an individual's behaviour Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) How ppl act or feel in particular situation The BIg Five Model Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience #Yolo

2.2.5. Core Self - evaluation (the more positive the more caking) Machiavellianism (dangerous girls) Narcissism Self-Monitoring Risk-Taking Type A Personality = counting my drug money Type B Personality = doing my drugs Proactive Personality

2.3. Emotions

2.3.1. Can hinder or enhance performance...hehehe

2.3.2. Affect: covers broad range of feelings including emotions Emotions: Intense feelings directed at someone or something Emotional Intelligence: 1. Be self-aware 2. Detect emotions in others 3. Manage emotional cues and information Negative emotions messes up yo crew: 1. Production (leaving/slow worker) 2. Property (take yo weed) 3. Political (talk shit) 4. Personal Agression (ain't nobody got time for that) Moods: Feelings lacking contextual stimulus HEHE

3. Chapter 3: Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace

3.1. What are Values?

3.1.1. Guide how we make decisions and evaluations of behaviours and events Milton Rokeach's Value Survey Terminal: lifetime goals (be a part of g-unit) Instrumental: preferable ways of behaving (parents) Kent Hodgson's general moral Principles 7 Principles 1. Dignity of Human Life 2. Autonomy HEHE 3. Honesty 4. Loyalty (GAME OF THRONES) 5. Fairness 6. Humaneness (this word doe) 7. The common good Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Culture: Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) 1. Power Distance 2. Individualism vs. Collectivism 3. Masculinity vs. Femininity 4. Uncertainty Avoidance 5. Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation + human orientation and performance orientation

3.1.2. Ethics: moral values that guide our behaviour (the two things on your shoulders)

3.1.3. Attitudes are feelings concerning external factors 4 Important Attitudes affecting Organization 1. Job Satisfaction (work environment) 2. organizational Commitment (commitment for the organization) (affective (want to), normative (guilty), continuance ($$$) ) 3. Job Involvement (psychological power) 4. Employee Engagement (how much you like) Good satisfaction = interdependence, feedback, social support, interaction with co-workers outside of work Affects productivity, citizenship behaviour, customer satisfaction Employees engagement = the higher the better the firm Employees express Dissatisfaction: 1. Exit 2. Voice 3. Loyalty 4. Neglect

3.2. How can we understand values across cultures?

3.2.1. Hofstede (dat name) found employees and managers vary on five value dimensions on national culture

3.2.2. Effective Diversity Programs: 1. Promotes equality 2. Diverse workforce (less white people) 3. Personal Development (THE BEST VERSION OF YOU) Cultural Intelligence (don't be racist doe)

3.3. Are there unique Canadian Values?

3.3.1. Affected by generational and cultural factors Generations Baby Boomers: ends justify means Generation X: less willing to sacrifice for THE MAN Generation Y: Meaning in their work/feedback Cultures Francophone more about the Orgy Anglophone more about the one man show North American White Asians - Network for self interest - Very White East&Southeast Asians - Guanxi relations: reciprocation and long term and have external pressure

4. Chapter 4: Theories of Motivation

4.1. What is Motivation?

4.1.1. Accounts mofo's intensity, direction, persistence of effort towards goals Theory X: Employee hatin on work, mofo avoids work, need to whip a bitch Theory Y: Employees like work, mofos are creative (they probably take shrooms AKA Steve Jobs), self-direction and control

4.1.2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators

4.2. How do needs motivate People?

4.2.1. Unsatisfied needs result in motivation (get laid)

4.3. Are there other ways to motivate People?

4.3.1. process theories (expectancy theory and goal setting theory) Process Theories of Motivation Expectancy Theory Self-Efficacy Theory Goal-Setting Theory 1. Specific Goals increase performance 2. Difficult goals result higher performance 3. Feedback leads to higher performance

4.3.2. Needs Theories of Motivation Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Physiological - sex and shit Safety - don't fuck with me Social - I need somebody to love me (add me I need more friends) Esteem - Internal (Autonomy hehe and self-respect) External (status, you better recognize) Self - Actualization - Reaching Over 9000 Alderfer's ERG Theory Existence - basic material existence Relatedness - maintaining interpersonal relationships Growth - Intrinsic desire for personal development Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivators - source of satisfaction (intrinsic factors) - achievement, growth etc. Hygiene Factors - source of dissatisfaction (extrinsic factors) - company policy, work conditions etc. Ppl hating on his theory, no reliability in methodology McClelland's Theory of Needs Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation

4.4. Do equity and fairness matter?

4.4.1. Inputs = get rewarded hoe Responses to the Reward System Equity Theory Fair Process and Treatment Self-Determination Theory Increasing Intrinsic Motivation

4.5. What role does reinforcement play in motivation?

4.5.1. Skinner (like The Simpsons Guy) suggests reinforcement influences behaviour Methods of Shaping Behaviour Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction (eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behaviour) Continuous vs intermittent reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Reinforcement in the Workplace

4.6. What are the ethics behind motivation theories?

4.6.1. For productivity or for employees' benefit....for realllllll this is a question Illuminati

4.7. Are N. American motivation theories applicable elsewhere?

4.7.1. All workers value interesting work, equitable distribution of rewards, rewards based on performance rather than seniority

4.8. Putting it all together

4.8.1. Recognize Differences Use goals and Feedback Allow employees to participate in decisions that affects them Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity

5. Chapter 6: Groups and Teamwork

5.1. What are Teams and Groups?

5.1.1. Groups are a sum (class) Teams have positive synergy and are coordinated Teams: Common Purpose Performance goals Mutually accountable 4 types of Teams

5.2. How does one become a team player?

5.2.1. Members understand role and create a set of group norms Roles: expected behaviour for that position Role Expectations: how its believed you should act in a situation Individual confronted by divergent role expectations Role Ambiguity: Unclear of their role Role Overload: Too much is expected of someone Role Underload: too little expected Norms Performance: how goons work Appearance: swagged out or not Social Arrangement: interaction Allocation of resources: pay, assignments etc.

5.3. Do teams go through stages while they work?

5.3.1. 5 stage model: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning

5.3.2. Punctuated-equilibrium model: specific to temporary groups with deadlines 1st meeting sets direction, then a transition after half of time used, Phase 2 activity accelerates

5.4. How do we create effective teams?

5.4.1. consider resources, team's composition, work design and process and swaglevels Effectiveness of a Team 1. Context 2. Composition 3. Work Design 4. Process 1. Adequate resources / leadership / Climate of Trust / Performance Evaluation 2. Skills / Personality / Diversity / Size 3. collective responsiblity 4. Common purpose / Goals / Efficacy / Accountability

5.5. Are teams always the answer?

5.5.1. Does it require more than one person

5.5.2. Is there a common purpose?

5.5.3. Are group members interdependent?

6. Chapter 5: Motivation in Action

6.1. Is money an important motivator? OBVS

6.1.1. Most commonly used Money is not the top priority Pay Levels balance between internal equity and external equity Pay headed towards - variable-pay program on individuals, groups, or the organization Profit-sharing / Stock Ownership Plans Flexible Benefit plan Competency-based or knowledge-based pay (based on skills) girls like guys with skillsssss

6.2. What's an effective reward system look like?

6.2.1. Links pay to performance, consistent with expectancy theory predictions Employee recognition are important duhhh Expectancy Theory states = performance and Reward are linked, and reinforcement Theory states that you should immediately recognize positive behaviour Motivate by Job Design (organize elements the right way like the last AirBender)

6.3. How can jobs be designed to increase motivation?

6.3.1. use work design to motivate employees (jobs that have variety, autonomy, feedback, and similar complex task characteristics tend to be more motivating for employees Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 1. Skill Variety 2. Task Identity 3. Task Significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback Motivating Potential Score (MPS) = (skill + task identity + task significance / feedback) x Autonomy HEHEHE formula wtf Job Rotation Job Enrichment (vertical) Flextime Job Sharing (between 2 ppl) Telework (work from home)

6.4. Putting it Together - what motivates?

6.4.1. Drive to Acquire - get rewards and shit / Reward System

6.4.2. Drive to Bond - make friends / Culture

6.4.3. Drive to Comprehend - effective job design required / Job Design sense of contribution

6.4.4. Drive to Defend - based on / performance management Transperancy

7. Chapter 12: Decision Making, Creativity, and Ethics

7.1. How Should Decisions be made?

7.1.1. Rational Decision making model: (consistent value-maximizing choices with constraints Define the Problem Identify the criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop alternatives Evaluate alternatives Select the best alternative Assumptions Problem Clarity (problem is clear) Known options (decision maker identifies all relevant criteria and viable alternatives Clear preferences (criteria and alternatives can be ranked) Constant Preference (criteria is constant) No time/cost constraints Maximum payoff (will achieve highest perceived value)

7.2. how do individuals actually make decisions?

7.2.1. Decision makers rely on bounded rationality, satisficing, intuition (shortcuts too) Bound Rationality (limitation on one's ability to interpret, process and act on information) Intuition (non-conscious process, relies on holistic associations and affectively charged-engaging the emotions Satisficing (good enough solution = not optimal (first available)) Judgement Shortcuts Overconfidence Bias You think you know but you don't know Anchoring Bias Use early information to make decisions Confirmation Bias Using facts that support our decision only Availability Bias Most ready information at hand Escalation of Commitment commiting to a decision even if evidence against it Randomness Error Superstitions bitches Risk Aversion prefer sure thing over risky outcome Hindsight Bias after knowing outcome, you should have predicted beforehand

7.3. Improving Decision Making through Knowledge Management

7.3.1. Storing information that employees have = organization share collective wisdom

7.3.2. Develop computer databases

7.3.3. Create a culture promoting values

7.3.4. Mechanisms for valuable employees to share with others

7.4. Group Decision Making

7.4.1. Time consuming, lead to conformity pressures, dominated by one or few members, ambiguous responsiblity

7.4.2. STRENGHTS More knowledge Diversity in views Higher-quality decisions Increased acceptance to a solution

7.4.3. WEAKNESSES Time consuming Conformity pressure Discussion dominated by few members Ambiguous responsibility

7.4.4. Groupthink Norm of consensus overrides realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action Symptoms of Groupthink Illusion of invulnerability Assumption of morality Rationalized resistance Peer pressure Minimized doubts Illusion of unanimity Minimize it Monitor size (bigger isn't better hehehe) Group leaders - impartial role Devil's advocate discuss diverse alternatives

7.4.5. Groupshift Initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position What Causes Groupshift? Discussion creates familiarization among group Motivates individuals to take risks (discussion) Group diffuses responsibility

7.4.6. Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting Groups Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique Electronic Meetings

7.5. Measures of Effectiveness

7.5.1. Accuracy

7.5.2. Speed

7.5.3. Creativity

7.5.4. Acceptance

7.5.5. Efficiency: groups take longer than individuals

7.6. How can we get more creative decisions?

7.6.1. Employees more creative with intrinsic interest, challenge, task satisfaction, self-set goals

7.6.2. Greatest creative Potential intelligent, openness to experience, independent, risk takers, no need for structure, positive self-evaluation, tolerant of ambiguity

7.6.3. Three-component Model of Creativity Expertise (abilities, expertise) Creative-thinking skills (use analogies, see different light) Intrinsic task motivation (work on something that's interesting)

7.6.4. Anger and happiness enhance creativity

7.6.5. Creativity Blocks Expected evaluation Surveillance External Motivators Competition Constrained choice

7.7. What's ethics and how can it be used for better decision makin

7.7.1. Ethics is study of moral value guiding our behaviour and inform us of whats right or wrong

7.7.2. 4 criterion for making ethical choices Utilitarian Criterion (Outcomes or consequences emphasizing greatest good for the most people) Rights Criterion (Fundamental liberties and privileges in documents like the Canadian Charter of Rights Justice Criterion (Decisions impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially (equitable distribution of benefits and cost) Care Criterion (Decisions expresses care in protecting special relationships ppl have

7.7.3. Ethical Decision making Behaviour Stage of moral development Preconventional (Follow rules in your immediate interest) (STicking to rules to avoid physical punishment) Conventional 1. Fulfill obligations 2. Live up to what is expected by ppl close to you Principled 1. Self-chosen ethical principle 2. Majority's opinion, value other's rights Locus of control Organizational environment Is decision Ethical? Is motivated by self-serving interest? Culture affects this alot Importance of rationality, belief in ability of people to solve problems

7.8. What is Corporate Resonsibility

7.8.1. Organization's responsibility to consider impact of its decision on society

8. Chapter 11: Leadership

8.1. Difference between a manager and a leader?

8.1.1. Managers promote stability, leaders promote change

8.2. Traits, behaviours, situations that affect how one leads?

8.2.1. Contingency theories suggest leaders need to adjust behaviours, depending on situation and employee needs

8.3. How does a leader lead with vision?

8.3.1. Known as transformational/charismatic leaders, they go beyond self-interest and for the good of the organization