Søren Kierkegaard

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Søren Kierkegaard by Mind Map: Søren Kierkegaard

1. Vitals

1.1. Born

1.1.1. May 5th 1813

1.1.2. Copenhagen, Denmark

1.2. Died

1.2.1. November 11th 1855

1.2.2. Age: 42

1.3. Parents

1.3.1. Father Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard Cursed God for hard upbringing

1.3.2. Mother Ane Sørensdatter Lund Kierkegaard House servant. Michael's second wife.

1.4. Siblings

1.4.1. Seven born of Ane 6 died before age 34. Brother survived. Peter Kierkegaard.

2. Education

2.1. School of Civic Virtue

2.1.1. Klarebodeme, Denmark 1830

2.2. University

2.2.1. University of Copenhagen Theology, Philosophy and Literature

2.3. Masters Studies

2.3.1. Dissertation The Concept of Irony 1841

2.3.2. Doctorate bestowed

3. Early Life

3.1. Post University

3.1.1. Latin Teacher 1837-?

3.2. Relationship with Father

3.2.1. Strained

3.2.2. Resolved before death

3.2.3. Inheritance... "Not only did Kierkegaard inherit his father's melancholy, his sense of guilt and anxiety, and his pietistic emphasis on the dour aspects of Christian faith, but he also inherited his talents for philosophical argument and creative imagination. In addition Kierkegaard inherited enough of his father's wealth to allow him to pursue his life as a freelance writer. " William McDonald, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

3.2.4. Curse Father cursed God as child. Belief

3.3. Engagement

3.3.1. Regine Olsen 1822-1904

3.3.2. Muse Frustrated with not obtaining Regine despite volitional choice to end relationship.

3.3.3. Broke Off Early 1841 Reasoning? "He broke the engagement soon thereafter, however, believing that domestic responsibility would hinder him in his philosophical calling. He entered into a life of seclusion, writing and publishing constantly for the next ten years."

4. Writings

4.1. Journals

4.1.1. 1833-1855

4.1.2. Published Posthumously

4.1.3. 7000+ Pages

4.1.4. First Entry Latin Translation St Paul's Letter to the Galatians

4.1.5. Selections 1834 "Certainly faith must involve an expression of will, yet in a sense other than that in which, for instance, all acts of cognition must be said to involve an expression of will; for how else can I explain that the New Testament has it that he who does not have faith shall be punished? (November 25: I A 36)." 1835 "What I really need is to be clear about what I am to do, not what I must know, except in the way knowledge must precede all action. It is a question of understanding my destiny, of seeing what the Deity really wants me to do; the thing is to find a truth which is true for me, to find the idea for which I am willing to live and die. (I A 75). 1836 "People understand me so little that they fail even to understand my complaints that they do not understand me (February: I A 123)." 1854 "Luther, you have a huge responsibility, for when I look more closely, I see more and more clearly that you toppled the Pope only to enthrone 'the public' (XI I A 108)."

4.2. Early Writings

4.2.1. Dual Authorial works Philosophical/Aesthetic works Always under Pseudonym Notable "Edifying Works" Notable

4.3. Later Writings

4.3.1. 1848 onwards Self Spiritual Awakening in 1848 "Practice in Christianity" "The express purpose of Practice In Christianity is to provide a means whereby Christianity may be reintroduced into Christendom, since the latter had departed so far from the Christianity of the New Testament. In this sense this work is both polemical and homiletical. Kierkegaard examines the inherent offense of Christianity and its nature, as well as how the established church seeks to remove that offense to accommodate itself to the world. He bluntly proposes that Christendom be revitalized with nascent, that is, offensive Christianity. It is not difficult to see that he would be attacking the church openly in a few years." "There stands Christianity with its requirements for self-denial: Deny yourself—and then suffer because you deny yourself. That was Christianity. But how entirely different it is now (p. 213)." "The Sickness Unto Death" All about despair... Definition of Sin

4.3.2. Attack on the Church Frustration with Lutheran Church Every person born "Christian" Authority of church over lay persons. Church no longer "offensive" in presentation of the Gospel. Believed NT Gospel was offensive at core. "The Fatherland"

5. Likely response to the Big 4...

5.1. What is God like?

5.1.1. Not extensive mention of Trinity within writings.

5.1.2. "He maintained that God has no relation to mankind as a whole. The individual is more important than the Universal (the law, morality). When Abraham was commanded by God to kill his son Isaac, the Absolute (God) was contravening the Universal. Kierkegaard did not prescribe lawlessness, much less anarchy—which is rule by the numeric masses. Rather, each individual must come into a relationship with the Absolute (the religious stage) whereby the ethical stage can be properly established. " Relationship? Religious stage A and B

5.2. What is man?

5.2.1. Primarily Responsible.

5.2.2. Highly individualistic.

5.3. What is Sin?

5.3.1. See "The Sickness Unto Death"

5.3.2. Fifth, the first sin for Adam and for the individual is a qualitative leap. It is a leap out of freedom into sinfulness. It is not necessitated by existence (much less freedom) and so can only be explained by a leap. So too is the soul's return to the One who created it—a leap back to God through faith (see below for more on the leap). His concern is that all individual persons are born with the same freedom and anxiety as a result of that freedom that Adam possessed, and thus we sin not because we are sinners, but we become sinners because of our qualitative leap out of freedom into sin, and hence sinfulness.

5.4. What is salvation?

5.4.1. "The Leap of Faith" To Sin See What is Sin To Salvation "One performs a willed act of faith despite fear, doubt, and sin. The leap is not out of thoughtlessness, but out of volition. The leap is sheer and unmediated, and is not made by quantitative movements, stages, or changes. When Satan sinned against God, there were no outside forces acting on him. Moreover, he had no inner drive that was corrupt. His fall was a great leap from sinlessness into sin. Conversely, the leap of faith has no gradations or movements (the quantitative). It cannot be mediated by proofs or reason. It is a sheer leap from doubt, or more specifically, from the doubt that exists by virtue of the paradoxical (the absurd), or in reaction to the offense of Christ, by faith to God." Volition Will based choice for choosing truth. To Live under law?

6. Pronunciation

7. Famous for...

7.1. Existentialism

7.2. Dialectic Method