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Irritant Contact Dermatitis by Mind Map: Irritant Contact Dermatitis
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Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Epidemiology

Occupational Hazard

repeated handwashing

repeated exposure of skin to irritants

Prevalence

55.6% in 2 intensive care units

69.7% in the most highly exposed workers

Environmental factors

Amount and strength of the irritant

Length and frequency of exposure

Skin susceptibility (eg. thick, thin, oily, dry, very fair, previously damaged skin or pre-existing atopic tendency)

high or low temperature or humidity

Pathophysiology

Skin Barrier Disruption

patients with altered barrier function are more prone to developing ICD

Epidural Cellular Changes

Cytokin Release hones naïve T-lymphocytes to the skin

Released from the keratinocytes which expresses tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) causing inflammation

Risk Factors

Occupational Hazard of workers who handle irritants

Textile workers

Painters

Nurses

Printers

Agricultural workers

Dry Cleaners

Coal Miners

Hair Dressers

Mechanics

Artists

Cleaners

Construction workers

Clinical Presentation

Redness

Cracking of skin

Dryness

inflamed

thickened

Diagnosis

No specific tests are necessary because ICD can be diagnosed by clinical examination

Adaptive Responses to alterations

Hardening or accommodation has been defined as the adaptation of the skin from altered local expression of multiple cytokines and inflammatory mediators with repeated irritation from skin irritants. Accommodated skin has a relatively thicker layer of stratum granulosum versus normal skin. Accommodated skin may exhibit a slight sheen and glossy appearance with a mild scale. On manipulation, there may also be a slight loss of elasticity

Etiology

Common cutaneous irritants

Solvents, Organic Solvents- Alcohol, turpentine, hair products, ketones, chlorine, esters, paint, acids Diluted Alkalis- Soap and soda Detergents- washing detergents

Microtrauma, Fiberglass

Mechanical Irritants, Friction

Complications

secondary neurodermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus (lichenification)

Infection

Prognosis

Good if there are no secondary complications and the person can avoid the irritant

References