Climate Change in the Arctic

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Climate Change in the Arctic by Mind Map: Climate Change in the Arctic

1. Effects

1.1. Positive

1.1.1. Human

1.1.1.1. More jobs from tourism

1.1.1.1.1. Unemployment is lower

1.1.1.1.2. Boosts economy

1.1.1.2. More transport links

1.1.2. Ecological

1.1.2.1. Ducks are migrating later

1.1.2.1.1. Longer hunting season

1.1.2.2. Warmer water

1.1.2.2.1. More cod and prawns

1.1.2.2.2. Creates access to harbour all year round

1.1.3. Physical

1.1.3.1. Warmer winters

1.1.3.1.1. residents dont have to wear as much warm clothing

1.1.3.2. Retreating galcier in greenland revealed a zinc and lead mine

1.2. Negative

1.2.1. Human

1.2.1.1. Towns sinking

1.2.1.1.1. Fairbanks

1.2.1.2. Flooding could become a problem

1.2.1.3. Husky sled racing suffers from lack of snow

1.2.1.4. Roads are collapsing

1.2.2. Physical

1.2.2.1. Permafrost melting

1.2.2.2. Glaciers are in rapid retreat

1.2.2.3. Rising sea levels and more storms are accelerating costal ersion at Shismaref

1.2.3. Ecological

1.2.3.1. Trees collapsing

1.2.3.2. Animal are dying

1.2.3.2.1. Polar bears

1.2.3.2.2. Arctic fox

1.2.3.2.3. Decreasing amounts of salmon in yukon river

1.2.3.3. Less sea ice forces polar bears into towns

1.2.3.4. warmer winters arent killing spruce bark beetles

1.2.3.4.1. damage 4 million acres of trees

2. Importance

2.1. Ice albedo feedback loop

2.1.1. Snow and ice reflects about 80-90% of the suns radiation

2.1.2. Only 10% of the suns radiation is reflected by rivers and oceans

2.1.3. 20% of the suns radiation is reflected by vegetation and soil

2.2. Arctic ice is a major store of water, if the ice melts there would be rises in in sea level causing major flooding

2.3. 8 Countries are in charge of the arctic making management difficult

2.3.1. Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland(Denmark), Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden

2.4. Has a wide variety of animal habitats

2.5. Permafrost contains 11% of the worlds CO2

3. Causes

3.1. Natural causes

3.1.1. Melting permafrost

3.1.1.1. Permafrost is high in CO2, as it melts more CO2 is released into the atmosphere

3.2. Anthropogenic causes

3.2.1. Green house effect

3.2.1.1. could be upto 16(degree C) cooler

3.2.1.2. Carbon dioxide,Methane, Ozone, Water vapour

3.3. Ice albedo feedback loop

3.3.1. Due to the green house effect the as temperatures rise ice melts, the less ice there is the more solar radiation is absorbed, the more the temperature rises the more ice melts.