Chapter 5: STATE TERROR, GANGS, AND EVERYDAY VIOLENCE IN RIO DO JANEIRO

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Chapter 5: STATE TERROR, GANGS, AND EVERYDAY VIOLENCE IN RIO DO JANEIRO by Mind Map: Chapter 5: STATE TERROR, GANGS, AND EVERYDAY VIOLENCE IN RIO DO JANEIRO

1. CRIME AND VIOLENCE IN RIO DE JANEIRO

1.1. City of Extremes

1.1.1. harbor thieves and drug trafficking

1.2. Class, race, sex, gender and location have an influence of daily violence

1.3. Residence of the favelas are seen as criminals

1.4. High rates of Homicide for young/ dark-skinned/ lower class/ poor men

1.5. Revenge Killings

1.5.1. People are killing others who remotely resemble the people who they are targeting for revenge

1.5.2. Cyclical: it is a long and sad cycle that keeps going back and forth between groups

1.5.3. Murdered unknown: sometimes bandits, police or "police bandits"

2. THE LOCAL GANG AND IT'S LEADER

2.1. Has a strategy to stay out of sight

2.2. Drug trafficking

2.3. Known as the Alternative justice system in the favelas

2.4. Better employment than "honest" work

3. AN OVERVIEW OF GANGS

3.1. Some view the local gangs as functional and positive

3.1.1. Young males can see gangs as a potential career

4. DRUG-TRAFFICKING GANGS IN THE RIO CONTEXT

4.1. Distribution of marijuana and cocaine

4.2. Drug chiefs are important figures to the locals

4.2.1. Safety and stability in the favelas

4.3. The gangs are protection from the outsiders

4.3.1. Sometimes provide housing and cash to communities

5. A CHRONOLOGY OF POLICE-BANDIT RELATIONS: LULU AND IVO

5.1. Ivo

5.1.1. considered one of the founding fathers of the favela

5.2. Lulu

5.2.1. corrupt civil officer who charged Ivo a "protection fee" for his operations

5.2.2. Still considered the favela of his own territory

5.2.3. much hated figure

5.3. Lulu confronted Ivo on a late payment

5.3.1. Lulu then shot a dog and drank its blood so Ivo and residents wouldn't cross him

5.3.2. Next time Ivo was late, Lulu shot him in the face

6. A NEW DONO

6.1. Dono = owner

7. BANDITS, POLICE, "POLICE-BANDITS"

7.1. "Police Bandits"

7.1.1. Residents don't know who carries out the crimes and murders

7.1.2. Lack of organization

7.2. Corrupt Police

7.2.1. Police sometimes join gangs so that they are not targeted in the murders

8. REVENGE PRACTICES

8.1. Revenge can stand-in for the legal system

8.2. work of the police off-duty

8.3. "Private matters"

9. A SOLUTION OF "PRIVATE" MATTERS

9.1. Sexual Abuse

9.2. A Case of Adultery

9.3. Gun Control

9.4. A Case of "Petty Theft"

9.5. Solution for an Abusive and Adulterous Husband

9.6. Rape of a Child

10. ALTERNATIVE JUSTICE IN THE "BROWN ZONES"

10.1. State cannot enforce legality

10.1.1. Individuals can vote freely

10.1.2. Police and courts are corrupt so they won't have the proper treatment

10.2. Find justification for using oppressive force against the population of "brown zones"

10.3. Local gangs provide parallel state structure and alternative rule of law

10.3.1. They are called upon to right the wrongs

11. POLICING IN BRAZIL AS SOCIAL CONTROL OF THE LOWER CLASSES

11.1. Elitist Liberalism

11.1.1. complete separation from the poor so the middle/Upper classes can hold higher standards

11.2. Social and economic inequality is high

12. A NOTE OF OPPOSITIONAL CULTURE

12.1. Everyone knows their place and chance for sucess

12.2. Middle-class child needs to do well enough in school to advance in education

13. A DISDAIN FOR THE POLICE

13.1. Relationship with favela residence and police produce a structured violence

13.1.1. Poor see police as part of the everyday violence

13.1.1.1. Relationship is complex, ambivalent and ambiguous

13.2. Relationship of middle/upper class and police is complicated

13.2.1. operates within a system that grants a certain amount of immunity and impunity to those who have status/resources to protect themselves

14. THE CRIMINALIZATION OF THE POOR

14.1. "PARALLEL STATES"

14.1.1. Internal security and crime control functions

14.1.2. The gangs judge and punish delinquents, with sentences of beatings, nonfatal shootings and executions

14.2. Structure of inequality extends to the police

14.2.1. Incidents of brutality have absurd proportions

14.2.2. Greater extent and impunity against lower class

15. STATE AND BANDITS AS PERPETRATORS OF VIOLENCE

15.1. Gangs do more than traffic drugs

15.2. If drug trade was to be extinct, the demand for the gang will not diminish

15.3. Police are not arresting or carrying out their jobs while on duty but "fixing" the problem while off duty

15.3.1. Death squad 1970s

16. RETURNING TO THE MURDER: THE DEATH OF ADILSON

16.1. Adilson is Gloria's ex-son-in-law who was hot in the back of the head 8 times

16.2. Adilson was member of Felicidade Eterna

17. WOMEN, OPPOSITIONAL CULTURE, AND RELIGIOUS CONVERSION

17.1. Women are more religiously dependent than men

17.1.1. Religion gave women a sense of belonging and relief

17.1.2. Pentecostalism and Catholicism

17.2. Religion offers break from daily violence

18. COLOR ZONES:

18.1. Blue

18.1.1. High government presence

18.2. Brown

18.2.1. Low government Presence

18.2.2. Government cant be trusted because police are corrupt and/or scared of gangs

18.2.3. More violence/ Less democracy

18.2.4. Gangs and government run parallel

18.3. Green

18.3.1. Territorial

18.3.2. Low government presence

19. DONNA M. GOLDSTEIN LAUGHTER OUT OF PLACE