Copy of EDUCATIONAL THEORIES

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Copy of EDUCATIONAL THEORIES by Mind Map: Copy of EDUCATIONAL THEORIES

1. LEARNING THEORIES

1.1. BEHAVIOURISM

1.1.1. Theorists: Pavlov, Skinner, Watson, Thorndike

1.1.2. Operant Conditioning (Reinforcement and Punishment/ Positive or Negative)

1.1.2.1. Reinforcement: to increase the likelyhood of a behaviour

1.1.2.1.1. + Reinforcement: the addition of a stimuli to increase the chance of the behaviour being repeated

1.1.2.1.2. - Reinforcement: the removal of a stimuli to increase the change of the behaviour being repeated

1.1.2.2. Punishment: to decrease the likelyhood of a behaviour

1.1.2.2.1. + Punishment (Presentational Punishment): the addition of a stimuli to decrease the chance of the behaviour being repeated

1.1.2.2.2. - Punishment (Removal Punishment): the removal of a stimuli to decrease the chance of the behaviour being repeated

1.1.3. Key Ideas: modelling, shaping, cuing, drill & practice (for rote memorization)

1.1.4. Implications for Education:

1.1.4.1. teachers provide direct instruction --> teacher-centered classroom

1.1.4.2. primary mode of delivery: lectures

1.1.4.3. teachers focus on the learning objectives and curriculum through direct instruction

1.1.4.4. Behaviour analysis--> using operant conditioning to change the student's behaviour

1.1.5. Technological Tools:

1.1.5.1. Math Blaster (for skill and drill)

1.1.5.2. iClickers

1.1.5.3. Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Assisted Assessment

1.1.5.4. Online Tutorials

1.2. COGNITIVE LOAD

1.2.1. Theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotstky, Bruner

1.2.2. (1900) as a response to behaviourism

1.2.3. Key Ideas: schema (activate background knowledge) and memory systems

1.2.4. Memory Model: Sensory Short term Long term

1.2.4.1. Tools to help Working Memory

1.2.4.1.1. Reading and comprehension

1.2.4.1.2. Motivation (does this topic motivate you?)

1.2.4.1.3. Repetition (practice for retention)

1.2.4.1.4. Mneumonic Devices

1.2.4.1.5. Metaphor/Symbolism

1.2.4.1.6. Organizational scheme

1.2.4.1.7. Make it meaningful (to activate background knowledge)

1.2.4.1.8. Chunking

1.2.5. Types of Technology

1.2.5.1. Electronic Note Taking

1.2.5.2. One Note

1.2.5.3. Track Changes (on word or Google Docs)

1.2.5.4. Goodnotes

1.2.5.5. LMSs (Learning Management Systems) (ex. moodle, eClass)

1.2.6. Implications for Education

1.2.6.1. learning structures: how teachers organize and present their information (CHUNKING)

1.2.6.2. instructional design: how information is presented (ex. through interface)

1.2.6.3. may only focus on remembering the information without direct application & use of higher order Bloom's

1.3. CONSTRUCTIVISM

1.3.1. Theorists: Piaget, Vygostky, Dewey, Montessori

1.3.1.1. Montessori: learning should be connected to real-life authentic situations and the real world

1.3.2. Key idea: People actively construct their own knowledge through the interactions and experiences with the environment

1.3.3. People are active agents in their learning

1.3.4. conceptual growth is based on the person's perception

1.3.5. Implications for Education:

1.3.5.1. Use complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems

1.3.5.2. the teacher is the facilitator and applies scaffolding to help guide the student to understanding

1.3.5.3. Problem based learning and the use of authentic tasks

1.3.5.4. Discovery learning (hands on)

1.3.6. Technological Tools:

1.3.6.1. Scratch (programming software)

1.3.6.2. SIMS

1.3.6.3. robotics

1.3.6.4. Google Sites & Wikispaces

1.4. CONNECTIVISM

1.4.1. Theorists: Siemens, Downes

1.4.1.1. Siemens: "knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks"

1.4.1.2. Siemens: "knowledge is...literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience."

1.4.2. learning theory in the digital age

1.4.3. Learning is a process of creating connections and developing networks

1.4.3.1. the greater the number of connections we build and maintain, the more we are able to learn

1.4.4. learning is not solely dependent on others, technological devices contributes to building our knowledge

1.4.5. through connections and networks, you can build your social capital and obtain currency in the form of accurate & up-to-date knowledge

1.4.6. Ability to connect various ideas, points of knowledge and concepts

1.4.7. Technological Tools: Social Networking Sites

1.4.7.1. Twitter

1.4.7.2. Facebook

1.4.7.3. LinkedIn

1.4.7.4. Search Engines: Google, Yahoo

1.4.7.5. Email, webcam, chat, discussion groups

2. TECHNOLOGY THEORIES

2.1. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY (SCOT)

2.1.1. Human action and society influences the development and use of technology

2.1.1.1. "social norms, attitudes, cultural practices...directly impact how technology is used" (Quan-Haase, 2013, p. 47).

2.1.1.2. technology is contextual and its use varies with the culture and societal group that uses it

2.1.1.3. technology fills gaps that are determined by societal needs

2.2. MEDIA ECOLOGY

2.2.1. Technology influences society and humans

2.2.1.1. Technological Evolution

2.2.1.2. Technological Determinism

2.2.1.2.1. Societal and cultural changes arise because of technology

2.2.1.2.2. technology is autonomous entity

2.2.1.2.3. people need to adapt to the effects of technology

3. TPACK

3.1. Origins in PCK (Lee Shulman)

3.2. Developed by: Punya Mishra & Matthew Koehler

3.3. How technology & technological knowledge influences content and pedagogical knowledge

3.4. intersection of three primary forms of knowledge: CONTENT, PEDAGOGY & TECHNOLOGY

3.4.1. CONTENT

3.4.1.1. teacher's knowledge & what the students need to learn

3.4.1.2. curriculum and learning objectives

3.4.1.3. pedagogical strategies used

3.4.1.3.1. (UDL)Multiple Means of Representation, Expression & Action, & Engagement

3.4.1.4. how the content is affected when technology is used

3.4.1.4.1. advantages of using different technology

3.4.1.4.2. which technology best helps convey the content

3.4.2. PEDAGOGY

3.4.2.1. methods and strategies used

3.4.2.1.1. UDL: multiple means of representation, expression & action, & engagement

3.4.2.1.2. how does technology change the strategies used

3.4.2.2. Classroom management

3.4.2.3. learning strategies and learning preferences of students

3.4.2.4. assessment methods

3.4.3. TECHNOLOGY

3.4.3.1. the affect technology has

3.4.3.2. knowing how technology works and how to use it

3.4.3.3. which technology works the best

3.5. Identified through the use of a Venn Diagram: (linked to a diagram)

3.6. every educator has a different TPACK venn diagram which reflects their personal knowledge

4. PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHNOLOGY

4.1. what you believe about teaching (philosophy of teaching) + how/when you can use technology

4.2. technology should enhance the lesson, not hinder it

4.2.1. what are the benefits to using that technology in the classroom?

4.3. teaching digital literacy to students

4.3.1. understanding what is appropriate internet use and what is not appropriate

4.3.1.1. cyberbullying resources via Symbaloo

4.4. the use of technology to target a variety of learning preferences for an inclusive education

4.5. a WORK IN PROGRESS

5. SAMR Model

5.1. Developed by: Ruben Puentedura

5.2. technology integration at different levels

5.2.1. Enhances learning

5.2.1.1. SUBSTITUTION: same task is performed using a different form of technology, no functional change

5.2.1.1.1. ex. using SMART boards to show notes

5.2.1.1.2. no change in exam score

5.2.1.2. AUGMENTATION: technology acts as a direct tool substitution with functional improvement

5.2.1.2.1. ex. students come up to the SMART board and interact with a diagram

5.2.2. Transforms Learning

5.2.2.1. MODIFICATION: the use of technology redesigns parts of the task

5.2.2.1.1. ex. Google Wonders allows viewers to go underwater and search through the Seven Wonders of the World. This was not possible before

5.2.2.2. REDEFINITION: design and create new tasks that were once unimaginable with the help of technology

5.2.2.2.1. ex. using Google Docs to communicate and interact with a class halfway across the world

6. 21st CENTURY LEARNING

6.1. Developed by: Punya Mishra & Kristen Kereliuk

6.2. Core Values

6.2.1. Foundational Knowledge (what to know)

6.2.1.1. digital/ICT literacy

6.2.1.2. core content

6.2.1.3. cross disciplinary

6.2.2. Meta Knowledge (how to act)

6.2.2.1. creativity & innovation

6.2.2.2. problem-solving critical thinking

6.2.2.3. communication & collaboration

6.2.3. Humanistic Knowledge (what to value)

6.2.3.1. life/job skills

6.2.3.2. ethical/emotional awareness

6.2.3.3. cultural competence

6.3. represented by this diagram (link)