Educational Theories

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Educational Theories by Mind Map: Educational Theories

1. Behaviourism

1.1. Theorists include: Pavlov, Skinner, Watson and Thorndike

1.2. Behaviourism is a theory that deals suggests people learn as a result from different kinds of stimuli. Examples of behaviourism include positive and negative reinforcement, as well as positive and negative punishment.

1.2.1. Pavlov's Dog is a famous example of behaviourism - wherein Pavlov trained his dog to salivate anytime he rang a bell

1.2.2. Promising children rewards for doing good work - the idea is that eventaully they will just do these thigns on thier own

1.2.3. Punishments and rewards

1.3. Implications for Education:

1.3.1. Students learn by repetition and habits

1.3.2. Teacher-directed

1.3.2.1. Modelling

1.3.2.2. Shaping

1.3.2.3. Cuing

1.3.2.4. Drill and Practice

1.3.3. Criticisms

1.3.3.1. Learning isn't always tied to behaviours

1.3.3.2. The mind is not a blank slate - children come into the classroom with various kinds of knowledge, regardless of their age or learning levels (just think - a kindergarten student has already had five years of informal education)

1.3.3.3. Repetitious learning for the sake of a reward might not actually mean that something has been learnt

2. Connectivism

2.1. A learning theory for the digital age

2.2. Knowledge is the set of actions formed by action and experience

2.3. It is important to be able to build networks of learning

2.3.1. Examples of networks of learning: Wikipedia, MOOC (Massive Online O Class, Social networking

2.4. Part of the idea that learning can take place in many places, not just in courses or traditional areas of education or knowledge

2.5. Implications for Education

2.5.1. Criticisms:

2.5.1.1. Does not put an emphasis on background knowledge or the acquisition of "facts" or other "basic" knowledge

2.5.1.2. Requires learners to be able to access technology

2.5.1.3. s

2.5.2. Collaborative learning opportunities within a classroom, school, or around the world

2.5.2.1. Constructed knowledge

2.5.2.2. Can contribute to active learning

3. Cognitive Load Theory

3.1. Theorists:

3.1.1. Piaget

3.1.2. Gagne

3.1.3. Vygotsky

3.1.4. Bruner

3.2. Theorists argue that they can discover the way learning takes place within the brain

3.2.1. The argument is that memory systems are organized

3.2.1.1. Schema - Background knowledge

3.2.1.2. Scaffolding - Supported and supporting learning

3.2.2. There are three kinds of "memory"

3.2.2.1. Sensory Memory

3.2.2.2. Short-term Memory

3.2.2.3. Long-term Memory

3.3. Implications for education

3.3.1. Teachers have to work slowly to make sure that students understand the basic principles before adding more complex information

3.3.2. Instructors need to be aware of students' background information, and how they learn

3.3.3. Criticisms:

3.3.3.1. Very focussed on knowledge

3.3.3.1.1. It is difficult to measure understanding and Higher Order Thinking Skills

3.3.3.2. Front-loading, meaning:

4. Constructivism

4.1. A theory that suggests learning occurs when students take part in their own learning - that learners build knowledge on the foundation of previous learning

4.1.1. Teachers should guide students, not lecture students

4.1.1.1. Encourage students to come up with their own ideas and projects

4.1.2. Scenario-based or problem-based learning

4.1.3. Use of authentic tasks which will help students to see connections between the real world and what they are learning

4.1.4. Zone of Proximal Development

4.1.4.1. Vygotsky

4.1.4.2. Helping students to move outside of their knowldge zones so that they are better able to learn new tasks. For a student to learn, information should be just out of reach

4.2. Learning is not passive!

4.2.1. Students are not simply absorbing information given to them by teachers, but instead are engaging themselves in their own learning

4.3. Implications for Education

4.3.1. Criticisms:

4.3.1.1. Time consuming

4.3.1.2. Subjective learning

4.3.1.3. Requires mature learners

4.3.1.4. Is difficult to assess

4.3.1.5. Requires prior knowledge about subject area

4.3.2. Teachers play a large role in GUIDING learning, rather than transmitting facts to students

4.3.2.1. The teacher must be very aware of making sure that students are still learning the material that they have to learn (ie: mandated curricular materials)

4.3.3. Encourages creativity and curiosity amongst students - engages learners and makes learning fun, interesting and relevant

5. Media Ecology

5.1. 1968

5.2. A study of media as environments

5.3. Media influences society, but also controls our ways of life

5.4. includes technology, art, symbolic forms

5.5. Basically includes everything

6. SCOT

6.1. Social Construction of Technology

6.2. Argues that technology doens't shape human interaction, but rather humans shape the development of technology

6.3. As we realize we need more things, humans make technology happen to make these things happen

6.4. Technolgoy is used in different ways in different societies, and therefore has different values and benefits in accordance with that society

7. TPACK

7.1. Stands for Technological Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, and Content Knowledge

7.2. Punya Mishra and Matthew Koehler added technology to PCK for more effective teaching

7.3. The main idea is that instructors should use technology to better teach students

7.4. Implications for Education

7.4.1. Teachers must know the technology before they use it

7.4.2. Students must have access to the technology

7.4.3. It is important to know if the technology will actually make learning more effective, or if it is just "cool"

7.4.3.1. Adding technology doesn't necessarily make learning better. Sometimes it can engage learner interest, but if it is ineffective, then it can be more of a hindrance than a help

7.4.4. May be possible to engage more students than a traditional classroom/approach

7.4.5. Builds on necessary teaching skills like knowing content and knowing how to teach students (pedagogical knowledge)

8. Philosophy of Teachnology

8.1. Is a collection of beliefs about the ways that technology ought to be used to teach, and how technology can be infused into one's philosophy of teaching

8.2. A relatively new philosophy

8.3. A philosophy not really attributed to anyone in particular

8.4. Teachnology is really about knowing whether or not the introduction of technology will benefit the learning of stiudents

8.4.1. Instructors must ask themselves whether or not technology will actually benefit learners

8.4.2. How much of an emphasis should be put on technology over other kinds of knowledge?

9. SAMR

9.1. Stands for: Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition

9.1.1. When technology is used as Subsitution or Augmentation, learning is enhanced

9.1.2. When technology is used for Modification or Redefinition, learning is transformed

9.2. Implications for teaching

9.2.1. If technology is properly applied, it can result in learning and projects that were previously considered unimaginable

9.2.2. The teacher must know how to use the technology, and must adequately apply it to a learning situation

9.2.3. May be expensive to acquire technology for the classroom