Handbook of En. Grammar and Usage (The McGraw-Hill)

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Handbook of En. Grammar and Usage (The McGraw-Hill) by Mind Map: Handbook of En. Grammar and Usage (The McGraw-Hill)

1. Part1. Grammar 101

1.1. Parts of Speech

1.1.1. Nouns

1.1.1.1. Proper Noun

1.1.1.2. Common Noun

1.1.1.3. The The Test for Common Nouns, p.5

1.1.2. Verbs

1.1.2.1. Action Verbs

1.1.2.2. Linking verbs

1.1.2.3. The Will Test for Verbs, p.7

1.1.3. Adjectives

1.1.3.1. Modifying adjectives

1.1.3.1.1. The Pair Test for Modifying Adjectives, p.8

1.1.3.2. Predicate adjectives

1.1.3.3. Determiners

1.1.3.3.1. Articles

1.1.3.3.2. Demonstratives

1.1.3.3.3. Number words

1.1.3.4. Descriptive adjectives

1.1.3.4.1. Comparative form

1.1.3.4.2. Superlative form

1.1.4. Adverbs

1.1.4.1. Adverbs that modify verbs

1.1.4.1.1. The Adverb Question Test, p.12

1.1.4.1.2. The Adverb Movement Test, p.13

1.1.4.2. Adverbs that modify adjectives

1.1.4.3. Adverbs that modify other adverbs

1.1.5. Pronouns

1.1.5.1. Personal pronouns, p.16

1.1.5.2. Reflexive pronouns, p.17

1.1.5.3. Indefinite pronouns, p.18

1.1.5.4. Demonstrative pronouns, p.19

1.1.6. Conjunctions, p.20

1.1.7. Prepositions

1.2. Basic Phrases

1.2.1. Noun phrases

1.2.2. Appositive Phrases, p.24

1.2.2.1. Essential

1.2.2.2. Nonessential

1.2.3. Verb phrases, p.27

1.2.3.1. Linking verbs and their Complements

1.2.3.2. Action verbs and their Complements

1.2.3.2.1. Indirect objects

1.2.3.2.2. Direct objects

1.2.4. Prepositional phrases, p.37

1.2.4.1. Adjective prepositional phrases

1.2.4.1.1. The Third-Person Pronoun Test for Adjective prepositional phrases, p.39

1.2.4.2. Adverb prepositional phrases

1.2.4.2.1. The Adverb Movement Test for Adverb prepositional phrases, p.41

1.3. Sentences and Clauses

1.3.1. Sentences

1.3.1.1. Sentences classified by purpose

1.3.1.1.1. Declarative sentences

1.3.1.1.2. Interrogative sentences

1.3.1.1.3. Imperative sentences

1.3.1.1.4. Exclamatory sentences

1.3.1.2. Sentences classified according to structure

1.3.1.2.1. simple sentence

1.3.1.2.2. compound sentence

1.3.1.2.3. complex sentence

1.3.1.2.4. compound-complex sentence

1.3.2. Clauses

1.3.2.1. Independent (main)

1.3.2.2. Dependent (subordinate)

1.3.2.2.1. Adverb clauses

1.3.2.2.2. Adjective clauses

1.3.2.2.3. Noun clauses

1.3.2.3. Conjunctive adverbs

1.3.2.3.1. In addition

1.3.2.3.2. As a Consequence

1.3.2.3.3. On the Other Hand

1.4. Verb Forms

1.4.1. Verb Forms

1.4.1.1. Base form

1.4.1.2. Present form

1.4.1.3. Past form

1.4.1.4. Infinitive form

1.4.1.5. Present participle form

1.4.1.6. Past participle form

1.4.1.6.1. Regular

1.4.1.6.2. Irregular

1.4.1.7. Modal verbs

1.4.1.7.1. can

1.4.1.7.2. may

1.4.1.7.3. must

1.4.1.7.4. Shall

1.4.1.7.5. will

1.4.2. Using verb forms to create meanings

1.4.2.1. Simple tenses

1.4.2.1.1. Present tense

1.4.2.1.2. Past tense

1.4.2.1.3. Future tense

1.4.2.2. Perfect tenses

1.4.2.2.1. Present perfect tenses, p. 84-85

1.4.2.2.2. Past perfect tenses

1.4.2.2.3. Future perfect tenses

1.4.2.3. The Progressive

1.4.2.3.1. Present progressive

1.4.2.3.2. Past progressive

1.4.2.3.3. Future progressive

1.4.3. The Passive voice

1.4.3.1. Simple tenses

1.4.3.1.1. Future passive

1.4.3.1.2. Past passive

1.4.3.1.3. Present passive

1.4.3.2. Perfect tenses

1.4.3.2.1. Present perfect passive

1.4.3.2.2. Past perfect passive

1.4.3.2.3. Future perfect passive

1.4.3.3. Present prograssive passive

1.4.3.4. Past prograssive passive

1.4.4. Phrasal verbs

1.5. Verbals

1.5.1. Gerund phrases

1.5.1.1. noun - part of speech

1.5.1.1.1. "Eating ice cream gives me a headache"

1.5.1.1.2. "Eating ice cream gives me a headache"

1.5.1.2. The It Test for Gerund Phrases, p. 97

1.5.2. Participal phrases

1.5.2.1. adjective - part of speech

1.5.2.1.1. "the girl eating ice cream is my daughter"

1.5.2.1.2. "Ice cream eaten too quickly gives people headaches"

1.5.2.2. The Pronoun Replacement test for Participial phrases

1.5.2.3. Restrictive pp

1.5.2.4. Nonrestrictive pp

1.5.2.4.1. "Scrooge, muttering under his breath, returned to work"

1.5.2.5. Dangling participles

1.5.2.5.1. "Muttering under his breath, Scrooge returned to work"

1.5.3. Infinitive phrases

1.5.3.1. used as noun

1.5.3.1.1. "I love to eat ice cream"

1.5.3.1.2. The It test, p. 104

1.5.3.2. used as adjective

1.5.3.2.1. "The place to get ice cream is Harry's"

1.5.3.2.2. The Pronoun replacement test, p. 106

1.5.3.3. used as adverb

1.5.3.3.1. "You must go to Harry's to get good ice cream"

2. Part 2. How to find and correct mistakes

2.1. 6. Writing Complete Sentences

2.1.1. Fragments

2.1.1.1. Grammar Tip: "I Realize", p. 112

2.1.2. Fused sentences

2.1.2.1. Period Test, p. 118

2.1.3. Comma splices

2.2. 7. Subject-Verb Agreement

2.2.1. Agreement with lost subjects

2.2.1.1. The Lost Subject Test, p. 126

2.2.2. The mysterious case of There is and There was

2.2.2.1. The Existential There Test, p. 132

2.2.3. Agreement with compound subjects

2.2.3.1. and, both...and

2.2.3.1.1. plural verb

2.2.3.2. or, either... or, neither.... nor

2.2.3.2.1. the verb agrees only with second of the two subjects

2.3. 8. Pronoun Problems

2.3.1. I or Me? She or Her? He or Him? They or Them?