Theories

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Theories by Mind Map: Theories

1. Constructivist Learning Theory

1.1. In constructivist learning theory knowledge is constructed by the learner most effective when they are actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively.

1.2. The teachers role includes engaging the students in a constructive manner for example, asking questions and guiding discussion. Teachers are to demonstrate and coach their students to teach them the skills and knowledge they want to transfer.

1.3. Knowledge exists in the world and it up to us to make meaning of it.

2. Cognitive Load Theory

2.1. Cognitive Load Theory is an information processing theory used to explain the load in relation to our working memory. We have the capacity for both short and long term memory.

2.2. As teachers it is important to be aware that our working memory can operate more efficiently when information is presented to the learner in meaningful chunks.

2.3. As teachers it is important to be aware that our working memory can operate more efficiently when information is presented to the learner in meaningful chunks.

3. Connectivism

3.1. Connectivism is centered around the idea of learning and knowledge constructed through the means of social and cultural context. For example, the value of a summer co-op field experience program is would be highly valued in connectivism.

3.2. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources for example, further learning can occur by capitalizing on existing technologies and tools.

3.3. Learning is more critical than knowing

3.4. All five theories share a certain degree of overlap but connectivism can be linked to the SAMAR model in which several technologies and methodologies are highly valued.

4. SCOT

4.1. Social constructivists argue that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology.

4.2. SCOT is centered around notions of technology revolving around the idea of relevant social groups. Relevant social groups are generally heterogeneous, including both technical professionals and consumers, and new groups can emerge over time

4.3. It allows for Interpretative Flexibility which means that each technological tool has different meanings and interpretations for various groups. If new problems emerge with a technology, interpretive flexibility can re-emerge from a “closed” development path for example, pollution from internal combustion cars leading to the adoption of electric cars.

4.4. Criticisms of the SCOT theory include it specifically examines social groups and interests that contribute to the construction of technology, but ignores those who have no voice in the process, yet are affected by it.

4.5. SCOT is not only a theory, but also a methodology: it formalizes the steps and principles to follow when one wants to analyze the causes of technological failures or successes.

5. Media Ecology

5.1. It is the study of media environments presenting notions such as, the role of technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication impacts human interactions.

5.2. Media ecology attempts to make the specifics explicit.

5.3. It involves attempting to decode the role of media in our lives. Questioning how and why it shapes us.

5.4. Criticisms of media ecology include the lack of a coherent framework in which to organize their subject matter or their questions.

5.5. It presents notions opposite of the SCOT model in which technology does not impact human interaction. Media Ecology however, is centered around uncovering technologies impact.

6. Learning Theories

7. Technology Theories

8. TPACK

8.1. It is an educational blueprint which identifies the knowledge educators require to construct meaningful knowledge with technology.

8.2. An integration of 3 types of knowledge are required by teachers:

8.2.1. Content

8.2.2. Pedagogy

8.2.3. Technology

8.3. The visual diagram for TPACK is located at: http://tpack.org

9. Philosophy of Teachnology

9.1. It is a Philosophy of Teaching which highlights how technology can & should be used.

9.2. Appropriate manipulation of technology resources by teachers to help students develop skills for the current technology savvy world.

9.3. Teachers must recognize the potential of such tools and use them in innovative, student-centered ways which will then improve education.

9.4. Teachnology guides students to become independent learners providing them with the skills to access appropriate online resources.

10. Connectivism, Cognitive Load Theory & Constructivism all focus on active participation by the student. To be successful in any one of these theories, students must be: engaged, using a variety of resources or tools and steering away from traditional notions of absorbing presented information.