ARE YOU READY?

This is a mind map about how to prepare for a disaster, based on information from www.ready.gov. It provides information on what to do before, during and after various kinds of disasters.

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ARE YOU READY? by Mind Map: ARE YOU READY?

1. NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS MONTH www.ready.gov

2. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES

2.1. BUILD A DISASTER SUPPLIES KIT

2.1.1. Communication

2.1.1.1. Battery powered radio

2.1.1.1.1. Extra batteries!

2.1.1.2. NOAA Weather Radio

2.1.1.2.1. Extra batteries!

2.1.1.3. Mobile Phone

2.1.1.3.1. Wireless emergency alerts will be send to your WEA enabled phone automatically if you're near a location of a life-threatening event

2.1.1.3.2. Charger, inverter or solar charger!

2.1.2. Food

2.1.2.1. Avoid

2.1.2.1.1. Foods that will make you thirsty

2.1.2.1.2. Perishable food

2.1.2.2. Store

2.1.2.2.1. Salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content

2.1.2.2.2. Protein or fruit bars

2.1.2.2.3. Dried fruits and nuts

2.1.2.2.4. Canned juices

2.1.2.2.5. Vitamins

2.1.2.2.6. Peanut Butter

2.1.2.2.7. High energy foods

2.1.3. Water

2.1.3.1. One gallon of water per person per day

2.2. MAKE A FAMILY EMERGENCY PLAN

2.2.1. Plan to protect yourself and your family

2.2.1.1. Family communications

2.2.1.1.1. Identify a contact such as a friend or relative who lives out-of-state for household members to notify they are safe.

2.2.1.1.2. Be sure every member of your family knows the phone number and has a cell phone, coins or a prepaid phone card to call the emergency contact. If you have a cell phone, program that person(s) as "ICE" (In Case of Emergency) in your phone.

2.2.1.1.3. Teach family members how to use text messaging.

2.2.1.1.4. Subscribe to alert services.

2.2.1.2. Get tech ready

2.2.1.2.1. FEMA text messages

2.2.1.2.2. Learn more

2.2.1.3. Utility shut-off and safety

2.2.1.3.1. Natural gas

2.2.1.3.2. Water

2.2.1.3.3. Electricity

2.2.1.4. Escape routes

2.2.1.4.1. Establish a place to meet in the event of an emergency. Record the locations.

2.2.1.5. Financial preparedness

2.2.1.5.1. Identify your important documents and place them in a safe space

2.2.1.5.2. Download phone applications that can help during emergencies

2.2.1.5.3. Enroll in Go Direct to minimize disruptions to receiving any federal benefits you may receive.

2.2.1.5.4. Plan ahead of time to recover

2.2.1.5.5. Learn more

2.2.1.6. Safety skills

2.2.1.6.1. Learn First Aid and CPR

2.2.1.6.2. Learn to use a fire extinguisher

2.2.2. Evacuating yourself and your family

2.2.2.1. Plan places where your family will meet, both within and outside of your immediate neighborhood.

2.2.2.2. If you have a car, keep a full tank of gas in it if an evacuation seems likely. Keep a half tank of gas in it at all times in case of an unexpected need to evacuate.

2.2.2.3. Become familiar with alternate routes and other means of transportation out of your area. Choose several destinations in different directions so you have options in an emergency.

2.2.2.4. Leave early enough to avoid being trapped by severe weather.

2.2.2.5. Follow recommended evacuation routes. Do not take shortcuts; they may be blocked.

2.2.2.6. Be alert for road hazards such as washed-out roads or bridges and downed power lines. Do not drive into flooded areas.

2.2.2.7. If you do not have a car, plan how you will leave if you have to. Make arrangements with family, friends or your local government.

2.2.2.8. Take your emergency supply kit unless you have reason to believe it has been contaminated.

2.2.2.9. Listen to a battery-powered radio and follow local evacuation instructions.

2.2.2.10. Take your pets with you, but understand that only service animals may be permitted in public shelters. Plan how you will care for your pets in an emergency.

2.2.2.11. If time allows

2.2.2.11.1. Call or email the out-of-state contact in your family communications plan. Tell them where you are going.

2.2.2.11.2. Secure your home by closing and locking doors and windows.

2.2.2.11.3. Unplug electrical equipment such as radios, televisions and small appliances. Leave freezers and refrigerators plugged in unless there is a risk of flooding. If there is damage to your home and you are instructed to do so, shut off water, gas and electricity before leaving.

2.2.2.11.4. Leave a note telling others when you left and where you are going.

2.2.2.11.5. Wear sturdy shoes and clothing that provides some protection such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts and a cap.

2.2.2.11.6. Check with neighbors who may need a ride.

3. TYPES OF DISASTERS

3.1. Natural disasters

3.1.1. Drought

3.1.1.1. Before a drought

3.1.1.1.1. Indoor

3.1.1.1.2. Outdoor

3.1.1.2. During a drought

3.1.1.2.1. Indoor

3.1.1.2.2. Outdoor

3.1.2. Earthquake

3.1.2.1. Before

3.1.2.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.2.1.2. Fasten shelves securely to walls.

3.1.2.1.3. Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.

3.1.2.1.4. Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.

3.1.2.1.5. Fasten heavy items such as pictures and mirrors securely to walls and away from beds, couches and anywhere people sit.

3.1.2.1.6. Brace overhead light fixtures and top heavy objects.

3.1.2.1.7. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks. Get appropriate professional help. Do not work with gas or electrical lines yourself.

3.1.2.1.8. Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage.

3.1.2.1.9. Secure your water heater, refrigerator, furnace and gas appliances by strapping them to the wall studs and bolting to the floor. If recommended by your gas company, have an automatic gas shut-off valve installed that is triggered by strong vibrations.

3.1.2.1.10. Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects.

3.1.2.1.11. Be sure the residence is firmly anchored to its foundation.

3.1.2.1.12. Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.

3.1.2.1.13. Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against an inside wall. Reinforce this information by moving to these places during each drill.

3.1.2.1.14. Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover and hold on.

3.1.2.2. During

3.1.2.2.1. Indoors

3.1.2.2.2. Outdoors

3.1.2.2.3. In a moving vehicle

3.1.2.2.4. Trapped under debris

3.1.2.3. After

3.1.2.3.1. When the shaking stops, look around to make sure it is safe to move. Then exit the building.

3.1.2.3.2. Expect aftershocks.

3.1.2.3.3. Help injured or trapped persons.

3.1.2.3.4. Look for and extinguish small fires.

3.1.2.3.5. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information.

3.1.2.3.6. Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas.

3.1.2.3.7. Use the telephone only for emergency calls.

3.1.2.3.8. Go to a designated public shelter if your home had been damaged and is no longer safe.

3.1.2.3.9. Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorities say it is safe.

3.1.2.3.10. Be careful when driving after an earthquake and anticipate traffic light outages.

3.1.2.3.11. After it is determined that its’ safe to return, your safety should be your primary priority as you begin clean up and recovery.

3.1.2.3.12. Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.

3.1.2.3.13. Find out how to keep food safe during and after and emergency by visiting the link in the description

3.1.2.3.14. Put on long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, sturdy shoes and work gloves to protect against injury from broken objects.

3.1.2.3.15. Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.

3.1.2.3.16. Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire.

3.1.2.3.17. Inspect utilities.

3.1.3. Extreme Heat

3.1.3.1. Before

3.1.3.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.3.1.2. Install window air conditioners snugly; insulate if necessary.

3.1.3.1.3. Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation.

3.1.3.1.4. Install temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and drapes), such as aluminum foil-covered cardboard, to reflect heat back outside.

3.1.3.1.5. Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in.

3.1.3.1.6. Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes, shades, awnings, or louvers. (Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat that enters a home by up to 80 percent.)

3.1.3.1.7. Keep storm windows up all year.

3.1.3.1.8. Listen to local weather forecasts and stay aware of upcoming temperature changes.

3.1.3.1.9. Know those in your neighborhood who are elderly, young, sick or overweight. They are more likely to become victims of excessive heat and may need help.

3.1.3.1.10. Be aware that people living in urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave than are people living in rural areas.

3.1.3.1.11. Get trained in first aid to learn how to treat heat-related emergencies.

3.1.3.2. During

3.1.3.2.1. Listen to NOAA Weather Radio for critical updates from the National Weather Service (NWS).

3.1.3.2.2. Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles.

3.1.3.2.3. Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun.

3.1.3.2.4. Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available.

3.1.3.2.5. Postpone outdoor games and activities.

3.1.3.2.6. Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls, and other community facilities. Circulating air can cool the body by increasing the perspiration rate of evaporation.

3.1.3.2.7. Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.

3.1.3.2.8. Drink plenty of water; even if you do not feel thirsty. Avoid drinks with caffeine. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver disease; are on fluid-restricted diets; or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake.

3.1.3.2.9. Limit intake of alcoholic beverages.

3.1.3.2.10. Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light-colored clothes that cover as much skin as possible. Avoid dark colors because they absorb the sun’s rays.

3.1.3.2.11. Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat.

3.1.3.2.12. Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy system when working in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks.

3.1.3.2.13. Check on family, friends, and neighbors who do not have air conditioning and who spend much of their time alone.

3.1.3.2.14. Avoid extreme temperature changes.

3.1.3.2.15. Check on your animals frequently to ensure that they are not suffering from the heat. Go to a designated public shelter if your home loses power during periods of extreme heat.

3.1.4. Flood

3.1.4.1. Before

3.1.4.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.4.1.2. Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.

3.1.4.1.3. Elevate the furnace, water heater and electric panel in your home if you live in an area that has a high flood risk.

3.1.4.1.4. Consider installing "check valves" to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home.

3.1.4.1.5. If feasible, construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building and seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds.

3.1.4.2. During

3.1.4.2.1. If a flood is likely in your area, you should:

3.1.4.2.2. If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:

3.1.4.2.3. If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:

3.1.4.3. After

3.1.4.3.1. Use local alerts and warning systems to get information and expert informed advice as soon as available.

3.1.4.3.2. Avoid moving water.

3.1.4.3.3. Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organization.

3.1.4.3.4. Emergency workers will be assisting people in flooded areas. You can help them by staying off the roads and out of the way.

3.1.4.3.5. Play it safe. Additional flooding or flash floods can occur. Listen for local warnings and information. If your car stalls in rapidly rising waters, get out immediately and climb to higher ground.

3.1.4.3.6. Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe.

3.1.4.3.7. Roads may still be closed because they have been damaged or are covered by water. Barricades have been placed for your protection. If you come upon a barricade or a flooded road, go another way.

3.1.4.3.8. If you must walk or drive in areas that have been flooded.

3.1.4.3.9. Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car.

3.1.4.3.10. Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.

3.1.4.3.11. Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations.

3.1.4.3.12. Staying healthy

3.1.4.3.13. Cleaning up and repairing your home

3.1.4.4. Causes of flooding

3.1.4.4.1. Tropical storms and hurricanes

3.1.4.4.2. Spring thaw

3.1.4.4.3. Heavy rains

3.1.4.4.4. US West coast threats

3.1.4.4.5. Levees and dams

3.1.4.4.6. Flash floods

3.1.4.4.7. New development

3.1.4.5. Flood hazard terms

3.1.4.5.1. Flood watch

3.1.4.5.2. Flash flood watch

3.1.4.5.3. Flood warning

3.1.4.5.4. Flash flood warning

3.1.4.6. Driving: Flood facts

3.1.4.6.1. Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling.

3.1.4.6.2. A foot of water will float many vehicles

3.1.4.6.3. Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (SUV’s) and pick-ups.

3.1.4.6.4. Do not attempt to drive through a flooded road. The depth of water is not always obvious. The road bed may be washed out under the water, and you could be stranded or trapped.

3.1.4.6.5. Do not drive around a barricade. Barricades are there for your protection. Turn around and go the other way.

3.1.4.6.6. Do not try to take short cuts. They may be blocked. Stick to designated evacuation routes.

3.1.4.6.7. Be especially cautious driving at night when it is harder to recognize flood dangers.

3.1.5. Hurricanes

3.1.5.1. Before

3.1.5.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.5.1.2. Learn the elevation level of your property and whether the land is flood-prone.

3.1.5.1.3. Identify levees and dams in your area and determine whether they pose a hazard to you.

3.1.5.1.4. Learn community hurricane evacuation routes and how to find higher ground. Determine where you would go and how you would get there if you needed to evacuate.

3.1.5.1.5. Make plans to secure your property:

3.1.5.2. During

3.1.5.2.1. If a hurricane is likely in your area, you should:

3.1.5.2.2. You should evacuate under the following conditions:

3.1.5.2.3. Read more about evacuating yourself and your family. If you are unable to evacuate, go to your wind-safe room. If you do not have one, follow these guidelines:

3.1.5.3. After

3.1.5.3.1. Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates.

3.1.5.3.2. Stay alert for extended rainfall and subsequent flooding even after the hurricane or tropical storm has ended.

3.1.5.3.3. If you have become separated from your family, use your family communications plan or contact the American Red Cross at 1-800-RED-CROSS/1-800-733-2767 or visit the American Red Cross Safe and Well site: www.safeandwell.org

3.1.5.3.4. If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe.

3.1.5.3.5. If you cannot return home and have immediate housing needs. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.5.3.6. For those who have longer-term housing needs, FEMA offers several types of assistance, including services and grants to help people repair their homes and find replacement housing. Apply for assistance or search for information about housing rental resources

3.1.5.3.7. Drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed¬ out bridges. Stay off the streets. If you must go out watch for fallen objects; downed electrical wires; and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks.

3.1.5.3.8. Keep away from loose or dangling power lines and report them immediately to the power company.

3.1.5.3.9. Walk carefully around the outside your home and check for loose power lines, gas leaks and structural damage before entering.

3.1.5.3.10. Stay out of any building if you smell gas, floodwaters remain around the building or your home was damaged by fire and the authorities have not declared it safe.

3.1.5.3.11. Inspect your home for damage.

3.1.5.3.12. Use battery-powered flashlights in the dark. Do NOT use candles.

3.1.5.3.13. Watch your pets closely and keep them under your direct control. Watch out for wild animals, especially poisonous snakes. Use a stick to poke through debris.

3.1.5.3.14. Avoid drinking or preparing food with tap water until you are sure it’s not contaminated.

3.1.5.3.15. Check refrigerated food for spoilage. If in doubt, throw it out.

3.1.5.3.16. Wear protective clothing and be cautious when cleaning up to avoid injury.

3.1.5.3.17. Use the telephone only for emergency calls.

3.1.5.3.18. NEVER use a generator inside homes, garages, crawlspaces, sheds, or similar areas, even when using fans or opening doors and windows for ventilation. Deadly levels of carbon monoxide can quickly build up in these areas and can linger for hours, even after the generator has shut off.

3.1.5.4. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale

3.1.5.4.1. Category 1

3.1.5.4.2. Category 2

3.1.5.4.3. Category 3

3.1.5.4.4. Category 4

3.1.5.4.5. Category 5

3.1.5.5. Storm Surge

3.1.5.6. Know the terms

3.1.5.6.1. Tropical Cyclone

3.1.5.6.2. Tropical Depression

3.1.5.6.3. Tropical Storm

3.1.5.6.4. Hurricane

3.1.5.6.5. Storm Surge

3.1.5.6.6. Storm Tide

3.1.5.6.7. Hurricane Warning

3.1.5.6.8. Hurricane Watch

3.1.5.6.9. Tropical Storm Warning

3.1.5.6.10. Tropical Storm Watch

3.1.5.6.11. Short Term Watches and Warnings

3.1.6. Landslides and debris flow

3.1.6.1. Before

3.1.6.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.6.1.2. Prepare for landslides by following proper land-use procedures - avoid building near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways or along natural erosion valleys.

3.1.6.1.3. Become familiar with the land around you. Learn whether debris flows have occurred in your area by contacting local officials. Slopes where debris flows have occurred in the past are likely to experience them in the future.

3.1.6.1.4. Get a ground assessment of your property.

3.1.6.1.5. Consult a professional for advice on appropriate preventative measures for your home or business, such as flexible pipe fittings, which can better resist breakage.

3.1.6.1.6. Protect your property by planting ground cover on slopes and building retaining walls.

3.1.6.1.7. In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. Be aware, however, if you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's property, you may be liable for damages.

3.1.6.1.8. If you are at risk from a landslide talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

3.1.6.2. Recognize Landslide Warning Signs

3.1.6.2.1. Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning trees.

3.1.6.2.2. Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time.

3.1.6.2.3. New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations.

3.1.6.2.4. Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building.

3.1.6.2.5. Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways.

3.1.6.2.6. Underground utility lines break.

3.1.6.2.7. Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope.

3.1.6.2.8. Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations.

3.1.6.2.9. Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move.

3.1.6.2.10. A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears.

3.1.6.2.11. The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet.

3.1.6.2.12. Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris.

3.1.6.2.13. Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides).

3.1.6.3. During

3.1.6.3.1. During a severe storm, stay alert and awake. Many deaths from landslides occur while people are sleeping.

3.1.6.3.2. Listen to local news stations on a battery-powered radio for warnings of heavy rainfall.

3.1.6.3.3. Listen for unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together.

3.1.6.3.4. Move away from the path of a landslide or debris flow as quickly as possible. The danger from a mudflow increases near stream channels and with prolonged heavy rains. Mudflows can move faster than you can walk or run. Look upstream before crossing a bridge and do not cross the bridge if a mudflow is approaching.

3.1.6.3.5. Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas.

3.1.6.3.6. If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in water flow and notice whether the water changes from clear to muddy. Such changes may mean there is debris flow activity upstream so be prepared to move quickly.

3.1.6.3.7. Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible.

3.1.6.4. After

3.1.6.4.1. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.6.4.2. Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.

3.1.6.4.3. Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.

3.1.6.4.4. Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event.

3.1.6.4.5. Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area. Direct rescuers to their locations.

3.1.6.4.6. Look for and report broken utility lines and damaged roadways and railways to appropriate authorities. Reporting potential hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further hazard and injury.

3.1.6.4.7. Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help you assess the safety of the area.

3.1.6.4.8. Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future.

3.1.6.4.9. Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.

3.1.7. Space weather

3.1.7.1. Possible effects

3.1.7.1.1. Loss of water and wastewater distribution systems

3.1.7.1.2. Loss of perishable foods and medications

3.1.7.1.3. Loss of heating/air conditioning and electrical lighting systems

3.1.7.1.4. Loss of computer systems, telephone systems, and communications systems (including disruptions in airline flights, satellite networks and GPS services)

3.1.7.1.5. Loss of public transportation systems

3.1.7.1.6. Loss of fuel distribution systems and fuel pipelines

3.1.7.1.7. Loss of all electrical systems that do not have back-up power

3.1.7.2. Space weather scale

3.1.7.3. Space weather alerts

3.1.7.4. Before

3.1.7.4.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.7.4.2. Fill plastic containers with water and place them in the refrigerator and freezer if there's room.

3.1.7.4.3. Be aware that most medication that requires refrigeration can be kept in a closed refrigerator for several hours without a problem. If unsure, check with your physician or pharmacist.

3.1.7.4.4. Keep your car tank at least half full because gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps.

3.1.7.4.5. Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it. Garage doors can be heavy, so know that you may need help to lift it.

3.1.7.4.6. Keep a key to your house with you if you regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home, in case the garage door will not open.

3.1.7.4.7. Keep extra batteries for your phone in a safe place or purchase a solar-powered or hand crank charger.

3.1.7.4.8. If you have a traditional landline (non-broadband or VOIP) phone, keep at least one non-cordless receiver in your home because it will work even if you lose power.

3.1.7.4.9. Prepare a family contact sheet.

3.1.7.4.10. Make back-up copies of important digital data and information, automatically if possible, or at least weekly.

3.1.7.5. During

3.1.7.5.1. Follow energy conservation measures to keep the use of electricity as low as possible, which can help power companies avoid imposing rolling blackouts during periods when the power grid is compromised.

3.1.7.5.2. Follow the Emergency Alert System (EAS) instructions carefully.

3.1.7.5.3. Disconnect electrical appliances if instructed to do so by local officials.

3.1.7.5.4. Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary, during emergency situations keeping lines open for emergency personel can improve responce.

3.1.7.6. After

3.1.7.6.1. Throw out unsafe food

3.1.8. Thunderstorms and lightning

3.1.8.1. Before

3.1.8.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.8.1.2. Remove dead or rotting trees and branches that could fall and cause injury or damage during a severe thunderstorm.

3.1.8.1.3. Postpone outdoor activities.

3.1.8.1.4. Remember the 30/30 Lightning Safety Rule: Go indoors if, after seeing lightning, you cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder. Stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder.

3.1.8.1.5. Secure outdoor objects that could blow away or cause damage.

3.1.8.1.6. Get inside a home, building, or hard top automobile (not a convertible). Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside a vehicle than outside.

3.1.8.1.7. Remember, rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide NO protection from lightning. However, the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides increased protection if you are not touching metal.

3.1.8.1.8. Shutter windows and secure outside doors. If shutters are not available, close window blinds, shades or curtains.

3.1.8.1.9. Unplug any electronic equipment well before the storm arrives.

3.1.8.2. During

3.1.8.2.1. Use your battery-operated NOAA Weather Radio for updates from local officials.

3.1.8.2.2. Avoid contact with corded phones and devices including those plugged into electric for recharging. Cordless and wireless phones not connected to wall outlets are OK to use.

3.1.8.2.3. Avoid contact with electrical equipment or cords. Unplug appliances and other electrical items such as computers and turn off air conditioners. Power surges from lightning can cause serious damage.

3.1.8.2.4. Avoid contact with plumbing. Do not wash your hands, do not take a shower, do not wash dishes, and do not do laundry. Plumbing and bathroom fixtures can conduct electricity.

3.1.8.2.5. Stay away from windows and doors, and stay off porches.

3.1.8.2.6. Do not lie on concrete floors and do not lean against concrete walls.

3.1.8.2.7. Avoid natural lightning rods such as a tall, isolated tree in an open area.

3.1.8.2.8. Avoid hilltops, open fields, the beach or a boat on the water.

3.1.8.2.9. Take shelter in a sturdy building. Avoid isolated sheds or other small structures in open areas.

3.1.8.2.10. Avoid contact with anything metal—tractors, farm equipment, motorcycles, golf carts, golf clubs, and bicycles.

3.1.8.2.11. If you are driving, try to safely exit the roadway and park. Stay in the vehicle and turn on the emergency flashers until the heavy rain ends. Avoid touching metal or other surfaces that conduct electricity in and outside the vehicle.

3.1.8.3. After

3.1.8.3.1. If lightning strikes you or someone you know, call 9-1-1 for medical assistance as soon as possible. The following are things you should check when you attempt to give aid to a victim of lightning:

3.1.8.3.2. After the storm passes remember to:

3.1.8.4. Lightning safety when outdoors

3.1.8.4.1. In a forest

3.1.8.4.2. In an open area

3.1.8.4.3. On open water

3.1.8.4.4. Anywhere you feel your hair stand on end (which indicates that lightning is about to strike)

3.1.9. Tornadoes

3.1.9.1. Tornado facts

3.1.9.1.1. They may strike quickly, with little or no warning.

3.1.9.1.2. They may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms in the funnel.

3.1.9.1.3. The average tornado moves Southwest to Northeast, but tornadoes have been known to move in any direction.

3.1.9.1.4. The average forward speed of a tornado is 30 mph, but may vary from stationary to 70 mph.

3.1.9.1.5. Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms and hurricanes as they move onto land.

3.1.9.1.6. Waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water.

3.1.9.1.7. Tornadoes are most frequently reported east of the Rocky Mountains during spring and summer months.

3.1.9.1.8. Peak tornado season in the southern states is March through May; in the northern states, it is late spring through early summer.

3.1.9.1.9. Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 pm and 9 pm, but can occur at any time.

3.1.9.2. Before

3.1.9.2.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.9.2.2. Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information.

3.1.9.2.3. Be alert to changing weather conditions. Look for approaching storms.

3.1.9.2.4. Look for the following danger signs:

3.1.9.3. During

3.1.9.3.1. If in a structure or building

3.1.9.3.2. In a trailer or mobile home

3.1.9.3.3. Outside with no shelter

3.1.9.4. After

3.1.9.4.1. Injuries

3.1.9.4.2. General safety precautions

3.1.9.4.3. Inspecting the damage

3.1.9.4.4. Safety during clean-up

3.1.10. Tsunamis

3.1.10.1. Before

3.1.10.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.10.1.2. Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast or other high-risk waters. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers.

3.1.10.1.3. If you are a tourist, familiarize yourself with local tsunami evacuation protocols. You may be able to safely evacuate to the third floor and higher in reinforced concrete hotel structures.

3.1.10.1.4. If an earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area, turn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning.

3.1.10.1.5. Know the terms

3.1.10.2. During

3.1.10.2.1. Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and evacuate immediately. Take your animals with you.

3.1.10.2.2. Move inland to higher ground immediately.

3.1.10.2.3. Stay away from the beach.

3.1.10.2.4. Save yourself - not your possessions.

3.1.10.2.5. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people, and individuals with access or functional needs.

3.1.10.3. After

3.1.10.3.1. Return home only after local officials tell you it is safe. A tsunami is a series of waves that may continue for hours. Do not assume that after one wave the danger is over. The next wave may be larger than the first one.

3.1.10.3.2. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.10.3.3. Avoid disaster areas.

3.1.10.3.4. Stay away from debris in the water; it may pose a safety hazard to people or pets.

3.1.10.3.5. Check yourself for injuries and get first aid as needed before helping injured or trapped persons.

3.1.10.3.6. If someone needs to be rescued, call professionals with the right equipment to help. Many people have been killed or injured trying to rescue others.

3.1.10.3.7. Help people who require special assistance—infants, elderly people, those without transportation, people with access and functional needs and large families who may need additional help in an emergency situation.

3.1.10.3.8. Continue using a NOAA Weather Radio or tuning to a Coast Guard station or a local radio or television station for the latest updates.

3.1.10.3.9. Stay out of any building that has water around it. Tsunami water can cause floors to crack or walls to collapse.

3.1.10.3.10. Use caution when re-entering buildings or homes.

3.1.10.3.11. To avoid injury, wear protective clothing and be cautious when cleaning up.

3.1.11. Vulcanoes

3.1.11.1. Before

3.1.11.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.1.11.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.1.11.2. During

3.1.11.2.1. Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and evacuate immediately from the volcano area to avoid flying debris, hot gases, lateral blast and lava flow.

3.1.11.2.2. Be aware of mudflows.

3.1.11.2.3. Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas.

3.1.11.2.4. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people and people with access and functional needs.

3.1.11.2.5. Protection from falling ash

3.1.11.3. After

3.1.11.3.1. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.11.3.2. Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do. However, you should listen to NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.

3.1.12. Wildfires

3.1.12.1. Before

3.1.12.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.1.12.1.2. Design and landscape your home with wildfire safety in mind. Select materials and plants that can help contain fire rather than fuel it.

3.1.12.1.3. Use fire-resistant or noncombustible materials on the roof and exterior structure of the dwelling, or treat wood or combustible material used in roofs, siding, decking or trim with fire-retardant chemicals evaluated by a nationally recognized laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

3.1.12.1.4. Plant fire-resistant shrubs and trees. For example, hardwood trees are less flammable than pine, evergreen, eucalyptus or fir trees.

3.1.12.1.5. Regularly clean roof and gutters.

3.1.12.1.6. Inspect chimneys at least twice a year. Clean them at least once a year. Keep the dampers in good working order. Equip chimneys and stovepipes with a spark arrester that meets the requirements of National Fire Protection Association Standard 211.

3.1.12.1.7. Use 1/8-inch mesh screen beneath porches, decks, floor areas, and the home itself. Also, screen openings to floors, roof and attic.

3.1.12.1.8. Install a dual-sensor smoke alarm on each level of your home, especially near bedrooms; test monthly and change the batteries at least once each year.

3.1.12.1.9. Teach each family member how to use a fire extinguisher (ABC type) and show them where it's kept.

3.1.12.1.10. Keep handy household items that can be used as fire tools: a rake, axe, handsaw or chain saw, bucket and shovel.

3.1.12.1.11. Keep a ladder that will reach the roof.

3.1.12.1.12. Consider installing protective shutters or heavy fire-resistant drapes.

3.1.12.1.13. Clear items that will burn from around the house, including wood piles, lawn furniture, barbecue grills, tarp coverings, etc. Move them outside of your defensible space.

3.1.12.1.14. Plan your water needs

3.1.12.2. Prepare your home for a wildfire

3.1.12.2.1. Rake leaves, dead limbs and twigs. Clear all flammable vegetation.

3.1.12.2.2. Remove leaves and rubbish from under structures.

3.1.12.2.3. Thin a 15-foot space between tree crowns, and remove limbs within 15 feet of the ground.

3.1.12.2.4. Remove dead branches that extend over the roof.

3.1.12.2.5. Prune tree branches and shrubs within 15 feet of a stovepipe or chimney outlet.

3.1.12.2.6. Ask the power company to clear branches from powerlines.

3.1.12.2.7. Remove vines from the walls of the home.

3.1.12.2.8. Mow grass regularly.

3.1.12.2.9. Clear a 10-foot area around propane tanks and the barbecue. Place a screen over the grill - use nonflammable material with mesh no coarser than one-quarter inch.

3.1.12.2.10. Regularly dispose of newspapers and rubbish at an approved site. Follow local burning regulations.

3.1.12.2.11. Place stove, fireplace and grill ashes in a metal bucket, soak in water for 2 days; then bury the cold ashes in mineral soil.

3.1.12.2.12. Store gasoline, oily rags and other flammable materials in approved safety cans. Place cans in a safe location away from the base of buildings.

3.1.12.2.13. Stack firewood at least 100 feet away and uphill from your home. Clear combustible material within 20 feet. Use only wood-burning devices evaluated by a nationally recognized laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

3.1.12.2.14. Review your homeowner's insurance policy and also prepare/update a list of your home's contents.

3.1.12.3. Practice wildfire safety

3.1.12.3.1. Contact your local fire department, health department, or forestry office for information on fire laws.

3.1.12.3.2. Make sure that fire vehicles can get to your home. Clearly mark all driveway entrances and display your name and address.

3.1.12.3.3. Report hazardous conditions that could cause a wildfire.

3.1.12.3.4. Teach children about fire safety. Keep matches out of their reach.

3.1.12.3.5. Post fire emergency telephone numbers.

3.1.12.3.6. Ensure adequate accessibility by large fire vehicles to your property.

3.1.12.3.7. Plan several escape routes away from your home - by car and by foot.

3.1.12.3.8. Talk to your neighbors about wildfire safety. Plan how the neighborhood could work together after a wildfire.

3.1.12.3.9. Follow local burning laws

3.1.12.4. During

3.1.12.4.1. If you are not ordered to evacute, and have time to prepare your home, FEMA recommends you take the following actions:

3.1.12.4.2. Surviving a wildfire

3.1.12.5. After

3.1.12.5.1. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.12.5.2. If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, call 9-1-1 or seek help immediately; cool and cover burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection.

3.1.12.5.3. If you remained at home, check the roof immediately after the fire danger has passed. Put out any roof fires, sparks or embers. Check the attic for hidden burning sparks.

3.1.12.5.4. For several hours after the fire, maintain a "fire watch." Re-check for smoke and sparks throughout the house.

3.1.12.5.5. If you have evacuated, do not enter your home until fire officials say it is safe.

3.1.12.5.6. If a building inspector has placed a color-coded sign on the home, do not enter it until you get more information, advice and instructions about what the sign means and whether it is safe to enter your home.

3.1.12.5.7. If you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe, ask someone you trust to watch the property during your absence.

3.1.12.5.8. Use caution when entering burned areas as hazards may still exist, including hot spots, which can flare up without warning.

3.1.12.5.9. If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate immediately.

3.1.12.5.10. If you have a safe or strong box, do not try to open it. It can hold intense heat for several hours. If the door is opened before the box has cooled, the contents could burst into flames.

3.1.12.5.11. Avoid damaged or fallen power lines, poles and downed wires.

3.1.12.5.12. Watch for ash pits and mark them for safety—warn family and neighbors to keep clear of the pits also.

3.1.12.5.13. Watch animals closely and keep them under your direct control. Hidden embers and hot spots could burn your pets’ paws or hooves.

3.1.12.5.14. Follow public health guidance on safe cleanup of fire ash and safe use of masks.

3.1.12.5.15. Wet debris down to minimize breathing dust particles.

3.1.12.5.16. Wear leather gloves and heavy soled shoes to protect hands and feet.

3.1.12.5.17. Cleaning products, paint, batteries and damaged fuel containers need to be disposed of properly to avoid risk.

3.1.12.5.18. Discard any food that has been exposed to heat, smoke or soot.

3.1.12.5.19. Do NOT use water that you think may be contaminated to wash dishes, brush teeth, prepare food, wash hands, make ice or make baby formula.

3.1.12.5.20. Remain calm. Pace yourself. You may find yourself in the position of taking charge of other people. Listen carefully to what people are telling you, and deal patiently with urgent situations first.

3.1.12.6. Hazards after wildfires: Flood and landslides

3.1.13. Winter storms and extreme cold

3.1.13.1. Before

3.1.13.1.1. Before winter approaches, add the following supplies to your emergency kit:

3.1.13.1.2. Make a Family Communications Plan.

3.1.13.1.3. Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio or other local news channels for critical information from the National Weather Service (NWS). Be alert to changing weather conditions.

3.1.13.1.4. Minimize travel. If travel is necessary, keep a disaster supplies kit in your vehicle.

3.1.13.1.5. Bring pets/companion animals inside during winter weather. Move other animals or livestock to sheltered areas with non-frozen drinking water.

3.1.13.1.6. Winterize your vehicle

3.1.13.1.7. Winterize your home

3.1.13.2. Know the terms

3.1.13.2.1. Freezing Rain

3.1.13.2.2. Sleet

3.1.13.2.3. Winter weather advisory

3.1.13.2.4. Winter storm watch

3.1.13.2.5. Winter storm warning

3.1.13.2.6. Blizzard warning

3.1.13.2.7. Frost/Freeze warning

3.1.13.3. Carbon Monoxide

3.1.13.3.1. Never use a generator, grill, camp stove or other gasoline, propane, natural gas or charcoal¬ burning devices inside a home, garage, basement, crawlspace or any partially enclosed area. Locate unit away from doors, windows and vents that could allow carbon monoxide to come indoors.

3.1.13.3.2. The primary hazards to avoid when using alternate sources for electricity, heating or cooking are carbon monoxide poisoning, electric shock and fire.

3.1.13.3.3. Install carbon monoxide alarms in central locations on every level of your home and outside sleeping areas to provide early warning of accumulating carbon monoxide.

3.1.13.3.4. If the carbon monoxide alarm sounds, move quickly to a fresh air location outdoors or by an open window or door.

3.1.13.3.5. Call for help from the fresh air location and remain there until emergency personnel arrive to assist you.

3.1.13.4. During

3.1.13.4.1. Stay indoors during the storm.

3.1.13.4.2. Walk carefully on snowy, icy, walkways.

3.1.13.4.3. Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow.

3.1.13.4.4. Keep dry.

3.1.13.4.5. Watch for signs of frostbite.

3.1.13.4.6. Watch for signs of hypothermia.

3.1.13.4.7. Drive only if it is absolutely necessary.

3.1.13.4.8. Let someone know your destination, your route, and when you expect to arrive.

3.1.13.4.9. If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags. Completely open all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes, starting where they were most exposed to the cold (or where the cold was most likely to penetrate).

3.1.13.4.10. Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three feet from flammable objects.

3.1.13.4.11. Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than normal. Temporarily close off heat to some rooms.

3.1.13.4.12. If you will be going away during cold weather, leave the heat on in your home, set to a temperature no lower than 55ºF.

3.1.13.4.13. Dress for the weather.

3.1.13.4.14. If a blizzard traps you in the car:

3.1.13.5. After

3.1.13.5.1. Go to a designated public shelter if your home loses power or heat during periods of extreme cold. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.1.13.5.2. Continue to protect yourself from frostbite and hypothermia by wearing warm, loose-fitting, lightweight clothing in several layers. Stay indoors, if possible.

3.2. Pandemic

3.2.1. Before

3.2.1.1. Store a two week supply of water and food.

3.2.1.2. Periodically check your regular prescription drugs to ensure a continuous supply in your home.

3.2.1.3. Have any nonprescription drugs and other health supplies on hand, including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes, and vitamins.

3.2.1.4. Talk with family members and loved ones about how they would be cared for if they got sick, or what will be needed to care for them in your home.

3.2.1.5. Volunteer with local groups to prepare and assist with emergency response.

3.2.1.6. Get involved in your community as it works to prepare for an influenza pandemic.

3.2.2. During

3.2.2.1. Limit the Spread of Germs and Prevent Infection

3.2.2.2. Avoid close contact with people who are sick. When you are sick, keep your distance from others to protect them from getting sick too.

3.2.2.3. If possible, stay home from work, school, and errands when you are sick. You will help prevent others from catching your illness.

3.2.2.4. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick.

3.2.2.5. Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs.

3.2.2.6. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.

3.2.2.7. Practice other good health habits.

3.3. Technological and accidental hazards

3.3.1. Blackouts

3.3.1.1. Before

3.3.1.1.1. Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.

3.3.1.1.2. Follow energy conservation measures to keep the use of electricity as low as possible, which can help power companies avoid imposing rolling blackouts.

3.3.1.1.3. Fill plastic containers with water and place them in the refrigerator and freezer if there's room.

3.3.1.1.4. Be aware that most medication that requires refrigeration can be kept in a closed refrigerator for several hours without a problem. If unsure, check with your physician or pharmacist.

3.3.1.1.5. Keep your car tank at least half full because gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps.

3.3.1.1.6. Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it. Garage doors can be heavy, so know that you may need help to lift it.

3.3.1.1.7. Keep a key to your house with you if you regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home, in case the garage door will not open.

3.3.1.2. During

3.3.1.2.1. Use only flashlights for emergency lighting. NEVER use candles during a blackout or power outage due to extreme risk of fire.

3.3.1.2.2. Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed to keep your food as fresh as possible.

3.3.1.2.3. Do not run a generator inside a home or garage.

3.3.1.2.4. Do not connect a generator to a home's electrical system. If you use a generator, connect the equipment you want to run directly to the outlets on the generator.

3.3.1.2.5. Listen to local radio and to a battery- or generator-powered television for updated information.

3.3.1.2.6. Leave on one light so that you'll know when your power returns.

3.3.1.2.7. Use a standard telephone handset, cellular phone, radio or pager if your phone requires electricity to work, as do cordless phones and answering machines.

3.3.1.2.8. Do not call 9-1-1 for information—call only to report a life-threatening emergency. Use the phone for life-threatening emergencies only.

3.3.1.2.9. Take steps to remain cool if it is hot outside.

3.3.1.2.10. Put on layers of warm clothing if it is cold outside. Never burn charcoal for heating or cooking indoors. Never use your oven as a source of heat. If the power may be out for a prolonged period, plan to go to another location (the home of a relative or friend, or a public facility) that has heat to keep warm.

3.3.1.2.11. Provide plenty of fresh, cool water for your pets.

3.3.1.2.12. Eliminate unnecessary travel, especially by car. Traffic signals will stop working during an outage, creating traffic congestion.

3.3.1.2.13. Remember that equipment such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and elevators may not work during a power outage.

3.3.1.3. Using a generator

3.3.1.4. After

3.3.1.4.1. Throw away any food that has been exposed to temperatures 40° F (4° C) for 2 hours or more or that has an unusual odor, color or texture. When in doubt, throw it out!

3.3.1.4.2. Never taste food or rely on appearance or odor to determine its safety.

3.3.1.4.3. If food in the freezer is colder than 40° F and has ice crystals on it, you can refreeze it.

3.3.1.4.4. If you are not sure food is cold enough, take its temperature with the food thermometer. Throw out any foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers) that have been exposed to temperatures higher than 40° F (4° C) for 2 hours or more, and any food that has an unusual odor, color or texture, or feels warm to touch.

3.3.2. Hazardous materials incidents

3.3.2.1. Before

3.3.2.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.3.2.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.3.2.2. During

3.3.2.2.1. If you are asked to evacuate

3.3.2.2.2. If you are caught outside

3.3.2.2.3. If you are in a motor vehicle

3.3.2.2.4. If you are requested to stay indoors

3.3.2.2.5. Shelter safety for sealed rooms

3.3.2.3. After

3.3.2.3.1. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.3.2.3.2. Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to hazardous chemicals.

3.3.2.3.3. Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities.

3.3.2.3.4. Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms as soon as possible.

3.3.2.3.5. Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers. Do not allow them to contact other materials. Call local authorities to find out about proper disposal.

3.3.2.3.6. Advise everyone who comes in to contact with you that you may have been exposed to a toxic substance.

3.3.2.3.7. Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.

3.3.2.3.8. Help a neighbor who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people and people with access and functional needs. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations.

3.3.2.3.9. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Open windows and vents and turn on fans to provide ventilation.

3.3.2.3.10. Find out from local authorities how to clean up your land and property.

3.3.2.3.11. Report any lingering vapors or other hazards to your local emergency services office.

3.3.3. Household chemical emergencies

3.3.3.1. Before

3.3.3.1.1. Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use.

3.3.3.1.2. Keep products containing hazardous materials in their original containers and never remove the labels unless the container is corroding. Corroding containers should be repackaged and clearly labeled.

3.3.3.1.3. Never store hazardous products in food containers.

3.3.3.1.4. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products. Incompatibles, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia, may react, ignite or explode.

3.3.3.1.5. Follow the manufacturer’s instructors for the proper use of the household chemical.

3.3.3.1.6. Never smoke while using household chemicals.

3.3.3.1.7. Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near an open flame (e.g., pilot light, lighted candle, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc.)

3.3.3.1.8. Clean up any chemical spill immediately.

3.3.3.1.9. Dispose of hazardous materials correctly.

3.3.3.1.10. Post the number of the emergency medical services and the poison control center by all telephones.

3.3.3.2. During

3.3.3.2.1. Get out of the residence immediately if there is a danger of fire or explosion.

3.3.3.2.2. Do not waste time collecting items or calling the fire department when you are in danger.

3.3.3.2.3. Call the fire department from outside (a cellular phone or a neighbor’s phone) once you are safely away from danger.

3.3.3.2.4. Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes.

3.3.3.2.5. Recognize and respond to symptoms of toxic poisoning including:

3.3.3.3. After

3.3.3.3.1. Discard clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash out completely.

3.3.4. Nuclear Power Plants

3.3.4.1. Before

3.3.4.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.3.4.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.3.4.1.3. Obtain public emergency information materials from the power company that operates your local nuclear power plant or your local emergency services office.

3.3.4.1.4. Building a shielding

3.3.4.2. Know the terms

3.3.4.2.1. Notification of Unusual Event

3.3.4.2.2. Alert

3.3.4.2.3. Site area emergency

3.3.4.2.4. General emergency

3.3.4.3. During

3.3.4.3.1. Follow the EAS instructions carefully.

3.3.4.3.2. Minimize your exposure by increasing the distance between you and the source of the radiation. This could be evacuation or remaining indoors to minimize exposure.

3.3.4.3.3. If you are told to evacuate, keep car windows and vents closed; use re-circulating air.

3.3.4.3.4. If you are advised to remain indoors, turn off the air conditioner, ventilation fans, furnace and other air intakes.

3.3.4.3.5. Shield yourself by placing heavy, dense material between you and the radiation source. Go to a basement or other underground area, if possible.

3.3.4.3.6. Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary.

3.3.4.3.7. Stay out of the incident zone. Most radiation loses its strength fairly quickly.

3.3.4.4. After

3.3.4.4.1. Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345).

3.3.4.4.2. Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to hazardous radiation.

3.3.4.4.3. Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities. You may be advised to take a thorough shower.

3.3.4.4.4. Change your clothes and shoes; put exposed clothing in a plastic bag; seal it and place it out of the way.

3.3.4.4.5. Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms, such as nausea, as soon as possible.

3.3.4.4.6. Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.

3.3.4.4.7. Help a neighbor who may require special assistance

3.3.4.4.8. Return home only when authorities say it is safe.

3.3.4.4.9. Keep food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. Food not previously covered should be washed before being put in to containers.

3.4. Terrorist hazards

3.4.1. Biological threats

3.4.1.1. Before

3.4.1.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.4.1.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.4.1.1.3. Check with your doctor to ensure all required or suggested immunizations are up to date. Children and older adults are particularly vulnerable to biological agents.

3.4.1.1.4. Consider installing a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter in your furnace return duct.

3.4.1.2. During

3.4.1.2.1. The first evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the disease caused by exposure to an agent.

3.4.1.2.2. If you become aware of an unusual and suspicious substance, quickly get away.

3.4.1.2.3. Protect yourself. Cover your mouth and nose with layers of fabric that can filter the air but still allow breathing.

3.4.1.2.4. There may be times when you would want to consider wearing a face mask to reduce spreading germs if you yourself are sick, or to avoid coming in contact with contagious germs if others around you are sick.

3.4.1.2.5. If you have been exposed to a biological agent, remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow official instructions for disposal of contaminated items.

3.4.1.2.6. Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes.

3.4.1.2.7. Contact authorities and seek medical assistance. You may be advised to stay away from others or even quarantined.

3.4.1.2.8. If a family member becomes sick, it is important to be suspicious.

3.4.1.2.9. Do not assume, however, that you should go to a hospital emergency room or that any illness is the result of the biological attack. Symptoms of many common illnesses may overlap.

3.4.1.2.10. Use common sense, practice good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid spreading germs, and seek medical advice.

3.4.1.2.11. Consider if you are in the group or area authorities believe to be in danger.

3.4.1.2.12. If your symptoms match those described and you are in the group considered at risk, immediately seek emergency medical attention.

3.4.1.2.13. Follow instructions of doctors and other public health officials.

3.4.1.2.14. If the disease is contagious expect to receive medical evaluation and treatment. You may be advised to stay away from others or even deliberately quarantined.

3.4.1.2.15. For non-contagious diseases, expect to receive medical evaluation and treatment.

3.4.1.2.16. In a declared biological emergency or developing epidemic, there may be reason to stay away from crowds where others may be infected.

3.4.1.3. Symptoms

3.4.1.3.1. A temperature of more than 100 degrees

3.4.1.3.2. Nausea and vomiting

3.4.1.3.3. Stomachache

3.4.1.3.4. Diarrhea

3.4.1.3.5. Pale or flushed face

3.4.1.3.6. Headache

3.4.1.3.7. Cough

3.4.1.3.8. Earache

3.4.1.3.9. Thick discharge from nose

3.4.1.3.10. Sore throat

3.4.1.3.11. Rash or infection of the skin

3.4.1.3.12. Red or pink eyes

3.4.1.3.13. Loss of appetite

3.4.1.3.14. Loss of energy or decreases in activity

3.4.1.4. Hygiene

3.4.1.4.1. Wash your hands with soap and water frequently.

3.4.1.4.2. Do not share food or utensils.

3.4.1.4.3. Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

3.4.1.4.4. Consider having the sick person wear a face mask to avoid spreading germs.

3.4.1.4.5. Plan to share health-related information with others, especially those who may need help understanding the situation and what specific actions to take.

3.4.1.5. After

3.4.1.5.1. Antibiotics

3.4.2. Chemical threats

3.4.2.1. Before

3.4.2.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.4.2.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.4.2.1.3. Choose an internal room to shelter, preferably one without windows and on the highest level.

3.4.2.2. During

3.4.2.2.1. Quickly try to define the impacted area or where the chemical is coming from, if possible.

3.4.2.2.2. Take immediate action to get away.

3.4.2.2.3. If the chemical is inside a building where you are, get out of the building without passing through the contaminated area, if possible.

3.4.2.2.4. If you can't get out of the building or find clean air without passing through the area where you see signs of a chemical attack, it may be better to move as far away as possible and shelter-in-place.

3.4.2.2.5. If you are instructed to remain in your home or office building, you should:

3.4.2.2.6. If you are caught in or near a contaminated area, you should:

3.4.2.3. After

3.4.2.3.1. Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents.

3.4.2.3.2. Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body.

3.4.2.3.3. Flush eyes with water.

3.4.2.3.4. Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing with water.

3.4.2.3.5. Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water.

3.4.2.3.6. Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or closets is likely to be uncontaminated.

3.4.2.3.7. Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment.

3.4.3. Cyber attack

3.4.3.1. Before

3.4.3.1.1. Only connect to the Internet over secure, password- protected networks.

3.4.3.1.2. Do not click on links or pop-ups, open attachments, or respond to emails from strangers.

3.4.3.1.3. Always enter a URL by hand instead of following links if you are unsure of the sender.

3.4.3.1.4. Do not respond to online requests for Personally Identifiable Information (PII);

3.4.3.1.5. Limit who you are sharing information with by reviewing the privacy settings on your social media accounts.

3.4.3.1.6. Trust your gut; if you think an offer is too good to be true, then it probably is.

3.4.3.1.7. Password protect all devices that connect to the Internet and user accounts.

3.4.3.1.8. Do not use the same password twice; choose a password that means something to you and you only; change your passwords on a regular basis.

3.4.3.1.9. If you see something suspicious, report it to the proper authorities.

3.4.3.1.10. Signing up for the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) mailing list to receive the latest cybersecurity information directly to your inbox.

3.4.3.1.11. Becoming a Friend of the Department of Homeland Security’s Stop.Think.Connect. Campaign and receive a monthly newsletter with cybersecurity current events and tips.

3.4.3.2. During

3.4.3.2.1. Immediate actions

3.4.3.2.2. At home

3.4.3.2.3. At work

3.4.3.2.4. At a public place (library etc)

3.4.3.2.5. If your PII has been compromised

3.4.3.3. After

3.4.3.3.1. File a report with the local police so there is an official record of the incident.

3.4.3.3.2. Report online crime or fraud to your local United States Secret Service (USSS) Electronic Crimes Task Force or the Internet Crime Complaint Center.

3.4.3.3.3. Report identity theft to the Federal Trade Commission.

3.4.3.3.4. If your PII was compromised, consider other information that may be at risk. Depending what information was stolen, you may need to contact other agencies

3.4.3.3.5. For further information on preventing and identifying threats, visit US-CERT’s Alerts and Tips page.

3.4.4. Explosions

3.4.4.1. Before

3.4.4.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.4.4.1.2. Prepare a kit for your workplace and a portable kit to keep in your car in case you are told to evacuate. This kit should include:

3.4.4.1.3. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.4.4.2. Bomb threats

3.4.4.2.1. If you receive a telephoned bomb threat, you should do the following:

3.4.4.3. Suspicious packages and letters

3.4.4.3.1. With suspicious envelopes and packages other than those that might contain explosives, take these additional steps against possible biological and chemical agents.

3.4.4.3.2. Some typical characteristics which ought to trigger suspicion include parcels that:

3.4.4.4. During

3.4.4.4.1. Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you.

3.4.4.4.2. When they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened floors and stairways.

3.4.4.4.3. As you exit from the building, be especially watchful of falling debris.

3.4.4.4.4. Leave the building as quickly as possible.

3.4.4.4.5. Do not use elevators.

3.4.4.4.6. Check for fire and other hazards.

3.4.4.4.7. Once you are out, do not stand in front of windows, glass doors or other potentially hazardous areas.

3.4.4.4.8. Move away from sidewalks or streets to be used by emergency officials or others still exiting the building.

3.4.4.4.9. If you are trapped in debris, use a flashlight, if possible, to signal your location to rescuers.

3.4.4.4.10. Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can hear where you are.

3.4.4.4.11. If possible, use a whistle to signal rescuers.

3.4.4.4.12. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause a person to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.

3.4.4.4.13. Avoid unnecessary movement so you don’t kick up dust.

3.4.4.4.14. Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have on hand.

3.4.4.5. After

3.4.4.5.1. There can be significant numbers of casualties and/or damage to buildings and the infrastructure. So employers need up-to-date information about any medical needs you may have and on how to contact your designated beneficiaries.

3.4.4.5.2. Heavy law enforcement involvement at local, state and federal levels follows a terrorist attack due to the event's criminal nature.

3.4.4.5.3. Health and mental health resources in the affected communities can be strained to their limits, maybe even overwhelmed.

3.4.4.5.4. Extensive media coverage, strong public fear and international implications and consequences can continue for a prolonged period.

3.4.4.5.5. Workplaces and schools may be closed, and there may be restrictions on domestic and international travel.

3.4.4.5.6. You and your family or household may have to evacuate an area, avoiding roads blocked for your safety.

3.4.4.5.7. Clean-up may take many months.

3.4.5. Nuclear Blast

3.4.5.1. General Information

3.4.5.1.1. Factors for protecting oneself from radiation and fallout:

3.4.5.1.2. Electro Magnetic Pulse

3.4.5.1.3. Radioactive fallout

3.4.5.2. Before

3.4.5.2.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.4.5.2.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.4.5.2.3. Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have been designated as fallout shelters.

3.4.5.2.4. If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to go out.

3.4.5.2.5. During periods of heightened threat increase your disaster supplies to be adequate for up to two weeks.

3.4.5.2.6. Take shelter

3.4.5.3. During

3.4.5.3.1. In the event of a nuclear explosion

3.4.5.3.2. If you are caught outside and unable to get inside immediately:

3.4.5.4. After

3.4.5.4.1. Returning to your home

3.4.5.4.2. Guidelines for recovering from a disaster

3.4.6. Radiological dispersion device (RDD)

3.4.6.1. Before

3.4.6.1.1. Build an Emergency Supply Kit

3.4.6.1.2. Make a Family Emergency Plan.

3.4.6.1.3. Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have been designated as fallout shelters.

3.4.6.1.4. If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to go out.

3.4.6.1.5. Take shelter.

3.4.6.2. During

3.4.6.2.1. If you are outdoors

3.4.6.2.2. If you are indoors

3.4.6.3. After

3.4.6.3.1. Continue listening to your radio or watch the television for instructions from local officials, whether you have evacuated or sheltered-in-place.

3.4.6.3.2. Do not return to or visit an RDD incident location for any reason.