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ARE YOU READY? by Mind Map: ARE YOU READY?
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ARE YOU READY?

NATIONAL PREPAREDNESS MONTH www.ready.gov

All information provided in this map was taken from www.ready.gov

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES

BUILD A DISASTER SUPPLIES KIT

A disaster supplies kit is simply a collection of basic items your household may need in the event of an emergency. Try to assemble your kit well in advance of an emergency. The supplies should last for at least 72 hours!

Communication, Battery powered radio, Extra batteries!, NOAA Weather Radio, Extra batteries!, Mobile Phone, Wireless emergency alerts will be send to your WEA enabled phone automatically if you're near a location of a life-threatening event, Charger, inverter or solar charger!

Food, Avoid, Foods that will make you thirsty, Perishable food, Store, Salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content, Protein or fruit bars, Dried fruits and nuts, Canned juices, Vitamins, Peanut Butter, High energy foods

Water, One gallon of water per person per day

MAKE A FAMILY EMERGENCY PLAN

Your family may not be together when a disaster strikes so it is important to plan in advance: how you will get to a safe place; how you will contact one another; how you will get back together; and what you will do in different situations. Read more about Family Communication during an emergency. Ready.gov has made it simple for you to make a family emergency plan. Download the Family Emergency Plan (FEP) (PDF - 450 Kb) and fill out the sections before printing it or emailing it to your family and friends. You should also inquire about emergency plans at places where your family spends time: work, daycare and school, faith organizations, sports events and commuting. If no plans exist, consider volunteering to help create one. Talk to community leaders, your colleagues, neighbors and members of faith or civic organizations about how you can work together in the event of an emergency. You will be better prepared to safely reunite your family and loved ones during an emergency if you think ahead and communicate with others in advance. Read more about school and workplace plans.

Plan to protect yourself and your family, Family communications, Identify a contact such as a friend or relative who lives out-of-state for household members to notify they are safe., Be sure every member of your family knows the phone number and has a cell phone, coins or a prepaid phone card to call the emergency contact. If you have a cell phone, program that person(s) as "ICE" (In Case of Emergency) in your phone., Teach family members how to use text messaging., Subscribe to alert services., Get tech ready, FEMA text messages, Use your cell phone’s text messaging capability to receive text message updates from FEMA (standard message and data rates apply)., To signup to receive monthly preparedness tips: text PREPARE to 43362 (4FEMA), To unsubscribe (at any time): text STOP to 43362 (4FEMA), Learn more, Utility shut-off and safety, Natural gas, Water, Electricity, Escape routes, Establish a place to meet in the event of an emergency. Record the locations., Financial preparedness, Identify your important documents and place them in a safe space, Download phone applications that can help during emergencies, Enroll in Go Direct to minimize disruptions to receiving any federal benefits you may receive., Plan ahead of time to recover, Learn more, Safety skills, Learn First Aid and CPR, Learn to use a fire extinguisher

Evacuating yourself and your family, Plan places where your family will meet, both within and outside of your immediate neighborhood., If you have a car, keep a full tank of gas in it if an evacuation seems likely. Keep a half tank of gas in it at all times in case of an unexpected need to evacuate., Become familiar with alternate routes and other means of transportation out of your area. Choose several destinations in different directions so you have options in an emergency., Leave early enough to avoid being trapped by severe weather., Follow recommended evacuation routes. Do not take shortcuts; they may be blocked., Be alert for road hazards such as washed-out roads or bridges and downed power lines. Do not drive into flooded areas., If you do not have a car, plan how you will leave if you have to. Make arrangements with family, friends or your local government., Take your emergency supply kit unless you have reason to believe it has been contaminated., Listen to a battery-powered radio and follow local evacuation instructions., Take your pets with you, but understand that only service animals may be permitted in public shelters. Plan how you will care for your pets in an emergency., If time allows, Call or email the out-of-state contact in your family communications plan. Tell them where you are going., Secure your home by closing and locking doors and windows., Unplug electrical equipment such as radios, televisions and small appliances. Leave freezers and refrigerators plugged in unless there is a risk of flooding. If there is damage to your home and you are instructed to do so, shut off water, gas and electricity before leaving., Leave a note telling others when you left and where you are going., Wear sturdy shoes and clothing that provides some protection such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts and a cap., Check with neighbors who may need a ride.

TYPES OF DISASTERS

Natural disasters

You should know what your risks are and prepare to protect yourself, your family and community.

Drought, Before a drought, Indoor, General, Never pour water down the drain when there may be another use for it. For example, use it to water your indoor plants or garden., Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. One drop per second wastes 2,700 gallons of water per year., Check all plumbing for leaks and have any leaks repaired by a plumber., Retrofit all household faucets by installing aerators with flow restrictors., Install an instant hot water heater on your sink., Insulate your water pipes to reduce heat loss and prevent them from breaking., Install a water-softening system only when the minerals in the water would damage your pipes. Turn the softener off while on vacation., Choose appliances that are more energy and water efficient., Bathroom, Consider purchasing a low-volume toilet that uses less than half the water of older models. Note: In many areas, low-volume units are required by law., Install a toilet displacement device to cut down on the amount of water needed to flush. Place a one-gallon plastic jug of water into the tank to displace toilet flow (do not use a brick, it may dissolve and loose pieces may cause damage to the internal parts). Be sure installation does not interfere with the operating parts., Replace your showerhead with an ultra-low-flow version., Kitchen, Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing of food waste or simply dispose of food in the garbage. (Kitchen sink disposals require a lot of water to operate properly)., Outdoor, General, Check your well pump periodically. If the automatic pump turns on and off while water is not being used, you have a leak., Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs, and trees. Once established, plants adapted to your local climate do not need water as frequently and usually will survive a dry period without watering. Small plants require less water to become established. Group plants together based on similar water needs., Install irrigation devices that are the most water efficient for each use, such as micro and drip irrigation, and soaker hoses., Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. Mulch also helps control weeds that compete with landscape plants for water., Avoid purchasing recreational water toys that require a constant stream of water., Avoid installing ornamental water features (such as fountains) unless they use re-circulated water., Consider rainwater harvesting where practical., Contact your local water provider for information and assistance., Lawn Care, Position sprinklers so water lands on the lawn and shrubs and not on paved areas., Repair sprinklers that spray a fine mist. Most misting issues result from a pressure problem, properly regulating pressure in an irrigation system will prevent misting., Check sprinkler systems and timing devices regularly to be sure they operate properly., Raise the lawn mower blade to at least three inches or to its highest level. A higher cut encourages grass roots to grow deeper, shades the root system, and holds soil moisture., Plant drought-resistant lawn seed. Reduce or eliminate lawn areas that are not used frequently., Avoid over-fertilizing your lawn. Applying fertilizer increases the need for water. Apply fertilizers that contain slow-release, water-insoluble forms of nitrogen., Choose a water-efficient irrigation system such as drip irrigation for your trees, shrubs, and flowers., Turn irrigation down in fall and off in winter. Water manually in winter only if needed., Put a layer of mulch around trees and plants to reduce evaporation and keep the soil cool. Organic mulch also improves the soil and prevents weeds., Invest in a weather-based irrigation controller—or a smart controller. These devices will automatically adjust the watering time and frequency based on soil moisture, rain, wind, and evaporation and transpiration rates. Check with your local water agency to see if there is a rebate available for the purchase of a smart controller., Pool, Install a new water-saving pool filter. A single back flushing with a traditional filter uses 180 to 250 gallons of water., Cover pools and spas to reduce evaporation of water., During a drought, Indoor, Bathroom, Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of tissues, insects, and other similar waste in the trash rather than the toilet., Avoid taking baths—take short showers—turn on water only to get wet and lather and then again to rinse off., Avoid letting the water run while brushing your teeth, washing your face or shaving., Place a bucket in the shower to catch excess water for watering plants., Kitchen, Operate automatic dishwashers only when they are fully loaded. Use the "light wash" feature, if available, to use less water., Hand wash dishes by filling two containers—one with soapy water and the other with rinse water containing a small amount of chlorine bleach., Clean vegetables in a pan filled with water rather than running water from the tap., Store drinking water in the refrigerator. Do not let the tap run while you are waiting for water to cool., Avoid wasting water waiting for it to get hot. Capture it for other uses such as plant watering or heat it on the stove or in a microwave., Avoid rinsing dishes before placing them in the dishwasher; just remove large particles of food. (Most dishwashers can clean soiled dishes very well, so dishes do not have to be rinsed before washing), Avoid using running water to thaw meat or other frozen foods. Defrost food overnight in the refrigerator or use the defrost setting on your microwave oven., Laundry, Operate automatic clothes washers only when they are fully loaded or set the water level for the size of your load., Outdoor, Car washing, Use a commercial car wash that recycles water., If you wash your own car, use a shut-off nozzle that can be adjusted down to a fine spray on your hose., Lawn care, Avoid over watering your lawn and water only when needed, A heavy rain eliminates the need for watering for up to two weeks. Most of the year, lawns only need one inch of water per week., Check the soil moisture levels with a soil probe, spade or large screwdriver. You don't need to water if the soil is still moist. If your grass springs back when you step on it, it doesn't need water yet., If your lawn does require watering, do so early in the morning or later in the evening, when temperatures are cooler., Check your sprinkler system frequently and adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street., Water in several short sessions rather than one long one, in order for your lawn to better absorb moisture and avoid runoff., Use a broom or blower instead of a hose to clean leaves and other debris from your driveway or sidewalk., Avoid leaving sprinklers or hoses unattended. A garden hose can pour out 600 gallons or more in only a few hours., In extreme drought, allow lawns to die in favor of preserving trees and large shrubs.

Earthquake, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Fasten shelves securely to walls., Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves., Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches., Fasten heavy items such as pictures and mirrors securely to walls and away from beds, couches and anywhere people sit., Brace overhead light fixtures and top heavy objects., Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks. Get appropriate professional help. Do not work with gas or electrical lines yourself., Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage., Secure your water heater, refrigerator, furnace and gas appliances by strapping them to the wall studs and bolting to the floor. If recommended by your gas company, have an automatic gas shut-off valve installed that is triggered by strong vibrations., Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects., Be sure the residence is firmly anchored to its foundation., Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves., Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against an inside wall. Reinforce this information by moving to these places during each drill., Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover and hold on., During, Indoors, DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building., Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture., Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place., Do not use a doorway except if you know it is a strongly supported, load-bearing doorway and it is close to you. Many inside doorways are lightly constructed and do not offer protection., Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Do not exit a building during the shaking. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave., DO NOT use the elevators., Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on., Outdoors, Stay there., Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires., Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the 1933 Long Beach earthquake occurred when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects., In a moving vehicle, Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires., Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake., Trapped under debris, Do not light a match., Do not move about or kick up dust., Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing., Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust., After, When the shaking stops, look around to make sure it is safe to move. Then exit the building., Expect aftershocks., Help injured or trapped persons., Look for and extinguish small fires., Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information., Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas., Stay away from the beach, Use the telephone only for emergency calls., Go to a designated public shelter if your home had been damaged and is no longer safe., Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorities say it is safe., Be careful when driving after an earthquake and anticipate traffic light outages., After it is determined that its’ safe to return, your safety should be your primary priority as you begin clean up and recovery., Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves., Find out how to keep food safe during and after and emergency by visiting the link in the description, Put on long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, sturdy shoes and work gloves to protect against injury from broken objects., Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals., Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire., Inspect utilities., Check for gas leaks., If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional., Look for electrical system damage., If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice., Check for sewage and water lines damage., If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.

Extreme Heat, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Install window air conditioners snugly; insulate if necessary., Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation., Install temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and drapes), such as aluminum foil-covered cardboard, to reflect heat back outside., Weather-strip doors and sills to keep cool air in., Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes, shades, awnings, or louvers. (Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat that enters a home by up to 80 percent.), Keep storm windows up all year., Listen to local weather forecasts and stay aware of upcoming temperature changes., Know those in your neighborhood who are elderly, young, sick or overweight. They are more likely to become victims of excessive heat and may need help., Be aware that people living in urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave than are people living in rural areas., Get trained in first aid to learn how to treat heat-related emergencies., During, Listen to NOAA Weather Radio for critical updates from the National Weather Service (NWS)., Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles., Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun., Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available., Postpone outdoor games and activities., Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls, and other community facilities. Circulating air can cool the body by increasing the perspiration rate of evaporation., Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician., Drink plenty of water; even if you do not feel thirsty. Avoid drinks with caffeine. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver disease; are on fluid-restricted diets; or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake., Limit intake of alcoholic beverages., Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light-colored clothes that cover as much skin as possible. Avoid dark colors because they absorb the sun’s rays., Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat., Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy system when working in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks., Check on family, friends, and neighbors who do not have air conditioning and who spend much of their time alone., Avoid extreme temperature changes., Check on your animals frequently to ensure that they are not suffering from the heat. Go to a designated public shelter if your home loses power during periods of extreme heat.

Flood, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home., Elevate the furnace, water heater and electric panel in your home if you live in an area that has a high flood risk., Consider installing "check valves" to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home., If feasible, construct barriers to stop floodwater from entering the building and seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds., During, If a flood is likely in your area, you should:, Listen to the radio or television for information., Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move., Be aware of stream, drainage channels, canyons and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without typical warnings such as rain clouds or heavy rain., If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:, Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an upper floor., Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water., If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:, Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness of the ground in front of you., Do not drive into flooded areas. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to higher ground if you can do so safely. You and the vehicle can be swept away quickly., Do not camp or park your vehicle along streams, rivers or creeks, particularly during threatening conditions., After, Use local alerts and warning systems to get information and expert informed advice as soon as available., Avoid moving water., Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organization., Emergency workers will be assisting people in flooded areas. You can help them by staying off the roads and out of the way., Play it safe. Additional flooding or flash floods can occur. Listen for local warnings and information. If your car stalls in rapidly rising waters, get out immediately and climb to higher ground., Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe., Roads may still be closed because they have been damaged or are covered by water. Barricades have been placed for your protection. If you come upon a barricade or a flooded road, go another way., If you must walk or drive in areas that have been flooded., Stay on firm ground. Moving water only 6 inches deep can sweep you off your feet. Standing water may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines., Flooding may have caused familiar places to change. Floodwaters often erode roads and walkways. Flood debris may hide animals and broken bottles, and it's also slippery. Avoid walking or driving through it., Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car., Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters., Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations., Staying healthy, Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline or raw sewage., Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewer systems are serious health hazards., Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink, Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwaters can contain sewage and chemicals., Rest often and eat well., Keep a manageable schedule. Make a list and do jobs one at a time., Discuss your concerns with others and seek help. Contact Red Cross for information on emotional support available in your area., Cleaning up and repairing your home, Turn off the electricity at the main breaker or fuse box, even if the power is off in your community. That way, you can decide when your home is dry enough to turn it back on., Get a copy of the book Repairing Your Flooded Home (737KB PDF) which is available free from the American Red Cross or your state or local emergency manager., The Red Cross can provide you with a cleanup kit: mop, broom, bucket, and cleaning supplies., Contact your insurance agent to discuss claims., Listen to your radio for information on assistance that may be provided by the state or federal government or other organizations., If you hire cleanup or repair contractors, check references and be sure they are qualified to do the job. Be wary of people who drive through neighborhoods offering help in cleaning up or repairing your home., Causes of flooding, Tropical storms and hurricanes, Spring thaw, Heavy rains, US West coast threats, Levees and dams, Flash floods, New development, Flood hazard terms, Flood watch, Flooding is possible. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information., Flash flood watch, Flash flooding is possible. Be prepared to move to higher ground; listen to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio or television for information., Flood warning, Flooding is occurring or will occur soon; if advised to evacuate, do so immediately., Flash flood warning, A flash flood is occurring; seek higher ground on foot immediately., Driving: Flood facts, Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling., A foot of water will float many vehicles, Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (SUV’s) and pick-ups., Do not attempt to drive through a flooded road. The depth of water is not always obvious. The road bed may be washed out under the water, and you could be stranded or trapped., Do not drive around a barricade. Barricades are there for your protection. Turn around and go the other way., Do not try to take short cuts. They may be blocked. Stick to designated evacuation routes., Be especially cautious driving at night when it is harder to recognize flood dangers.

Hurricanes, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Learn the elevation level of your property and whether the land is flood-prone., Identify levees and dams in your area and determine whether they pose a hazard to you., Learn community hurricane evacuation routes and how to find higher ground. Determine where you would go and how you would get there if you needed to evacuate., Make plans to secure your property:, Cover all of your home’s windows. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8” marine plywood, cut to fit and ready to install. Tape does not prevent windows from breaking., Install straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame structure. This will reduce roof damage., Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed so they are more wind resistant., Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts., Reinforce your garage doors; if wind enters a garage it can cause dangerous and expensive structural damage., Plan to bring in all outdoor furniture, decorations, garbage cans and anything else that is not tied down., Determine how and where to secure your boat., Install a generator for emergencies., If in a high-rise building, be prepared to take shelter on or below the 10th floor., Consider building a safe room., During, If a hurricane is likely in your area, you should:, Listen to the radio or TV for information., Secure your home, close storm shutters and secure outdoor objects or bring them indoors., Turn off utilities if instructed to do so. Otherwise, turn the refrigerator thermostat to its coldest setting and keep its doors closed., Turn off propane tanks, Avoid using the phone, except for serious emergencies., Moor your boat if time permits., Ensure a supply of water for sanitary purpose such as cleaning and flushing toilets. Fill the bathtub and other larger containers with water., Find out how to keep food safe during and after and emergency., You should evacuate under the following conditions:, If you are directed by local authorities to do so. Be sure to follow their instructions., If you live in a mobile home or temporary structure – such shelter are particularly hazardous during hurricane no matter how well fastened to the ground., If you live in a high-rise building – hurricane winds are stronger at higher elevations., If you live on the coast, on a floodplain, near a river, or on an island waterway., Read more about evacuating yourself and your family. If you are unable to evacuate, go to your wind-safe room. If you do not have one, follow these guidelines:, Stay indoors during the hurricane and away from windows and glass doors., Close all interior doors – secure and brace external doors., Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do not be fooled if there is a lull; it could be the eye of the storm – winds will pick up again., Take refuge in a small interior room, closet or hallway on the lowest level., Lie on the floor under a table or another sturdy object., Avoid elevators., After, Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates., Stay alert for extended rainfall and subsequent flooding even after the hurricane or tropical storm has ended., If you have become separated from your family, use your family communications plan or contact the American Red Cross at 1-800-RED-CROSS/1-800-733-2767 or visit the American Red Cross Safe and Well site: www.safeandwell.org, The American Red Cross also maintains a database to help you find family. Contact the local American Red Cross chapter where you are staying for information. Do not contact the chapter in the disaster area., If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe., If you cannot return home and have immediate housing needs. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., For those who have longer-term housing needs, FEMA offers several types of assistance, including services and grants to help people repair their homes and find replacement housing. Apply for assistance or search for information about housing rental resources, Drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed¬ out bridges. Stay off the streets. If you must go out watch for fallen objects; downed electrical wires; and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks., Keep away from loose or dangling power lines and report them immediately to the power company., Walk carefully around the outside your home and check for loose power lines, gas leaks and structural damage before entering., Stay out of any building if you smell gas, floodwaters remain around the building or your home was damaged by fire and the authorities have not declared it safe., Inspect your home for damage., Use battery-powered flashlights in the dark. Do NOT use candles., Watch your pets closely and keep them under your direct control. Watch out for wild animals, especially poisonous snakes. Use a stick to poke through debris., Avoid drinking or preparing food with tap water until you are sure it’s not contaminated., Check refrigerated food for spoilage. If in doubt, throw it out., Wear protective clothing and be cautious when cleaning up to avoid injury., Use the telephone only for emergency calls., NEVER use a generator inside homes, garages, crawlspaces, sheds, or similar areas, even when using fans or opening doors and windows for ventilation. Deadly levels of carbon monoxide can quickly build up in these areas and can linger for hours, even after the generator has shut off., The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, Category 1, 74-95 MPH, Very dangerous winds will produce some damage, Minor damage to exterior of homes, Toppled tree branches, uprooting of smaller trees, Extensive damage to power lines, power outages, Category 2, 96-110 MPH, Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage, Major damage to exterior of homes, Uprooting of small trees and many roads blocked, Guaranteed power outages for long periods of time – days to weeks, Category 3, 111-129 MPH, Devastating damage will occur, Extensive damage to exterior of homes, Many trees uprooted and many roads blocked, Extremely limited availability of water and electricity, Category 4, 130-156 MPH, Catastrophic damage will occur, Loss of roof structure and/or some exterior walls, Most trees uprooted and most power lines down, Isolated residential due to debris pile up, Power outages lasting for weeks to months, Category 5, 157 MPH or higher, Catastrophic damage will occur, A high percentage of homes will be destroyed, Fallen trees and power lines isolate residential areas, Power outages lasting for weeks to months, Most areas will be uninhabitable, Storm Surge, Know the terms, Tropical Cyclone, Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm, Hurricane, Storm Surge, Storm Tide, Hurricane Warning, Hurricane Watch, Tropical Storm Warning, Tropical Storm Watch, Short Term Watches and Warnings

Landslides and debris flow, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Prepare for landslides by following proper land-use procedures - avoid building near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways or along natural erosion valleys., Become familiar with the land around you. Learn whether debris flows have occurred in your area by contacting local officials. Slopes where debris flows have occurred in the past are likely to experience them in the future., Get a ground assessment of your property., Consult a professional for advice on appropriate preventative measures for your home or business, such as flexible pipe fittings, which can better resist breakage., Protect your property by planting ground cover on slopes and building retaining walls., In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. Be aware, however, if you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's property, you may be liable for damages., If you are at risk from a landslide talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)., Recognize Landslide Warning Signs, Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning trees., Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time., New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations., Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building., Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways., Underground utility lines break., Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope., Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations., Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move., A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears., The ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet., Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris., Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides)., During, During a severe storm, stay alert and awake. Many deaths from landslides occur while people are sleeping., Listen to local news stations on a battery-powered radio for warnings of heavy rainfall., Listen for unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together., Move away from the path of a landslide or debris flow as quickly as possible. The danger from a mudflow increases near stream channels and with prolonged heavy rains. Mudflows can move faster than you can walk or run. Look upstream before crossing a bridge and do not cross the bridge if a mudflow is approaching., Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas., If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in water flow and notice whether the water changes from clear to muddy. Such changes may mean there is debris flow activity upstream so be prepared to move quickly., Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible., After, Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides., Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information., Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event., Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area. Direct rescuers to their locations., Look for and report broken utility lines and damaged roadways and railways to appropriate authorities. Reporting potential hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further hazard and injury., Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help you assess the safety of the area., Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future., Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.

Space weather, Possible effects, Loss of water and wastewater distribution systems, Loss of perishable foods and medications, Loss of heating/air conditioning and electrical lighting systems, Loss of computer systems, telephone systems, and communications systems (including disruptions in airline flights, satellite networks and GPS services), Loss of public transportation systems, Loss of fuel distribution systems and fuel pipelines, Loss of all electrical systems that do not have back-up power, Space weather scale, Space weather alerts, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Fill plastic containers with water and place them in the refrigerator and freezer if there's room., Be aware that most medication that requires refrigeration can be kept in a closed refrigerator for several hours without a problem. If unsure, check with your physician or pharmacist., Keep your car tank at least half full because gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps., Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it. Garage doors can be heavy, so know that you may need help to lift it., Keep a key to your house with you if you regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home, in case the garage door will not open., Keep extra batteries for your phone in a safe place or purchase a solar-powered or hand crank charger., If you have a traditional landline (non-broadband or VOIP) phone, keep at least one non-cordless receiver in your home because it will work even if you lose power., Prepare a family contact sheet., Make back-up copies of important digital data and information, automatically if possible, or at least weekly., During, Follow energy conservation measures to keep the use of electricity as low as possible, which can help power companies avoid imposing rolling blackouts during periods when the power grid is compromised., Follow the Emergency Alert System (EAS) instructions carefully., Disconnect electrical appliances if instructed to do so by local officials., Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary, during emergency situations keeping lines open for emergency personel can improve responce., After, Throw out unsafe food, Throw away any food that has been exposed to a temperature of 40° F (4° C) or higher for 2 hours or more or that has an unusual odor, color, or texture. When in doubt, throw it out!, Never taste food or rely on appearance or odor to determine its safety. Some foods may look and smell fine, but if they have been at room temperature too long, bacteria causing food-borne illnesses can start growing quickly. Some types of bacteria produce toxins that cannot be destroyed by cooking., If food in the freezer is colder than 40° F and has ice crystals on it, you can refreeze it., If you are not sure food is cold enough, take its temperature with a food thermometer.

Thunderstorms and lightning, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Remove dead or rotting trees and branches that could fall and cause injury or damage during a severe thunderstorm., Postpone outdoor activities., Remember the 30/30 Lightning Safety Rule: Go indoors if, after seeing lightning, you cannot count to 30 before hearing thunder. Stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder., Secure outdoor objects that could blow away or cause damage., Get inside a home, building, or hard top automobile (not a convertible). Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside a vehicle than outside., Remember, rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide NO protection from lightning. However, the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides increased protection if you are not touching metal., Shutter windows and secure outside doors. If shutters are not available, close window blinds, shades or curtains., Unplug any electronic equipment well before the storm arrives., During, Use your battery-operated NOAA Weather Radio for updates from local officials., Avoid contact with corded phones and devices including those plugged into electric for recharging. Cordless and wireless phones not connected to wall outlets are OK to use., Avoid contact with electrical equipment or cords. Unplug appliances and other electrical items such as computers and turn off air conditioners. Power surges from lightning can cause serious damage., Avoid contact with plumbing. Do not wash your hands, do not take a shower, do not wash dishes, and do not do laundry. Plumbing and bathroom fixtures can conduct electricity., Stay away from windows and doors, and stay off porches., Do not lie on concrete floors and do not lean against concrete walls., Avoid natural lightning rods such as a tall, isolated tree in an open area., Avoid hilltops, open fields, the beach or a boat on the water., Take shelter in a sturdy building. Avoid isolated sheds or other small structures in open areas., Avoid contact with anything metal—tractors, farm equipment, motorcycles, golf carts, golf clubs, and bicycles., If you are driving, try to safely exit the roadway and park. Stay in the vehicle and turn on the emergency flashers until the heavy rain ends. Avoid touching metal or other surfaces that conduct electricity in and outside the vehicle., After, If lightning strikes you or someone you know, call 9-1-1 for medical assistance as soon as possible. The following are things you should check when you attempt to give aid to a victim of lightning:, Breathing - if breathing has stopped, begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation., Heartbeat - if the heart has stopped, administer CPR., Pulse - if the victim has a pulse and is breathing, look for other possible injuries. Check for burns where the lightning entered and left the body. Also be alert for nervous system damage, broken bones and loss of hearing and eyesight., After the storm passes remember to:, Never drive through a flooded roadway. Turn around, don’t drown!, Stay away from storm-damaged areas to keep from putting yourself at risk from the effects of severe thunderstorms., Continue to listen to a NOAA Weather Radio or to local radio and television stations for updated information or instructions, as access to roads or some parts of the community may be blocked., Help people who may require special assistance, such as infants, children and the elderly or those with access or functional needs., Stay away from downed power lines and report them immediately., Watch your animals closely. Keep them under your direct control., Lightning safety when outdoors, In a forest, Seek shelter in a low area under a thick growth of small trees., In an open area, Go to a low place such as a ravine or valley. Be alert for flash floods., On open water, Get to land and find shelter immediately., Anywhere you feel your hair stand on end (which indicates that lightning is about to strike), Squat low to the ground on the balls of your feet. Place your hands over your ears and your head between your knees. Make yourself the smallest target possible and minimize your contact to the ground. DO NOT lie flat on the ground.

Tornadoes, Tornado facts, They may strike quickly, with little or no warning., They may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms in the funnel., The average tornado moves Southwest to Northeast, but tornadoes have been known to move in any direction., The average forward speed of a tornado is 30 mph, but may vary from stationary to 70 mph., Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms and hurricanes as they move onto land., Waterspouts are tornadoes that form over water., Tornadoes are most frequently reported east of the Rocky Mountains during spring and summer months., Peak tornado season in the southern states is March through May; in the northern states, it is late spring through early summer., Tornadoes are most likely to occur between 3 pm and 9 pm, but can occur at any time., Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information., Be alert to changing weather conditions. Look for approaching storms., Look for the following danger signs:, Dark, often greenish sky, Large hail, A large, dark, low-lying cloud (particularly if rotating), Loud roar, similar to a freight train., If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs, be prepared to take shelter immediately., During, If in a structure or building, Go to a pre-designated shelter area such as a safe room, basement, storm cellar, or the lowest building level. If there is no basement, go to the center of an interior room on the lowest level (closet, interior hallway) away from corners, windows, doors, and outside walls. Put as many walls as possible between you and the outside. Get under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck., In a high-rise building, go to a small interior room or hallway on the lowest floor possible., Put on sturdy shoes., Do not open windows., In a trailer or mobile home, Get out immediately and go to the lowest floor of a sturdy, nearby building or a storm shelter. Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes., Outside with no shelter, Immediately get into a vehicle, buckle your seat belt and try to drive to the closest sturdy shelter., If your vehicle is hit by flying debris while you are driving, pull over and park., Stay in the car with the seat belt on. Put your head down below the windows; cover your head with your hands and a blanket, coat or other cushion if possible., If you can safely get noticeably lower than the level of the roadway, leave your car and lie in that area, covering your head with your hands, Do not get under an overpass or bridge. You are safer in a low, flat location., Never try to outrun a tornado in urban or congested areas in a car or truck. Instead, leave the vehicle immediately for safe shelter., Watch out for flying debris. Flying debris from tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries., After, Injuries, General safety precautions, Continue to monitor your battery-powered radio or television for emergency information., Be careful when entering any structure that has been damaged., Wear sturdy shoes or boots, long sleeves and gloves when handling or walking on or near debris., Be aware of hazards from exposed nails and broken glass., Do not touch downed power lines or objects in contact with downed lines. Report electrical hazards to the police and the utility company., Use battery-powered lanterns, if possible, rather than candles to light homes without electrical power. If you use candles, make sure they are in safe holders away from curtains, paper, wood or other flammable items. Never leave a candle burning when you are out of the room., Never use generators, pressure washers, grills, camp stoves or other gasoline, propane, natural gas or charcoal-burning devices inside your home, basement, garage or camper - or even outside near an open window, door or vent., Hang up displaced telephone receivers that may have been knocked off by the tornado, but stay off the telephone, except to report an emergency., Cooperate fully with public safety officials., Respond to requests for volunteer assistance by police, fire fighters, emergency management and relief organizations, but do not go into damaged areas unless assistance has been requested. Your presence could hamper relief efforts and you could endanger yourself., Inspecting the damage, After a tornado, be aware of possible structural, electrical or gas-leak hazards in your home. Contact your local city or county building inspectors for information on structural safety codes and standards. They may also offer suggestions on finding a qualified contractor to do work for you., In general, if you suspect any damage to your home, shut off electrical power, natural gas and propane tanks to avoid fire, electrocution or explosions., If it is dark when you are inspecting your home, use a flashlight rather than a candle or torch to avoid the risk of fire or explosion in a damaged home., If you see frayed wiring or sparks, or if there is an odor of something burning, you should immediately shut off the electrical system at the main circuit breaker if you have not done so already., If you smell gas or suspect a leak, turn off the main gas valve, open all windows and leave the house immediately. Notify the gas company, the police or fire departments, or State Fire Marshal's office and do not turn on the lights, light matches, smoke or do anything that could cause a spark. Do not return to your house until you are told it is safe to do so., Safety during clean-up, Wear sturdy shoes or boots, long sleeves and gloves., Learn proper safety procedures and operating instructions before operating any gas-powered or electric-powered saws or tools., Clean up spilled medicines, drugs, flammable liquids and other potentially hazardous materials.

Tsunamis, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Talk to everyone in your household about what to do if a tsunami occurs. Create and practice an evacuation plan for your family., If the school evacuation plan requires you to pick your children up from school or from another location., Knowing your community's warning systems and disaster plans, including evacuation routes., Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast or other high-risk waters. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers., If you are a tourist, familiarize yourself with local tsunami evacuation protocols. You may be able to safely evacuate to the third floor and higher in reinforced concrete hotel structures., If an earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area, turn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning., Know the terms, Warning, Advisory, Watch, Information statement, During, Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and evacuate immediately. Take your animals with you., Move inland to higher ground immediately., Stay away from the beach., Save yourself - not your possessions., Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people, and individuals with access or functional needs., After, Return home only after local officials tell you it is safe. A tsunami is a series of waves that may continue for hours. Do not assume that after one wave the danger is over. The next wave may be larger than the first one., Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Avoid disaster areas., Stay away from debris in the water; it may pose a safety hazard to people or pets., Check yourself for injuries and get first aid as needed before helping injured or trapped persons., If someone needs to be rescued, call professionals with the right equipment to help. Many people have been killed or injured trying to rescue others., Help people who require special assistance—infants, elderly people, those without transportation, people with access and functional needs and large families who may need additional help in an emergency situation., Continue using a NOAA Weather Radio or tuning to a Coast Guard station or a local radio or television station for the latest updates., Stay out of any building that has water around it. Tsunami water can cause floors to crack or walls to collapse., Use caution when re-entering buildings or homes., To avoid injury, wear protective clothing and be cautious when cleaning up.

Vulcanoes, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Include items like non-perishable food, water, a battery-powered or hand-crank radio, extra flashlights and batteries., Make a Family Emergency Plan., During, Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities and evacuate immediately from the volcano area to avoid flying debris, hot gases, lateral blast and lava flow., Be aware of mudflows., Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas., Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people and people with access and functional needs., Protection from falling ash, If you are unable to evacuate, and in order to protect yourself from falling ash, you should remain indoors with doors, windows and ventilation closed until the ash settles., If you have a respiratory ailment, avoid contact with any amount of ash. Stay indoors until local health officials advise it is safe to go outside., Listen to a battery-powered radio or television for the latest emergency information., Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants., Use goggles and wear eyeglasses instead of contact lenses., Use a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help with breathing., Stay away from areas downwind from the volcano to avoid volcanic ash., Stay indoors until the ash has settled unless there is a danger of the roof collapsing., Close doors, windows, and all ventilation in the house (chimney vents, furnaces, air conditioners, fans and other vents., Clear heavy ash from flat or low-pitched roofs and rain gutters., Avoid running car or truck engines. Driving can stir up volcanic ash that can clog engines, damage moving parts, and stall vehicles., Avoid driving in heavy ash fall unless absolutely required. If you have to drive, keep speed down to 35 MPH or slower., After, Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do. However, you should listen to NOAA Weather Radio, watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.

Wildfires, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Design and landscape your home with wildfire safety in mind. Select materials and plants that can help contain fire rather than fuel it., Use fire-resistant or noncombustible materials on the roof and exterior structure of the dwelling, or treat wood or combustible material used in roofs, siding, decking or trim with fire-retardant chemicals evaluated by a nationally recognized laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)., Plant fire-resistant shrubs and trees. For example, hardwood trees are less flammable than pine, evergreen, eucalyptus or fir trees., Regularly clean roof and gutters., Inspect chimneys at least twice a year. Clean them at least once a year. Keep the dampers in good working order. Equip chimneys and stovepipes with a spark arrester that meets the requirements of National Fire Protection Association Standard 211., Use 1/8-inch mesh screen beneath porches, decks, floor areas, and the home itself. Also, screen openings to floors, roof and attic., Install a dual-sensor smoke alarm on each level of your home, especially near bedrooms; test monthly and change the batteries at least once each year., Teach each family member how to use a fire extinguisher (ABC type) and show them where it's kept., Keep handy household items that can be used as fire tools: a rake, axe, handsaw or chain saw, bucket and shovel., Keep a ladder that will reach the roof., Consider installing protective shutters or heavy fire-resistant drapes., Clear items that will burn from around the house, including wood piles, lawn furniture, barbecue grills, tarp coverings, etc. Move them outside of your defensible space., Plan your water needs, Identify and maintain an adequate outside water source such as a small pond, cistern, well, swimming pool, or hydrant., Have a garden hose that is long enough to reach any area of the home and other structures on the property., Install freeze-proof exterior water outlets on at least two sides of the home and near other structures on the property. Install additional outlets at least 50 feet from the home., Consider obtaining a portable gasoline powered pump in case electrical power is cut off., Prepare your home for a wildfire, Rake leaves, dead limbs and twigs. Clear all flammable vegetation., Remove leaves and rubbish from under structures., Thin a 15-foot space between tree crowns, and remove limbs within 15 feet of the ground., Remove dead branches that extend over the roof., Prune tree branches and shrubs within 15 feet of a stovepipe or chimney outlet., Ask the power company to clear branches from powerlines., Remove vines from the walls of the home., Mow grass regularly., Clear a 10-foot area around propane tanks and the barbecue. Place a screen over the grill - use nonflammable material with mesh no coarser than one-quarter inch., Regularly dispose of newspapers and rubbish at an approved site. Follow local burning regulations., Place stove, fireplace and grill ashes in a metal bucket, soak in water for 2 days; then bury the cold ashes in mineral soil., Store gasoline, oily rags and other flammable materials in approved safety cans. Place cans in a safe location away from the base of buildings., Stack firewood at least 100 feet away and uphill from your home. Clear combustible material within 20 feet. Use only wood-burning devices evaluated by a nationally recognized laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL)., Review your homeowner's insurance policy and also prepare/update a list of your home's contents., Practice wildfire safety, Contact your local fire department, health department, or forestry office for information on fire laws., Make sure that fire vehicles can get to your home. Clearly mark all driveway entrances and display your name and address., Report hazardous conditions that could cause a wildfire., Teach children about fire safety. Keep matches out of their reach., Post fire emergency telephone numbers., Ensure adequate accessibility by large fire vehicles to your property., Plan several escape routes away from your home - by car and by foot., Talk to your neighbors about wildfire safety. Plan how the neighborhood could work together after a wildfire., Follow local burning laws, Before burning debris in a wooded area, make sure you notify local authorities and obtain a burning permit., Use an approved incinerator with a safety lid or covering with holes no larger than ¾ inch., Create at least a 10-foot clearing around the incinerator before burning debris., Have a fire extinguisher or garden hose on hand when burning debris., During, If you are not ordered to evacute, and have time to prepare your home, FEMA recommends you take the following actions:, Arrange temporary housing at a friend or relative’s home outside the threatened area in case you need to evacuate., Wear protective clothing when outside – sturdy shoes, cotton or woolen clothes, long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, gloves and a handkerchief to protect your face., Gather fire tools such as a rake, axe, handsaw or chainsaw, bucket and shovel., Close outside attic, eaves and basement vents, windows, doors, pet doors, etc. Remove flammable drapes and curtains. Close all shutters, blinds or heavy non-combustible window coverings to reduce radiant heat., Close all doors inside the house to prevent draft. Open the damper on your fireplace, but close the fireplace screen., Shut off any natural gas, propane or fuel oil supplies at the source., Connect garden hoses to outdoor water faucet and fill any pools, hot tubs, garbage cans, tubs or other large containers with water., Place lawn sprinklers on the roof and near above-ground fuel tanks. Leave sprinklers on and dowsing these strutures as long as possible., If you have gas-powered pumps for water, make sure they are fueled and ready., Place a ladder against the house in clear view., Disconnect any automatic garage door openers so that doors can still be opened by hand if the power goes out. Close all garage doors., Place valuable papers, mementos and anything "you can't live without" inside the car in the garage, ready for quick departure. Any pets still with you should also be put in the car., Place valuables that will not be damaged by water in a pool or pond., Move flammable furniture into the center of the residence away from the windows and sliding-glass doors., Turn on outside lights and leave a light on in every room to make the house more visible in heavy smoke., Surviving a wildfire, In a vehicle, This is dangerous and should only be done in an emergency, but you can survive the firestorm if you stay in your car. It is much less dangerous than trying to run from a fire on foot., Roll up windows and close air vents. Drive slowly with headlights on. Watch for other vehicles and pedestrians. Do not drive through heavy smoke., If you have to stop, park away from the heaviest trees and brush. Turn headlights on and ignition off. Roll up windows and close air vents., Get on the floor and cover up with a blanket or coat., Stay in the vehicle until the main fire passes., Stay in the car. Do not run! Engine may stall and not restart. Air currents may rock the car. Some smoke and sparks may enter the vehicle. Temperature inside will increase. Metal gas tanks and containers rarely explode., Trapped at home, If you do find yourself trapped by wildfire inside your home, stay inside and away from outside walls. Close doors, but leave them unlocked. Keep your entire family together and remain calm., Caught in the open, The best temporary shelter is in a sparse fuel area. On a steep mountainside, the back side is safer. Avoid canyons, natural "chimneys" and saddles., If a road is nearby, lie face down along the road cut or in the ditch on the uphill side. Cover yourself with anything that will shield you from the fire's heat., If hiking in the back country, seek a depression with sparse fuel. Clear fuel away from the area while the fire is approaching and then lie face down in the depression and cover yourself. Stay down until after the fire passes!, After, Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., If you are with burn victims, or are a burn victim yourself, call 9-1-1 or seek help immediately; cool and cover burns to reduce chance of further injury or infection., If you remained at home, check the roof immediately after the fire danger has passed. Put out any roof fires, sparks or embers. Check the attic for hidden burning sparks., For several hours after the fire, maintain a "fire watch." Re-check for smoke and sparks throughout the house., If you have evacuated, do not enter your home until fire officials say it is safe., If a building inspector has placed a color-coded sign on the home, do not enter it until you get more information, advice and instructions about what the sign means and whether it is safe to enter your home., If you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe, ask someone you trust to watch the property during your absence., Use caution when entering burned areas as hazards may still exist, including hot spots, which can flare up without warning., If you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building, evacuate immediately., If you have a safe or strong box, do not try to open it. It can hold intense heat for several hours. If the door is opened before the box has cooled, the contents could burst into flames., Avoid damaged or fallen power lines, poles and downed wires., Watch for ash pits and mark them for safety—warn family and neighbors to keep clear of the pits also., Watch animals closely and keep them under your direct control. Hidden embers and hot spots could burn your pets’ paws or hooves., Follow public health guidance on safe cleanup of fire ash and safe use of masks., Wet debris down to minimize breathing dust particles., Wear leather gloves and heavy soled shoes to protect hands and feet., Cleaning products, paint, batteries and damaged fuel containers need to be disposed of properly to avoid risk., Discard any food that has been exposed to heat, smoke or soot., Do NOT use water that you think may be contaminated to wash dishes, brush teeth, prepare food, wash hands, make ice or make baby formula., Remain calm. Pace yourself. You may find yourself in the position of taking charge of other people. Listen carefully to what people are telling you, and deal patiently with urgent situations first., Hazards after wildfires: Flood and landslides

Winter storms and extreme cold, Before, Before winter approaches, add the following supplies to your emergency kit:, Rock salt or more environmentally safe products to melt ice on walkways., Sand to improve traction., Snow shovels and other snow removal equipment., Sufficient heating fuel., Adequate clothing and blankets to keep you warm., Make a Family Communications Plan., Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio or other local news channels for critical information from the National Weather Service (NWS). Be alert to changing weather conditions., Minimize travel. If travel is necessary, keep a disaster supplies kit in your vehicle., Bring pets/companion animals inside during winter weather. Move other animals or livestock to sheltered areas with non-frozen drinking water., Winterize your vehicle, Antifreeze levels - ensure they are sufficient to avoid freezing., Battery and ignition system - should be in top condition and battery terminals should be clean., Brakes - check for wear and fluid levels., Exhaust system - check for leaks and crimped pipes and repair or replace as necessary. Carbon monoxide is deadly and usually gives no warning., Fuel and air filters - replace and keep water out of the system by using additives and maintaining a full tank of gas. A full tank will keep the fuel line from freezing., Heater and defroster - ensure they work properly., Lights and flashing hazard lights - check for serviceability., Oil - check for level and weight. Heavier oils congeal more at low temperatures and do not lubricate as well., Thermostat - ensure it works properly., Windshield wiper equipment - repair any problems and maintain proper washer fluid level., Install good winter tires, Winterize your home, Extend the life of your fuel supply by insulating walls and attics, caulking and weather-stripping doors and windows, and installing storm windows or covering windows with plastic., Winterize your house, barn, shed or any other structure that may provide shelter for your family, neighbors, livestock or equipment., Clear rain gutters; repair roof leaks and cut away tree branches that could fall on a house or other structure during a storm., Maintain heating equipment and chimneys by having them cleaned and inspected every year., Insulate pipes with insulation or newspapers and plastic and allow faucets to drip a little during cold weather to avoid freezing., All fuel-burning equipment should be vented to the outside and kept clear., Keep fire extinguishers on hand, and make sure everyone in your house knows how to use them., Learn how to shut off water valves (in case a pipe bursts)., Insulate your home by installing storm windows or covering windows with plastic from the inside to keep cold air out., Hire a contractor to check the structural ability of the roof to sustain unusually heavy weight from the accumulation of snow - or water, if drains on flat roofs do not work., Know the terms, Freezing Rain, Rain that freezes when it hits the ground, creating a coating of ice on roads, walkways, trees and power lines., Sleet, Rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground. Sleet also causes moisture on roads to freeze and become slippery., Winter weather advisory, Winter weather conditions are expected to cause significant inconveniences and may be hazardous. When caution is used, these situations should not be life threatening., Winter storm watch, A winter storm is possible in your area. Tune in to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, or television for more information., Winter storm warning, A winter storm is occurring or will soon occur in your area., Blizzard warning, Sustained winds or frequent gusts to 35 miles per hour or greater and considerable amounts of falling or blowing snow (reducing visibility to less than a quarter mile) are expected to prevail for a period of three hours or longer., Frost/Freeze warning, Below freezing temperatures are expected., Carbon Monoxide, Never use a generator, grill, camp stove or other gasoline, propane, natural gas or charcoal¬ burning devices inside a home, garage, basement, crawlspace or any partially enclosed area. Locate unit away from doors, windows and vents that could allow carbon monoxide to come indoors., The primary hazards to avoid when using alternate sources for electricity, heating or cooking are carbon monoxide poisoning, electric shock and fire., Install carbon monoxide alarms in central locations on every level of your home and outside sleeping areas to provide early warning of accumulating carbon monoxide., If the carbon monoxide alarm sounds, move quickly to a fresh air location outdoors or by an open window or door., Call for help from the fresh air location and remain there until emergency personnel arrive to assist you., During, Stay indoors during the storm., Walk carefully on snowy, icy, walkways., Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow., Keep dry., Watch for signs of frostbite., Watch for signs of hypothermia., Drive only if it is absolutely necessary., Let someone know your destination, your route, and when you expect to arrive., If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags. Completely open all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes, starting where they were most exposed to the cold (or where the cold was most likely to penetrate)., Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three feet from flammable objects., Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than normal. Temporarily close off heat to some rooms., If you will be going away during cold weather, leave the heat on in your home, set to a temperature no lower than 55ºF., Dress for the weather., If a blizzard traps you in the car:, Pull off the highway. Turn on hazard lights and hang a distress flag from the radio antenna or window., Remain in your vehicle where rescuers are most likely to find you., Run the engine and heater about 10 minutes each hour to keep warm. When the engine is running, open a downwind window slightly for ventilation and periodically clear snow from the exhaust pipe. This will protect you from possible carbon monoxide poisoning., Exercise to maintain body heat, but avoid overexertion., In extreme cold, use road maps, seat covers, and floor mats for insulation. Huddle with passengers and use your coat for a blanket., Take turns sleeping. One person should be awake at all times to look for rescue crews., Eat regularly and drink ample fluids to avoid dehydration, but avoid caffeine and alcohol., Be careful not to waste battery power. Balance electrical energy needs - the use of lights, heat, and radio - with supply., Turn on the inside light at night so work crews or rescuers can see you., If stranded in a remote area, stomp large block letters in an open area spelling out HELP or SOS and line with rocks or tree limbs to attract the attention of rescue personnel who may be surveying the area by airplane., Leave the car and proceed on foot - if necessary - once the blizzard passes., After, Go to a designated public shelter if your home loses power or heat during periods of extreme cold. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Continue to protect yourself from frostbite and hypothermia by wearing warm, loose-fitting, lightweight clothing in several layers. Stay indoors, if possible.

Pandemic

You can prepare for an influenza pandemic now. You should know both the magnitude of what can happen during a pandemic outbreak and what actions you can take to help lessen the impact of an influenza pandemic on you and your family. This checklist will help you gather the information and resources you may need in case of a flu pandemic.

Before, Store a two week supply of water and food., Periodically check your regular prescription drugs to ensure a continuous supply in your home., Have any nonprescription drugs and other health supplies on hand, including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes, and vitamins., Talk with family members and loved ones about how they would be cared for if they got sick, or what will be needed to care for them in your home., Volunteer with local groups to prepare and assist with emergency response., Get involved in your community as it works to prepare for an influenza pandemic.

During, Limit the Spread of Germs and Prevent Infection, Avoid close contact with people who are sick. When you are sick, keep your distance from others to protect them from getting sick too., If possible, stay home from work, school, and errands when you are sick. You will help prevent others from catching your illness., Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick., Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs., Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth., Practice other good health habits.

Technological and accidental hazards

Technological & Accidental Hazards include technological hazards such as nuclear power plant failures and hazardous materials incidents. Usually, little or no warning precedes these disasters. Unfortunately, the number of potential accidental disasters is escalating due to the increased number of new substances and the opportunities for human error while using these materials. Learn what actions to include in your family disaster plan to prepare for and respond to such incidents. For example, in your own home, you can learn how to use, store and dispose of household chemicals in a manner that will reduce the potential for injury to people and the environment.

Blackouts, Before, Build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan., Follow energy conservation measures to keep the use of electricity as low as possible, which can help power companies avoid imposing rolling blackouts., Fill plastic containers with water and place them in the refrigerator and freezer if there's room., Be aware that most medication that requires refrigeration can be kept in a closed refrigerator for several hours without a problem. If unsure, check with your physician or pharmacist., Keep your car tank at least half full because gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps., Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it. Garage doors can be heavy, so know that you may need help to lift it., Keep a key to your house with you if you regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home, in case the garage door will not open., During, Use only flashlights for emergency lighting. NEVER use candles during a blackout or power outage due to extreme risk of fire., Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed to keep your food as fresh as possible., Do not run a generator inside a home or garage., Do not connect a generator to a home's electrical system. If you use a generator, connect the equipment you want to run directly to the outlets on the generator., Listen to local radio and to a battery- or generator-powered television for updated information., Leave on one light so that you'll know when your power returns., Use a standard telephone handset, cellular phone, radio or pager if your phone requires electricity to work, as do cordless phones and answering machines., Do not call 9-1-1 for information—call only to report a life-threatening emergency. Use the phone for life-threatening emergencies only., Take steps to remain cool if it is hot outside., Put on layers of warm clothing if it is cold outside. Never burn charcoal for heating or cooking indoors. Never use your oven as a source of heat. If the power may be out for a prolonged period, plan to go to another location (the home of a relative or friend, or a public facility) that has heat to keep warm., Provide plenty of fresh, cool water for your pets., Eliminate unnecessary travel, especially by car. Traffic signals will stop working during an outage, creating traffic congestion., Remember that equipment such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and elevators may not work during a power outage., Using a generator, After, Throw away any food that has been exposed to temperatures 40° F (4° C) for 2 hours or more or that has an unusual odor, color or texture. When in doubt, throw it out!, Never taste food or rely on appearance or odor to determine its safety., If food in the freezer is colder than 40° F and has ice crystals on it, you can refreeze it., If you are not sure food is cold enough, take its temperature with the food thermometer. Throw out any foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers) that have been exposed to temperatures higher than 40° F (4° C) for 2 hours or more, and any food that has an unusual odor, color or texture, or feels warm to touch.

Hazardous materials incidents, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Non-perishable food, Water, Battery-powered or hand-crank radio, Extra flashlights and batteries, Plastic sheeting, duct tape and scissors, Prepare a portable kit and keep it in your car in case you are told to evacuate., Make a Family Emergency Plan., During, If you are asked to evacuate, Do so immediately., Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes, temporary shelters, and procedures., Follow the routes recommended by the authorities--shortcuts may not be safe. Leave at once., If you have time, minimize contamination in the house by closing all windows, shutting all vents, and turning off attic fans., Take pre-assembled disaster supplies., Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people and people with access and functional needs., If you are caught outside, Stay upstream, uphill, and upwind! In general, try to go at least one-half mile (usually 8-10 city blocks) from the danger area. Move away from the accident scene and help keep others away., Do not walk into or touch any spilled liquids, airborne mists, or condensed solid chemical deposits. Try not to inhale gases, fumes and smoke. If possible, cover mouth with a cloth while leaving the area., Stay away from accident victims until the hazardous material has been identified., If you are in a motor vehicle, Stop and seek shelter in a permanent building. If you must remain in your car, keep car windows and vents closed and shut off the air conditioner and heater., If you are requested to stay indoors, Bring pets inside., Close and lock all exterior doors and windows. Close vents, fireplace dampers, and as many interior doors as possible., Turn off air conditioners and ventilation systems. In large buildings, set ventilation systems to 100 percent recirculation so that no outside air is drawn into the building. If this is not possible, ventilation systems should be turned off., Go into the pre-selected shelter room. This room should be above ground and have the fewest openings to the outside., Seal gaps under doorways and windows with wet towels or plastic sheeting and duct tape., Seal gaps around window and air conditioning units, bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans, and stove and dryer vents with duct tape and plastic sheeting, wax paper or aluminum wrap., Use material to fill cracks and holes in the room, such as those around pipes., If gas or vapors could have entered the building, take shallow breaths through a cloth or a towel. Avoid eating or drinking any food or water that may be contaminated., Shelter safety for sealed rooms, After, Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to hazardous chemicals., Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities., Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms as soon as possible., Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers. Do not allow them to contact other materials. Call local authorities to find out about proper disposal., Advise everyone who comes in to contact with you that you may have been exposed to a toxic substance., Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information., Help a neighbor who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people and people with access and functional needs. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations., Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Open windows and vents and turn on fans to provide ventilation., Find out from local authorities how to clean up your land and property., Report any lingering vapors or other hazards to your local emergency services office.

Household chemical emergencies, Before, Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use., Keep products containing hazardous materials in their original containers and never remove the labels unless the container is corroding. Corroding containers should be repackaged and clearly labeled., Never store hazardous products in food containers., Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products. Incompatibles, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia, may react, ignite or explode., Follow the manufacturer’s instructors for the proper use of the household chemical., Never smoke while using household chemicals., Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near an open flame (e.g., pilot light, lighted candle, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc.), Clean up any chemical spill immediately., Dispose of hazardous materials correctly., Post the number of the emergency medical services and the poison control center by all telephones., During, Get out of the residence immediately if there is a danger of fire or explosion., Do not waste time collecting items or calling the fire department when you are in danger., Call the fire department from outside (a cellular phone or a neighbor’s phone) once you are safely away from danger., Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes., Recognize and respond to symptoms of toxic poisoning including:, Difficulty breathing, Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract, Changes in skin color, Headache or blurred vision, Dizziness, Clumsiness or lack of coordination, Cramps or diarrhea, If someone is experiencing toxic poisoning symptoms or has been exposed to a household chemical, call the national poison control center at 1 (800) 222-1222 and find any containers of the substance that are readily available in order to provide requested information., Follow the emergency operator or dispatcher’s first aid instructions carefully. The first aid advice found on containers may be out of date or inappropriate. Do not give anything by mouth unless advised to do so by a medical professional., After, Discard clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash out completely.

Nuclear Power Plants, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Household chemical emergencies, Before, Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use., Keep products containing hazardous materials in their original containers and never remove the labels unless the container is corroding. Corroding containers should be repackaged and clearly labeled., Never store hazardous products in food containers., Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with other products. Incompatibles, such as chlorine bleach and ammonia, may react, ignite or explode., Follow the manufacturer’s instructors for the proper use of the household chemical., Never smoke while using household chemicals., Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near an open flame (e.g., pilot light, lighted candle, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc.), Clean up any chemical spill immediately., Dispose of hazardous materials correctly., Post the number of the emergency medical services and the poison control center by all telephones., During, Get out of the residence immediately if there is a danger of fire or explosion., Do not waste time collecting items or calling the fire department when you are in danger., Call the fire department from outside (a cellular phone or a neighbor’s phone) once you are safely away from danger., Stay upwind and away from the residence to avoid breathing toxic fumes., Recognize and respond to symptoms of toxic poisoning including:, Difficulty breathing, Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract, Changes in skin color, Headache or blurred vision, Dizziness, Clumsiness or lack of coordination, Cramps or diarrhea, If someone is experiencing toxic poisoning symptoms or has been exposed to a household chemical, call the national poison control center at 1 (800) 222-1222 and find any containers of the substance that are readily available in order to provide requested information., Follow the emergency operator or dispatcher’s first aid instructions carefully. The first aid advice found on containers may be out of date or inappropriate. Do not give anything by mouth unless advised to do so by a medical professional., After, Discard clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash out completely., Non-perishable food, Water, Battery-powered or hand-crank radio, Extra flashlights and batteries, Plastic sheeting, duct tape and scissors, Prepare a portable kit and keep it in your car in case you are told to evacuate. This should include:, Copies of prescription medications and medical supplies., Bedding and clothing, including sleeping bags and pillows., Copies of important documents: driver’s license, Social Security card, proof of residence, insurance policies, wills, deeds, birth and marriage certificates, tax records, etc., Make a Family Emergency Plan., Obtain public emergency information materials from the power company that operates your local nuclear power plant or your local emergency services office., Building a shielding, Know the terms, Notification of Unusual Event, A small problem has occurred at the plant. No radiation leak is expected. No action on your part will be necessary., Alert, A small problem has occurred, and small amounts of radiation could leak inside the plant. This will not affect you and no action is required., Site area emergency, Area sirens may be sounded. Listen to your radio or television for safety information., General emergency, Radiation could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. The sirens will sound. Tune to your local radio or television station for reports. Be prepared to follow instructions promptly., During, Follow the EAS instructions carefully., Minimize your exposure by increasing the distance between you and the source of the radiation. This could be evacuation or remaining indoors to minimize exposure., If you are told to evacuate, keep car windows and vents closed; use re-circulating air., If you are advised to remain indoors, turn off the air conditioner, ventilation fans, furnace and other air intakes., Shield yourself by placing heavy, dense material between you and the radiation source. Go to a basement or other underground area, if possible., Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary., Stay out of the incident zone. Most radiation loses its strength fairly quickly., After, Go to a designated public shelter if you have been told to evacuate or you feel it is unsafe to remain in your home. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345)., Act quickly if you have come in to contact with or have been exposed to hazardous radiation., Follow decontamination instructions from local authorities. You may be advised to take a thorough shower., Change your clothes and shoes; put exposed clothing in a plastic bag; seal it and place it out of the way., Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms, such as nausea, as soon as possible., Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information., Help a neighbor who may require special assistance, Return home only when authorities say it is safe., Keep food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. Food not previously covered should be washed before being put in to containers.

Terrorist hazards

Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large numbers of people and devastating economic loss. Recent technological advances and ongoing political unrest are components of the increased risk to national security. Learn what actions to include in your family disaster plan to prepare for and respond to terrorist threats.

Biological threats, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Make a Family Emergency Plan., Check with your doctor to ensure all required or suggested immunizations are up to date. Children and older adults are particularly vulnerable to biological agents., Consider installing a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter in your furnace return duct., During, The first evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the disease caused by exposure to an agent., If you become aware of an unusual and suspicious substance, quickly get away., Protect yourself. Cover your mouth and nose with layers of fabric that can filter the air but still allow breathing., There may be times when you would want to consider wearing a face mask to reduce spreading germs if you yourself are sick, or to avoid coming in contact with contagious germs if others around you are sick., If you have been exposed to a biological agent, remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow official instructions for disposal of contaminated items., Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes., Contact authorities and seek medical assistance. You may be advised to stay away from others or even quarantined., If a family member becomes sick, it is important to be suspicious., Do not assume, however, that you should go to a hospital emergency room or that any illness is the result of the biological attack. Symptoms of many common illnesses may overlap., Use common sense, practice good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid spreading germs, and seek medical advice., Consider if you are in the group or area authorities believe to be in danger., If your symptoms match those described and you are in the group considered at risk, immediately seek emergency medical attention., Follow instructions of doctors and other public health officials., If the disease is contagious expect to receive medical evaluation and treatment. You may be advised to stay away from others or even deliberately quarantined., For non-contagious diseases, expect to receive medical evaluation and treatment., In a declared biological emergency or developing epidemic, there may be reason to stay away from crowds where others may be infected., Symptoms, A temperature of more than 100 degrees, Nausea and vomiting, Stomachache, Diarrhea, Pale or flushed face, Headache, Cough, Earache, Thick discharge from nose, Sore throat, Rash or infection of the skin, Red or pink eyes, Loss of appetite, Loss of energy or decreases in activity, Hygiene, Wash your hands with soap and water frequently., Do not share food or utensils., Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing., Consider having the sick person wear a face mask to avoid spreading germs., Plan to share health-related information with others, especially those who may need help understanding the situation and what specific actions to take., After, Antibiotics

Chemical threats, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, non-perishable food, Water, battery-powered or hand-crank radio, extra flashlights and batteries, A roll of duct tape and scissors., Plastic for doors, windows, and vents for the room in which you will shelter in place., Make a Family Emergency Plan., Choose an internal room to shelter, preferably one without windows and on the highest level., During, Quickly try to define the impacted area or where the chemical is coming from, if possible., Take immediate action to get away., If the chemical is inside a building where you are, get out of the building without passing through the contaminated area, if possible., If you can't get out of the building or find clean air without passing through the area where you see signs of a chemical attack, it may be better to move as far away as possible and shelter-in-place., If you are instructed to remain in your home or office building, you should:, Close doors and windows and turn off all ventilation, including furnaces, air conditioners, vents, and fans., Seek shelter in an internal room and take your disaster supplies kit., Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting., Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities., If you are caught in or near a contaminated area, you should:, Move away immediately in a direction upwind of the source., Find shelter as quickly as possible, If you are outside, quickly decide what is the fastest way to find clean air. Consider if you can get out of the area or if you should go inside the closest building and shelter-in-place., After, Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents., Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body., Flush eyes with water., Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing with water., Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water., Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or closets is likely to be uncontaminated., Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment.

Cyber attack, Before, Only connect to the Internet over secure, password- protected networks., Do not click on links or pop-ups, open attachments, or respond to emails from strangers., Always enter a URL by hand instead of following links if you are unsure of the sender., Do not respond to online requests for Personally Identifiable Information (PII);, Limit who you are sharing information with by reviewing the privacy settings on your social media accounts., Trust your gut; if you think an offer is too good to be true, then it probably is., Password protect all devices that connect to the Internet and user accounts., Do not use the same password twice; choose a password that means something to you and you only; change your passwords on a regular basis., If you see something suspicious, report it to the proper authorities., Signing up for the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) mailing list to receive the latest cybersecurity information directly to your inbox., Becoming a Friend of the Department of Homeland Security’s Stop.Think.Connect. Campaign and receive a monthly newsletter with cybersecurity current events and tips., During, Immediate actions, At home, At work, At a public place (library etc), If your PII has been compromised, Immediately change all passwords; financial passwords first. If you used the same password for multiple resources, make sure to change it for each account, and do not use that password in the future., If you believe the compromise was caused by malicious code, disconnect your computer from the Internet., Restart your computer in safe mode and perform a full system restore., Contact companies, including banks, where you have accounts as well as credit reporting companies., Close any accounts that may have been compromised. Watch for any unexplainable or unauthorized charges to your accounts., After, File a report with the local police so there is an official record of the incident., Report online crime or fraud to your local United States Secret Service (USSS) Electronic Crimes Task Force or the Internet Crime Complaint Center., Report identity theft to the Federal Trade Commission., If your PII was compromised, consider other information that may be at risk. Depending what information was stolen, you may need to contact other agencies, For further information on preventing and identifying threats, visit US-CERT’s Alerts and Tips page.

Explosions, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Prepare a kit for your workplace and a portable kit to keep in your car in case you are told to evacuate. This kit should include:, Copies of prescription medications and medical supplies., Bedding and clothing, including sleeping bags and pillows., Copies of important documents: driver’s license, Social Security card, proof of residence, insurance policies, wills, deeds, birth and marriage certificates, tax records, etc., Make a Family Emergency Plan., Bomb threats, If you receive a telephoned bomb threat, you should do the following:, Get as much information from the caller as possible. Try to ask the following questions:, When is the bomb going to explode?, Where is it right now?, What does it look like?, What kind of bomb is it?, What will cause it to explode?, Did you place the bomb?, Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said., Notify the police and building management immediately., Suspicious packages and letters, With suspicious envelopes and packages other than those that might contain explosives, take these additional steps against possible biological and chemical agents., Refrain from eating or drinking in a designated mail handling area., Place suspicious envelopes or packages in a plastic bag or some other type of container to prevent leakage of contents. Never sniff or smell suspect mail., If you do not have a container, then cover the envelope or package with anything available (e.g., clothing, paper, trash can, etc.) and do not remove the cover., Leave the room and close the door or section off the area to prevent others from entering., Wash your hands with soap and water to prevent spreading any powder to your face., If you are at work, report the incident to your building security official or an available supervisor, who should notify police and other authorities without delay., List all people who were in the room or area when this suspicious letter or package was recognized. Give a copy of this list to both the local public health authorities and law enforcement officials for follow-up investigations and advice., If you are at home, report the incident to local police., Some typical characteristics which ought to trigger suspicion include parcels that:, Are unexpected or from someone unfamiliar to you., Have no return address or a return address that can’t be verified as legitimate., Are marked with restrictive endorsements such as “Personal,” “Confidential,” or “Do not X-ray.”, Have protruding wires or aluminum foil, strange odors or stains., Show a city or state in the postmark that doesn’t match the return address., Are of unusual weight given their size or are lopsided or oddly shaped., Are marked with threatening language., Have inappropriate or unusual labeling., Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and string., Have misspellings of common words., Are addressed to someone no longer with your organization or are otherwise outdated., Have incorrect titles or titles without a name., Are not addressed to a specific person., Have hand-written or poorly typed addresses., During, Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you., When they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened floors and stairways., As you exit from the building, be especially watchful of falling debris., Leave the building as quickly as possible., Do not use elevators., Check for fire and other hazards., Once you are out, do not stand in front of windows, glass doors or other potentially hazardous areas., Move away from sidewalks or streets to be used by emergency officials or others still exiting the building., If you are trapped in debris, use a flashlight, if possible, to signal your location to rescuers., Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can hear where you are., If possible, use a whistle to signal rescuers., Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause a person to inhale dangerous amounts of dust., Avoid unnecessary movement so you don’t kick up dust., Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have on hand., After, There can be significant numbers of casualties and/or damage to buildings and the infrastructure. So employers need up-to-date information about any medical needs you may have and on how to contact your designated beneficiaries., Heavy law enforcement involvement at local, state and federal levels follows a terrorist attack due to the event's criminal nature., Health and mental health resources in the affected communities can be strained to their limits, maybe even overwhelmed., Extensive media coverage, strong public fear and international implications and consequences can continue for a prolonged period., Workplaces and schools may be closed, and there may be restrictions on domestic and international travel., You and your family or household may have to evacuate an area, avoiding roads blocked for your safety., Clean-up may take many months.

Nuclear Blast, General Information, Factors for protecting oneself from radiation and fallout:, Distance, Shielding, Time, Electro Magnetic Pulse, Radioactive fallout, Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Make a Family Emergency Plan., Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have been designated as fallout shelters., If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to go out., During periods of heightened threat increase your disaster supplies to be adequate for up to two weeks., Take shelter, There are two kinds of shelters, Blast shelters, Fallout shelters, During, In the event of a nuclear explosion, Listen for official information and follow the instructions provided by emergency response personnel., If an attack warning is issued, take cover as quickly as you can, below ground if possible, and stay there until instructed to do otherwise., Find the nearest building, preferably built of brick or concrete, and go inside to avoid any radioactive material outside., If better shelter, such as a multi-story building or basement can be reached within a few minutes, go there immediately., Go as far below ground as possible or in the center of a tall building. The goal is to put as many walls and as much concrete, brick and soil between you and the radioactive material outside., Stay where you are, even if you are separated from your family. Inside is the safest place for all people in the impacted area. It can save your life., During the time with the highest radiation levels it is safest to stay inside, sheltered away from the radioactive material outside., Radiation levels are extremely dangerous after a nuclear detonation but the levels reduce rapidly., Expect to stay inside for at least 24 hours unless told otherwise by authorities., When evacuating is in your best interest, you will be instructed to do so. All available methods of communication will be used to provide news and / or instructions., People in the path of the radioactive material - downwind from the detonation - may also be asked to take protective measures., If you are caught outside and unable to get inside immediately:, Do not look at the flash or fireball - it can blind you., Take cover behind anything that might offer protection., Lie flat on the ground and cover your head. If the explosion is some distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit., Take shelter as soon as you can, even if you are many miles from ground zero where the attack occurred., If you were outside during or after the blast, get clean as soon as possible, to remove radioactive material that may have settled on your body., Remove your clothing to keep radioactive material from spreading., If practical, place your contaminated clothing in a plastic bag and seal or tie the bag. Place the bag as far away as possible from humans and animals so that the radiation it gives off does not affect others., When possible, take a shower with lots of soap and water to help remove radioactive contamination. Do not scrub or scratch the skin., Wash your hair with shampoo or soap and water. Do not use conditioner in your hair because it will bind radioactive material to your hair, keeping it from rinsing out easily., Gently blow your nose and wipe your eyelids and eyelashes with a clean wet cloth. Gently wipe your ears., If you cannot shower, use a wipe or clean wet cloth to wipe your skin that was not covered by clothing., After, Returning to your home, Keep listening to the radio and television for news about what to do, where to go and places to avoid., Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away from areas marked “radiation hazard” or “HAZMAT.”, Guidelines for recovering from a disaster

Radiological dispersion device (RDD), Before, Build an Emergency Supply Kit, Make a Family Emergency Plan., Find out from officials if any public buildings in your community have been designated as fallout shelters., If you live in an apartment building or high-rise, talk to the manager about the safest place in the building for sheltering and about providing for building occupants until it is safe to go out., Take shelter., There are two kinds of shelters:, Blast shelters, Fallout shelters, During, If you are outdoors, If you are indoors, After, Continue listening to your radio or watch the television for instructions from local officials, whether you have evacuated or sheltered-in-place., Do not return to or visit an RDD incident location for any reason.