History of Visual Communication

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History of Visual Communication by Mind Map: History of Visual Communication

1. Cave Paintings

1.1. A painting on a wall that tells a story or for religious reasons.

1.1.1. Story Telling

1.1.2. Religious Reasons

1.1.3. Instruction

1.1.4. They painted

1.2. Lascaux

1.2.1. was a famous cave site in France

1.2.2. It had to be closed because co2 gasses were eroding the paintings

1.3. They paints were made up of different animal bloods, plant juices, water, soil, and charcoal.

1.4. The oldest known cave site was Chauvet pont arch.

1.4.1. Three speleologists found it.

1.4.2. It was different because it had 3d paintings and the walls were scraped clean.

2. Sumerians

2.1. Theocratic

2.1.1. Means: that God is recognized as the head of state.

2.2. Skilled in the arts

2.3. Created Cuneiform

2.3.1. Cuneiform was the first written language.

2.3.2. originally for business transactions

2.3.3. Originally written on clay tablets

2.3.4. It began as a series of pictographs

2.3.5. It evolved into a webbed shaped language

2.4. They settled in the "fertile crescent"

2.4.1. Since there was a lot of trade, they needed a written language to process trade requests.

3. Hieroglyphics

3.1. Contained logo graphic and alphabetic elements

3.2. Some people became scribes

3.2.1. Scribes were people in high positions that trained to read and write Hieroglyphics

3.3. There were Hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone

3.3.1. It was discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 when the french invaded Egypt

3.3.2. The Rosetta Stone was a slab that had egyptian hieroglyphics, demotic, greek written on it

3.3.3. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the Rosetta stone

3.3.3.1. He saw the name for a king in both Greek and Egyptian

3.4. Was written on walls as well as papyrus

3.4.1. Papyrus was made by criss crossing wet reeds and letting them dry

3.5. The Egyptians thought it was important to communicate info about religion and government.

4. Gutenberg Press

4.1. Johannes Gutenberg created it

4.1.1. His father was a Merchant/Goldsmith

4.1.2. He made a deal with Caxton to loan him money but if he didn't repay it within 5 years Caxton would take all of Gutenberg's equipment

4.1.2.1. Gutenberg was unable to pay back the loan and Caxton took all of his equipment and claimed responsibility for all of Gutenberg's work.

4.2. It was developed from the screw type

4.2.1. The 4 printing processes that are still used today are Relief, Intagilo, Porous, and Lithography.

4.3. The first Moveable type was developed in china

4.4. paper was developed in china by shai lun

4.5. The very first book to be printed was the bible

4.6. The first American newsletter was "The Boston Newsletter"

4.6.1. It was published by John campbell

5. Linotype Machine

5.1. Clephane created it.

5.1.1. He approached Ottomar Mergenthaler for ways he could improve the Linotype

5.1.1.1. Ottomar said that he should cast the type in a metal matrix versus a wooden one

5.2. The Linotype allowed operators to set mechanically rather than by hand

5.2.1. It could also be run by a smaller # of operators

5.3. The name came from the fact that it could produce an entire line of type at once

5.4. The first newsletter printed on it was the new york tribune

5.5. The linotype's keyboard had 90 characters

5.5.1. Black keys: Lowercase

5.5.2. White keys: Uppercase

5.5.3. Blue keys: Punctuation and Numbers

5.6. A slug is a single line of type

6. Computers

6.1. Konrad Zuse created the first freely programmable cpu

6.2. The MARK series of computers were developed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

6.2.1. They were used for naval communications

6.3. The first commercial computer was the univac

6.3.1. It was designed by Johns Preseper and John Mauchly

6.3.2. Stands for Universal Automatic Computer

6.4. IBM: International Business Machines

6.4.1. They developed the 8m701 edpm computer

6.4.2. They also created the first high level programming language, FORTRAN

6.4.2.1. FORTRAN stands for Formula Translating System

6.5. The first computer game was Space War

6.6. Douglas Engelbart invented the Computer Mouse

6.6.1. He wanted an easier wat to navigate the computer

6.7. Raprnet was developed to protect the flow of military info

7. Photography

7.1. In the 4th century the camera obscura was used as a way to observe light and stars

7.1.1. A camera obscura room was a dark room with a convex lens inserted into a wall

7.1.2. In the 17th and 18th centuries the camera shrunk to a small size.

7.2. The term photography was coined by sir john hershal

7.2.1. in 1827 Joseph niepce created the first photograph

7.3. Louis dagurre created the first practical photographic process

7.3.1. it was called daguerreotype

7.3.1.1. he exposed an image onto a metal sheet

7.4. William Talbot created the calotype process

7.4.1. this is similar to modern photography cuz we can duplicate