History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

1.1. Scrolls

1.1.1. Construction

1.1.1.1. Long piece of continuous papyrus

1.1.1.2. separate sheets glued together at edges

1.1.2. Rolled

1.1.2.1. Rolled up

1.1.2.2. Wooden rollers at each end

1.1.3. only allowed for sequential access

1.1.3.1. reading or writing data records in sequential order, one record after another

1.2. Roman handwriting

1.2.1. Added lowercase letters and punctuation

1.3. Codex

1.3.1. covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

1.3.2. More advantages than a scroll

1.3.2.1. Compact

1.3.2.2. Sturdy

1.3.2.3. Ease of reference

1.3.2.4. More portable

1.3.2.5. Easier to organize in library

1.3.3. Christianity adopted for the early Bible

1.4. Parchment

1.4.1. Substrate made from animal skin, such as sheep, goats, and cows

1.4.2. How made

1.4.2.1. hair and fat removed and skin was smoothed out

1.4.2.2. hide was soaked in water.

1.4.2.3. calcium, flour, and salt were added

1.4.2.4. skin was stretched out, flattened, and dried

1.4.3. replaced papyrus

1.4.3.1. codex became more popular

1.5. Illuminated Manuscript

1.5.1. books created by monastic monks taking the creation to an art form; wrote all text by hand and drew elaborate illustration and ornamentation

1.5.2. Illuminations=borders, illustrations, and ornamentation added to each page of text

1.5.3. reserved for religious texts

1.5.3.1. work was laborious

1.5.4. Decline of creation

1.5.4.1. replaced by printing press

1.6. Scribes of church

1.6.1. monastic monks

2. Photography

2.1. 4th century camera obscura

2.1.1. a way to observe light

2.1.2. “dark chamber” optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

2.1.3. Changed in 17th and 18th centuries

2.1.3.1. shrunk to side of a portable box

2.1.3.2. image reflected on a ground glass

2.2. Greek Words for light and writing

2.3. Joseph Niepce

2.3.1. First successful photograph in 1827

2.4. Louis Daguerre

2.4.1. Daguerrotype

2.4.1.1. First practical photographic process

2.4.1.2. Image exposed on light-sensitive metal sheet, creating a direct positive image. Made permanent by immersing in salt

2.5. William Fox Talbot

2.5.1. Calotype process

2.5.1.1. Subject exposed onto a light sensitive paper, producing a paper negative

2.5.1.2. can duplicate images

2.6. Wet Collodion Process

2.6.1. Glass plates coated with collodion

2.6.1.1. Collodion= colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether

2.7. Richard Maddox

2.7.1. Dry Plate Process

2.7.1.1. glass plates coated with gelatin

2.7.1.1.1. gelatin= colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues

2.8. George Eastman

2.8.1. Replaced fragile glass plates with photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls

2.8.2. Established Eastman Kodak Company

2.8.2.1. processed film for customers

2.8.3. Camera "brownie"

2.8.3.1. Made in 1990 to bring photography to the masses

2.9. James Clerk Maxwell

2.9.1. First color photograph

2.10. Edwin Land

2.10.1. Instant photography

2.10.1.1. one step process for developing and printing photographs

2.11. Eadweard Muybridge

2.11.1. Motion picture photography

2.11.2. device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

2.11.3. Settled debate if a horse's 4 hooves come off the ground at the same time during a gallop

2.11.3.1. Photographed it in motion

3. Computers

3.1. IBM

3.1.1. Developed IBM701 EOPM Computer

3.1.2. First high level programming language

3.1.2.1. FORTRAN

3.1.2.1.1. IBM Mathematical formula translating system

3.1.3. International Business Machine

3.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

3.2.1. Mark series of computers

3.2.1.1. Used by Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculation

3.3. John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly

3.3.1. First commercial computer

3.3.1.1. UNIVAC

3.3.1.1.1. Universal Automatic Computer

3.4. First computer game

3.4.1. Spacewar

3.5. Konrad Zuse

3.5.1. First freely programmable computer

3.6. Douglas Engelbart

3.6.1. Computer mouse

3.6.1.1. Made computers more user-friendly

3.6.1.2. Nicknamed because of "tail" that connected it to computer

3.7. First internet

3.7.1. ARPANET

3.7.1.1. To protect flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separate computers

3.8. INTEL

3.8.1. Intel 4004

3.8.1.1. First single chip process

3.9. First "memory disk"

3.9.1. Floppy disk introduced by IBM

3.10. Robert Metcalfe and Xerox

3.10.1. Developed first ethernet

3.11. Computers introduced during mid 1970's

3.11.1. Scelbi-Mark8, ALTRAIR, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80 COMMODORE, PET

3.12. Bill Gates and Microsoft

3.12.1. Introduced Windows operating system in response to Apple's operating system

3.13. Apple

3.13.1. Apple Lisa in 1983

3.13.1.1. First personal computer with a GUI

3.13.1.1.1. GUI= Graphical User Interface

3.13.1.1.2. Xerox developed first GUI in computer

3.13.2. Introduced MS-DOS

3.13.2.1. Operating system packaged with IBM PC

3.13.2.1.1. PC= Personal computer

3.13.3. Introduced Macintosh in 1984

4. Cave Paintings

4.1. beautiful, detailed, and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

4.2. first form of graphic communications

4.3. 3 reasons they were created

4.3.1. story telling

4.3.2. religious reasons

4.3.3. instruction

4.4. Lascaux

4.4.1. Most famous cave painting site

4.4.1.1. closed due to paintings being damaged because of the carbon dioxide released by tourists

4.4.1.1.1. Lascaux II

4.4.2. Located in Lascaux, France

4.5. Altamira Cave

4.5.1. Located in Spain

4.5.2. Paintings have red hue because of the red clay in soil used to make the paint

4.6. Chauvet Pon d'Arc

4.6.1. Oldest known cave painting site

4.6.2. walls scraped clear of debris to make 3D effect

4.6.3. discovered by

4.6.3.1. Eliette Brunelll Deschamps

4.6.3.2. Christian Hillaire

4.6.3.3. Jean Marie Chavet

5. Sumerians

5.1. 3 things known about Sumerians

5.1.1. Theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

5.1.2. there were skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

5.1.3. music was important to them

5.2. Considered cradle of civilization because cuneiform was created

5.2.1. Cuneiform

5.2.1.1. System of writing that evolved form pictographs to wedge shaped language

5.2.1.2. Why created?

5.2.1.2.1. To keep track of business transactions

5.2.1.3. written on clay tablets

6. Egyptians

6.1. Hieroglyphics

6.1.1. Though religion and government were important enough to record

6.1.2. formal writing system that contained logographic and alphabetic elements

6.1.2.1. logograms

6.1.2.1.1. visual symbols representing ideas or objects

6.2. Books of the Dead

6.2.1. instructions and spells to help them find their way to the afterlife

6.3. Scribes

6.3.1. Who became scribes?

6.3.1.1. Military leaders

6.3.1.1.1. Became scribes to communicate while in battle

6.3.1.2. Priests

6.3.1.2.1. Became scribes to read and write instructions on walls and papyrus

7. Phoenician Alphabet

7.1. Multiple theories for origin

7.1.1. Direct variation of hieroglyphics

7.1.2. Ties with cuneiform or an independent system

7.2. based on one sign represents one spoken sound

7.3. first widespread script

7.4. Was easier than other complex languages

7.4.1. Simple appearance had many effects

7.4.1.1. Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and common people

7.4.1.2. Used in multiple languages

8. The Gutenberg Press

8.1. Created by Johannes Gutenberg

8.1.1. Also introduced modern book printing

8.1.2. Also introduced oil-based ink

8.1.3. Invested in John Fust

8.1.3.1. Had an agreement

8.1.3.1.1. if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials

8.2. Developed from screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

8.3. Moveable type system

8.3.1. First developed in China

8.3.2. the system of printing that uses moveable components to reproduce the elements of a document (individual letters and punctuation)

8.3.3. Carved from wood

8.4. Metal type

8.4.1. Quicker, more durable, and lettering was more uniform than wood type

8.4.2. Created with an alloy of lead, tin, and anitmony

8.4.2.1. Matrix

8.4.2.1.1. Hard metal punch hammered into a softer copper bar

8.5. Impacted communication

8.5.1. Perfected script and made it easier to read

8.5.2. Books made more rapidly

8.5.3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

8.5.4. Cost decreased allowing more people to buy them

8.5.5. Demand grew. Population became more literate

8.5.6. Book trade began to flourish, as well as industries, such as papermaking

8.5.7. Economies became stronger

8.5.8. Art and science began to flourish, which led to the beginning of the Renaissance

8.6. First American News Weekly

8.6.1. The Boston Newsletter

8.6.1.1. Published by John Campbell

8.7. Lord Stanhope

8.7.1. Built a press completely from cast iron

8.7.1.1. Reduced force required while doubling the size of the printing area

8.8. Four major printing processes utilized today

8.8.1. Relief Printing

8.8.2. Intaglio

8.8.3. Porous Painting

8.8.4. Lithography

9. Linotype Machine

9.1. Allowed operators' type to be set rather than by hand

9.2. First installed in The New York Tribune

9.3. Keyboard

9.3.1. 90 characters

9.3.2. No shift key

9.3.3. Separate keys for uppercase and lowercase letters

9.3.3.1. Black keys= lowercase letters

9.3.3.2. White keys= uppercase letters

9.3.3.3. Blue keys= punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces

9.3.4. Arrangement of keys based on letter frequency

9.3.5. Same alphabet arrangement twice

9.4. Created a justified line of text

9.4.1. Using a spaceband

9.5. Changed newspaper industry

9.5.1. Made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

9.6. Name came from

9.6.1. Fact that it produces an entire line of type at once

9.7. Clephane looking for an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

9.8. Slugs

9.8.1. Assembled line of type then cast as a single piece

10. Visual Communications

10.1. the exchange of information using words and/or text

10.2. Goal

10.2.1. to communicate a message to the target audience

10.2.1.1. Target Audience

10.2.1.1.1. people that we’re sending the message to

11. Typewriter

11.1. Christopher Sholes

11.1.1. only commercially successful typewriter

11.2. Stenographers

11.2.1. First and most important users

11.3. James Clephane

11.3.1. Tested Shole's typewriter

11.3.2. Approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with their typesetting machine

11.3.2.1. Suggested to have a casting type from a metal matrix versus papier-mache

11.3.2.1.1. Matrix