History of Visual Communication

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History of Visual Communication by Mind Map: History of Visual Communication

1. PHOTOGHAPHY

1.1. camera obsura

1.1.1. 4th century

1.1.2. optical device that projects an image of its surrounding onto a screen

1.1.3. camera obsura room of the 1500s was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall

1.1.4. 17th and 18th century camera obscura shrunk to size of a portable box

1.2. photography

1.2.1. word originated from greek

1.2.2. first successful photography in 1827 Joseph Niepce

1.2.3. first practical photographic process, Louis Daguerre

1.2.3.1. Daguerreotype

1.2.3.2. exposed light sensitive metal sheet which created a direct positive image

1.2.4. Calotype process,

1.2.4.1. William Fox Talbot

1.2.4.2. subject exposed to a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

1.2.5. gelatin, colorless water -soluble glutinous protein from animal tissue

1.3. Kodax

1.3.1. eastman

1.3.2. est. kodax company

1.3.3. 1900s the brownie hit market that toke color picture

1.3.4. polar picture

1.3.5. motion picture

1.3.6. made easier to develop picture

1.3.7. rolled film

2. CAVE PAINTING

2.1. beautiful, detailed and colorful representations found on cave walls and ceilings

2.2. Reason why prehistoric man may created cave painting

2.2.1. 1. To tell stories

2.2.2. 2. Visual Aid

2.2.3. 3. Religious reason

2.3. cave painting where the first form of graphic communication

2.4. lascaux

2.4.1. France

2.4.2. closed to the public because of carbon dioxide

2.4.3. French Government created Lascaux II

2.5. Altamira

2.5.1. spain

2.5.2. has a red hue cause by the red soil

2.5.3. discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria

2.6. Chauvet Pont d'Arc

2.6.1. oldest cave site

2.6.2. discovered by three speleologists; Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Chiristian Hillarie, and Jean Marie Chauvet

2.6.3. difference about the site was that the paintings were; wall were scraped clear/ smooth, 3D effect by etching around the edges

3. HIEROGLYPHICS AND EGYPTIANS

3.1. sixth century BC

3.2. Egypt was invaded in 1789 by Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France

3.3. Formal writing system of a combination of Logographic and alphabetic elements

3.4. Written on papyrus

3.4.1. made of reed

3.4.2. used for book of the dead

3.4.3. recorded information about religion and government

3.5. Temple

3.5.1. contain scribes for rituals to please gods and goddesses

3.5.2. wall of temples decorated were use to show respected to the gods and goddesses

3.6. Rosetta Stone

3.6.1. founded by french solders at fort rosetta

3.6.2. written in Greek, Demotic, and Egyptian Hieroglyphics

3.6.3. now resided in the British museum since 1802

3.6.4. deciphered by Jean Francios Champollion of France

4. CUNEIFORM AND THE SUMERIANS

4.1. sumerians

4.1.1. 1.theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

4.1.2. 2. skilled in artist

4.1.3. 3.love music

4.1.4. choose sumer region because of the fertile land and many body of water

4.1.5. wrote first written language

4.1.6. were invaded by Akkadians because of the sophisticated culture and the fertile region / ruled for 2,000 years

4.2. Cuneiform

4.2.1. created to keep track of business

4.2.2. medium were chosen to write on clay tablets

4.2.3. made impression into clay with wedge shaped stylus made from reed

4.2.4. began as a series of pictograms

4.2.5. evolved into wedge shaped language

5. THE BOOK

5.1. codex

5.1.1. codex was a covered, bound collection of handwritten pages

5.1.2. help adopt the form to created the bible

5.1.3. format was used by the church

5.1.4. scribes of the church became the jobs of the monastic monks

5.2. parchment

5.2.1. made from animal skin such as sheep goats and cows

5.2.2. replace papyrus because it was more durable

5.2.3. vellum was a finer quality of parchment

5.3. illuminated manuscript

5.3.1. illumination and ornamentation added to each paged of the text; initials of the chapters or paragraphs written on the margins borders

5.3.2. "illumination" was refer to the borders, illustrations and ornamentation added to each paged of the text

5.3.3. were written by quill pens that was made from birds feathers and were used highly intricate and detailed work

5.3.4. was reserved for religious texts materials use and the craftsmenships also used

5.4. roman

5.4.1. the fall of the roman empire and the renaissance; dark ages

6. LINOTYPE MACHINE

6.1. Typewritter

6.1.1. typewriter created by Christopher Sholes

6.1.2. stenographers would be among the first and most important users

6.1.3. he sent a prototype to clephane

6.1.4. Linotype machine allow operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

6.1.5. 90-character keyboard; no shift key; uppercase letters separate from lowercase letter key; same alphabeta arrangement twice; left black keys were lowercase letter; right white keys were the uppercase and middle blue keys.left black keys were lowercase letter.right white keys were the uppercase.middle blue keys were the punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

6.1.6. the first Linotype machine installed was in the New York Tribune in July 1886

7. GUTENBERG PRESS

7.1. Relief Printing

7.1.1. matrix molds used for the letter forms

7.1.2. a slug an assembled line of type is then cast as a single piece

7.1.3. justified line of text faster typesetting and composition than by hands

7.2. 1450, Johannes Gutenberg

7.2.1. created technology of the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

7.2.2. Gutenberg’s father was a merchant and goldsmith

7.3. printing press

7.3.1. hand press lnk was rolled over the raised surface of movable handset letters held within a wooden frame

8. PHONETIC ALPHABET

8.1. direct various theories for the origin of the Phoenician