History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. 3 Reasons why they were created

1.1.1. religious/superstition

1.1.2. story telling

1.1.3. instruction

1.2. beautiful, detailed, and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings, mainly in Western Europe, Australia Africa, and China

1.3. Lascaux

1.3.1. 1963 had to close because of CO2 damage

1.3.1.1. Lascaux II

1.4. Altamira cave

1.4.1. Spain

1.4.2. red hue because of clay in soil

1.4.3. Discovered by Amateur archeologist Marcellio Sanz de Sautoula and his daughter, Maria

1.5. Chauvet Pont d'Arc

1.5.1. discovered by three speleologists

1.5.1.1. Elietter Brunell Deschamps

1.5.1.2. Christian Hillaire

1.5.1.3. Jean Marie Chauvet

1.5.2. created with techniques not seen in other sites

1.5.2.1. walls scraped clear of debris to make the walls smoother

1.5.2.2. 3D effect created by etching around the edges

1.5.2.3. items such as sticks and small stones appear to have been fashioned into paint brushes

1.6. first form of graphic communication; man's first attempt to communicate with images and symbols

2. CUNEIFORM

2.1. Created by Sumerians

2.1.1. theocratic culture ruled by priest king

2.1.2. skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other types of pottery

2.1.3. music seemed to be an important part of their life

2.1.4. settled in the Sumer region because of fertile ground and many bodies of water nearby

2.1.4.1. Fertile Crescent

2.1.4.1.1. Invaded by Akkadians

2.1.4.2. year-round agriculture

2.2. created to keep track of all the business transactions

2.3. written on clay tablets

2.3.1. wet clay, formed into flat surfaces

2.3.2. used wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions into the clay curface

2.3.3. then lay tablets in the sun, allowing them to dry and harden

2.4. began as a series of pictographs

2.4.1. pictorial or visual representation of an object

2.5. evolved over time

2.5.1. became more abstract

2.5.2. more characters

2.5.3. wedge shaped language

3. HEIROGLYPHICS

3.1. Egyptians

3.1.1. famous for great pyramids, tombs, and temples

3.1.2. communication about religion and government important

3.1.3. invaded in 1798 by France

3.1.3.1. to undermine British trade routes

3.1.3.2. establish presence in the Middle East

3.1.3.3. Rosetta Stone

3.1.3.3.1. slab with inscriptions on it

3.1.3.3.2. contains same thing in three languages

3.1.3.3.3. deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion

3.1.3.3.4. kept in the British Museum since 1802

3.2. formal writing system

3.2.1. logograms

3.2.1.1. vicual symbols representing ideas or objects

3.2.2. alphabetic elements

3.3. "hieroglyphic"

3.3.1. hiero- sacred

3.3.2. glyphic- engraving or writing

3.4. used to communicate about religion and government

3.4.1. written by scribes

3.4.1.1. students (went to school)

3.4.1.2. military leader (to communicate while in battle)

3.4.1.3. Books of the Dead

3.4.1.3.1. written by scribes

3.4.1.3.2. set of scrolls written o papyrus

3.4.1.3.3. contained instructions and spells for afterlife

3.4.1.3.4. usually commissioned by the users themselves before death

3.4.1.4. priests were scribes

3.4.1.4.1. to read and write instructions on walls and papyrus for ruitiuals performed to please the gods and goddesses

3.4.1.4.2. written on walls of temples to show respect to the gods and goddesses

4. Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. theories

4.1.1. variation of hieroglyphics

4.1.2. ties with Cuneiform or an independent creation

4.2. based on one sign representing one spoken sound

4.3. structure

4.3.1. one sign representing one spoken sound

4.3.2. letters started with consonants

4.4. successful because

4.4.1. easier to learn (letters not as complicated)

4.4.2. trade culture of Phoenician merchants spread the use of the allphabet

4.4.2.1. North Africa

4.4.2.2. Europe

4.5. effected the social structures of other civilizations

4.5.1. first widespread script

4.5.2. simplicity to be used in many languages

4.5.3. common people could learn because of the simplicity of the characters

4.5.3.1. disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

4.6. part of Greek alphabet

4.6.1. adaptation of Phoenician alphabet

4.6.1.1. some consonants not present in Greek became vowels

4.6.2. Phoenicians regularly traveled to Greece and established trade agreements with them

4.6.3. gave rise to other alphabets, including Latin

4.6.3.1. two styles of writing

4.6.3.1.1. rigid (for formal, important manuscripts

4.6.3.1.2. quicker, informal style (for letters and routine types of writing)

4.6.3.2. contributions to type design

4.6.3.2.1. serifs, or "finishing off strokes"

4.6.3.2.2. baseline (line upon which letters sit)

5. The Book

5.1. different from scrolls

5.1.1. scrolls

5.1.1.1. one continuous papyrus or many pieces glued together at the edges

5.1.1.2. sequential access (could only be read in the order written)

5.1.1.3. could be rolled with wooden rollers or nothing

5.1.2. codex

5.1.2.1. covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

5.1.2.2. compact

5.1.2.2.1. more portable

5.1.2.3. sturdy

5.1.2.4. ease of reference

5.1.2.4.1. sequential access

5.1.2.4.2. can be opened flat on any page

5.1.2.4.3. easier to organize libraries because the title can be written on the spine

5.1.2.5. adopted by Christianity

5.1.2.5.1. Codex form used for Bibles and scriptures during Dark Ages

5.2. parchment

5.2.1. substrate made from animal skin such as sheep, goats, and cows

5.2.1.1. vellum- made from skins of young calves, finer quality

5.2.2. hair and fat removed, skin smoothed out, hide soaked in water, calcium, flour, and salt added, skin stretched out, flattened, dried

5.2.3. replaced papyrus because it is much less fragile

6. The Gutenberg Press

6.1. printing press

6.1.1. hand press

6.1.2. ink rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a wooded frame

6.1.2.1. oil-based ink; more durable than water-based ink; oily, barnish-like ink made of soot, turpentine, and walnut oil

6.1.3. form was pressed against a sheet of paper

6.1.3.1. paper first created and kept secret in China by T'sai Lun

6.2. developed from teh technology og the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

6.2.1. first movable type system developed in China

6.2.1.1. carved from wood

6.2.2. movable type made of metal

6.2.2.1. metal type (or movable type) can be produced more quickly once a single mold could be made

6.2.2.1.1. matrix- alloy of lead, tin, antimony

6.3. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing in 1450

6.3.1. motivated to find a better way to produce books

6.3.1.1. love of reading

6.3.1.2. watching goldsmiths and jewelers

6.3.1.3. working at the mint with his father

6.3.2. moved for political reasons

6.3.2.1. started experimenting with metal typography

6.3.2.1.1. also credited with the creation of oil-based inkoily, barnish-like ink made of soot, turpentine, and walnut oil

6.3.3. father was an upper class merchant and goldsmith

6.3.4. wealthy businessman named John Fust invested

6.3.4.1. agreement- if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials

6.3.4.1.1. Fust and Shoeffer took credit because it was too late to pay back the loan

6.3.4.1.2. printed the BIble first

6.4. 8 Major Impacts on Cummunication

6.4.1. Perfected script and made it easier to read

6.4.2. Books made more rapidly

6.4.3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

6.4.4. Cost of books decreased, allowing more people to buy them

6.4.5. Demand grew; population became more literate

6.4.6. Readers wanted books written in their own languages and a greater variety

6.4.7. Book trade began to flourish, as well as industries such as papermaking

6.4.8. Economies became stronger (led to the beginning of the Renaissance

6.5. Caxton 1476

6.5.1. created the first book in English

6.5.2. first to introduce the printing press to England

6.6. John Campbell 1704

6.6.1. published the Boston Newsletter

6.6.2. Boston, Mass

7. Linotype Machine

7.1. Clephane

7.1.1. looking for an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

7.1.2. tested Sholes's typewriter

7.2. Christopher Sholes

7.2.1. created the only typewriter that became commercially successful

7.2.2. realized stenographers (Clephane) would be the first and most important users of the typewriter

7.2.3. both approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with their typesetting machine

7.2.3.1. Mergenthaler suggested casting type from a metal matrix versus paper-mache

7.3. allowed operators to set type mechanically rather than by hand

7.4. name came from the entire line of type created at once

7.4.1. matrix- the molds

7.4.2. slug- a single line of type created by the matrixes

7.4.3. created a justified line of text with the space bar (pair of wedges) lifts right before printing, inreasing the space between each word until the line is justified

7.5. major changes to the industry

7.5.1. changed radically, making it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

7.6. first machine installed at The New York Tribune in July 1886

7.7. keyboard

7.7.1. 90 keys

7.7.1.1. no shift key

7.7.1.2. arranged by most frequently used letters

7.7.1.2.1. most frequently used on the left

7.7.1.2.2. same alphabet twice,

7.7.2. 3 different colored keys

7.7.2.1. blue keys for punctuation, digits, small capital letters, and fixed width spaces

7.7.2.2. white keys for uppercase letters

7.7.2.3. black keys for lowercase letters

8. Photography

8.1. came from the 4th century camera obscura

8.1.1. a way to observe light

8.1.2. "dark chamber"

8.1.3. optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.4. darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall

8.1.5. in the 17th and 18th centuries it had shrunk to the size of a portable box; the image was reflected onto ground glass

8.2. originated from Greek; first used by Sir John Hershel in 1839

8.2.1. photo-light

8.2.2. graphy-writing

8.3. 1827 Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph

8.4. 1839 Louis Daquerre invented the first practical photographic process

8.4.1. called Deguerreotype

8.4.2. expose a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image; then it was made permanent by immersing it in salt; exposure time about ½ hour; image could not be duplicated

8.5. 1835 William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype process

8.5.1. subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.5.2. basis of modern photographic process because infinite number of duplicates could be made from the negative

8.6. 1851 Archer credited with creating the Wet Collodion Process or Wet Plate Process

8.6.1. glass plates were used for the negative to capture the image exposed to light

8.6.2. collodion was coated on the glass

8.6.3. plates had to be exposed and developed immediately, meaning dark rooms had to be portable

8.6.4. much less expensive, less time, and sharper image

8.7. 1871 dry plate process created by Richard Maddox

8.7.1. used gelatin instead of glass for the photographic plates

8.7.1.1. gelatin- colorless, water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue; still the base of our film today

8.8. around 1888 Eastman patented roll film

8.8.1. replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls; used gelatin as a base, added a very thin celluloid back, and coated it with the emulsion

8.8.2. "You press the button, we do the rest."

8.8.2.1. the camera owner could send in the camera with a minimal processing fee; company would process the film, reload the camera with a new roll, and return it to the owner

8.8.3. 1888 established Eastman Kodak Company

8.8.3.1. marketed the Brownie to the general public in 1900

8.9. 1861 Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell took the first color photograph

8.10. Edwin Land patented the invention of instant photography

8.10.1. one step process for developing and printing photographs

8.11. 1878 photographed a horse in motion; Muybridge paved the way for motion picture

8.11.1. zoopraxiscope- device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motino

8.11.2. hired to settle a debate about whether all four of a horse’s hooves off the ground at the same time during a gallop

8.11.2.1. settled it by using a series of large cameras placed in a line, each being triggered by a thread as a horse passed by

9. Computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse invented first freely programmable computer in 1936

9.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the Mark series of computers at Harvard University in 1944

9.2.1. created for the navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.3. 1951 Univac designed by John Preseper Eckert an John Mauchly for the Census Bureau

9.3.1. first commercial computer

9.3.2. stand for universal automatic computer

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. IBM 701 in 1953

9.4.1.1. IBM= International Business Machines

9.4.2. created Fortran in 1954 with John Backus (first high level programming language

9.4.2.1. the IBM mathematical "formula translating system"

9.5. 1962 spacewar (first computer game) was invented by Steve Russel at MIT

9.6. 1964 Douglas Inglebart invented the mouse

9.6.1. made computers more user-friendly

9.6.2. 1963 named for its tail that connected to the computer and the "ear" that came off of it

9.6.3. sought this tool in 1961

9.6.3.1. to make the computer more interactive

9.6.3.2. realized the constant importance of pointing at the screen

9.6.3.3. knew the graphics would make it more interactive

9.7. 1969 Arpanet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was the first internet

9.7.1. developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

9.8. 1971- Intel 4004 first single chip microprocessor

9.8.1. produced by Intel

9.9. 1971- first memory disk

9.9.1. called the floppy disk because of its flexibility

9.9.2. introduced by IBM

9.10. Robert Metcalfe and Xerox developed the first ethernet

9.11. first consumer computers marketed in the mid 1970s (1974-1977)

9.11.1. Altair

9.11.2. Scelby

9.11.3. Mark 8

9.11.4. IBM 5100

9.11.5. Apple I

9.11.6. Apple II

9.11.7. TRS 80

9.12. Apple

9.12.1. 1983 Apple Lisa computer introduced

9.12.1.1. different because it was the first personal computer with a GUI

9.12.1.1.1. GUI= Graphical User Interface

9.12.1.2. The Xerox Corporation first developed GUI in the 1970s

9.12.2. 1984 introduced in 1984 the Apple Macintosh Computer

9.12.2.1. more affordable home computer

9.12.2.2. with GUI

9.13. Bill Gates and Microsoft

9.13.1. 1981- Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced MS-DOS

9.13.1.1. computer operating system

9.13.1.2. packaged with the IBM PC

9.13.1.2.1. PC= Personal Computer

9.13.2. 1985 The Windows Operating System

9.13.2.1. In response to Apple's operating system