History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. 30,000 yrs ago CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. Cave paintings are beautiful, detailed and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

1.1.1. Man's first attempt to communicate with images and symbols

1.2. Lascaux, France: most famous cave painting site

1.3. Prehistoric man created cave paintings: 1. to tell stories and recount events that already happened 2. as instructional visual aid to help teach about hunting techniques 3. for magical or religious reasons that if an image of desired event was painted it might come true

1.4. Chauvet Pont d'Arc

1.4.1. Oldes Cave painting sight

1.4.2. Discovered by Brunell Deschamps. Chrisitan Hillaire and Jean Marie Chauvet

1.4.3. Walls were scraped clear of debris to make the surface smoother and lighter, 3-D effect was created on some paintings, found fossilized remains and items which appeared to have been fashioned into paint brushes

1.5. Altamira Cave

1.5.1. Located in Spain

1.5.2. All paintings have a red hue caused by the red clay in the soil used to make the paint

2. Cuneiform and Sumerians

2.1. Cuneiform began as a series of pictograms to help keep track of business transactions; written on clay tablets

2.1.1. Evolved over time into a wedge-shaped language

2.2. Sumerians settled in Sumer which is considered the cradle of civilization because that is where cuneiform was formed

3. Phonetic Alphabet

3.1. Direct variation of hieroglyphics, ties with Cuneiform or an independent creation

3.2. One sign represents one spoken sound

3.3. Letters start with consonants

3.4. Success was from trade culture of the Phoenician merchants who spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe

3.5. First widespread script

3.6. Simple appearance had effect on the common man class

3.7. Two types of script were used

3.7.1. Rigid formal script was used for important manuscripts and official documents

3.7.2. Quicker informal style was used for letters and routine types of writing

3.8. Serif

3.8.1. Finishing off strokes

3.8.2. Originated with the carving of words into stone in ancient Italy

3.8.3. Increased eligibility

4. Hieroglyphics and the Egyptians

4.1. Formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetical elements

4.1.1. Logogram: visual symbol representing ideas or objects

4.1.2. Hiero means sacred and Glyphic means engraving or writing

4.2. Scholors believe hieroglyphics were influenced by the Sumerian concept of expressing words in writing

4.3. Ancient Egyptians believed it was important to record religion and government

4.3.1. Walls of temples were decorated to show respect

4.4. Scribes

4.4.1. Military leaders became these so they could communicate in battle

4.4.2. Priest became these so they could preform rituals to please the gods and goddesses

4.5. Rosetta Stone

4.5.1. Discovered when the French began building a fort in Rosetta

4.5.2. A slab with inscriptions on it

4.5.3. Contains Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek

4.5.4. Currently in British Museum

4.5.5. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the Hieroglyphics on the stone when he was able to match up the Hieroglyphic symbols with the Greek name of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses

5. The Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. Constructed by either long continuous piece of papyrus or separate sheets glued together at the edges

5.1.2. Some were simply rolled up while others had wooden rollers at each end

5.1.3. Drawback was that scrolls only allowed for sequential usage

5.2. Codex

5.2.1. Covered and bound collection of handwritten papers

5.2.2. Advantages over scroll: compactness, sturdiness, ease of reference, more portable, and the title could be written on the spine

5.2.3. Christians used this form for an early bible

5.3. Parchment

5.3.1. Paper that replaced papyrus that was a substrate made from animal skin

5.3.2. Made by hair and animal fat that was removed and the skin was smoothed out, then soaked in water and calcium and flour and salt were added

5.3.3. Replaced papyrus because it was more durable and allowed for the ancient books to still exist today

5.4. Illuminated Manuscript

5.4.1. Books the monks made for the church

5.4.2. "Illumination" referred to the borders or illustrations and ornamentation added to each page of text

5.4.3. Reserved for religious texts because the work was laborious

5.4.4. Declined because various armies invaded Europe and destroyed the churches and it was replaced by the printing press

6. Linotype Machine

6.1. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful

6.1.1. Realized stenographers would be the first and most important users of the typewriter

6.2. James Clephane

6.2.1. looking for ways to improve the writing process when he discovered the typewriter and Linotype machine

6.2.2. Tested Sholes' typewriter

6.2.3. Approached Ottmar Mergenthaler with the typesetting machine and he suggested a casting type from a metal matrix versus paper mache

6.3. Allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

6.4. Name came from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once

6.5. Newspaper industry changed because it made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

6.6. Keyboard

6.6.1. No shift key, uppercase letters had separate keys than lowercase letters, arrangement of keys was based on letter frequency

6.6.2. Black keys: lowercase

6.6.3. White keys: uppercase

6.6.4. Blue keys: punctuations, digits, small capital letters, fixed width spaces

6.7. Matrix: mold for letter forms

6.8. Slug: when the assembled line of type is then cast as a single piece

7. Gutenberg Press

7.1. Modern book printing was invented by Johannes Gutenberg

7.1.1. Motivated to find a better way to produce books by working at the mints and his love for reading

7.1.2. Began his experiment with metal typography

7.2. Printing Press: a hand press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand set letters held within a modern frame

7.3. Developed from the technology of the new screw type

7.4. Movable type

7.4.1. First developed in China

7.4.2. Carved from Wood

7.4.3. The system of printing that uses moveable components to reproduce the elements of a document

7.5. Gutenberg was also credited for the introduction of oil based ink

7.6. John Fust

7.6.1. Gutenberg invested in his inventions

7.6.2. Agreement was if Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials

7.6.3. Credited alongside Schoeffer for the printing of the first book, the Bible

7.7. Impacted communication by: 1. perfected script 2. books made more rapidly 3. current information could be shared locally around the world 4. cost of books decreased allowing more people to buy them 5. demand grew, population became more literate 6. book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as papermaking 7. economies became stronger 8.art and science began to flourish which led to the Renaissance

7.8. 4 major printing processes still used today: 1. relief printing 2. intaglio 3. porous 4. lithography

8. History Of Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. used in the 4th century as a way to observe light

8.1.2. “Dark chamber”, optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.3. Camera obscura room in the 1500s was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall, the outside scene passed through the lens and was projected onto the opposite wall

8.1.4. Changed in the 17 and 18 centuries because it shrunk down to the size of a box

8.2. Name "photography" originated from Sir John Hershel and Greek words for light and writing

8.3. First successful photograph made in 1827 by Joseph Niepce

8.4. Louis Daguerre

8.4.1. Invented first practical photographic process known as Daguerreotype

8.4.2. Exposed a light sensitive metal which created a direct positive image

8.5. Calotype Process

8.5.1. William Fox Talbot

8.5.2. Subject was exposed onto a light sensitive picture producing a paper negative

8.5.3. Basis of our modern photographic process because an unlimited amount of duplicates could be made

8.6. Wet Collodion Process

8.6.1. Archer

8.6.2. Glass plates were used for the negative to capture the light, plates coated with collodion, then exposed and developed immediately

8.7. Dry Plate Process

8.7.1. Richard Maddox

8.7.2. Used gelatin instead of glass

8.7.3. Gelatin: a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

8.8. Eastman

8.8.1. Invented roll film, photographic medium that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls

8.8.2. "You press the button, we do the rest" means the owner could send in the camera with a minimum processing fee and the company would do the rest

8.8.3. Eastman Kodak Company

8.8.4. Marketed the Brownie camera to the general public in 1900 as an effort to bring photography to the masses

8.9. First color photograph was taken by James Clerk Maxwell

8.10. Instant photography

8.10.1. Edwin Land

8.10.2. Could produce a black and white print in 60 seconds

8.11. Muybridge

8.11.1. Paved the way for motion picture photography and developed with Zoopraxiscope (a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion)

8.11.2. Hired to settle if all four of a horses’ hooves are off the ground at the same time

8.11.3. He did continue experimentations and successfully photographed a horse in motion with all 4 hooves off the ground

9. History of Computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse was credited for inventing the first freely programmable computer

9.2. Mark series of computers were designed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.2.1. They were used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.3. Univac

9.3.1. John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly

9.3.2. Universal Automatic Computer

9.3.3. First commercial computer

9.4. IBM

9.4.1. International Business Machines

9.4.2. Developed IBM701 EDPM Computer

9.5. Fortran

9.5.1. First high level programming language

9.5.2. The IBM mathematical formula translating system

9.6. First compter game was space war

9.7. Computer mouse

9.7.1. Douglas Engelbart

9.7.2. Made the computer more user-friendly

9.7.3. Nicknamed the tail

9.8. Arpanet

9.8.1. First Internet

9.8.2. Developed to protect the flow of information between military installations

9.9. Intel 4004 was the first single chip microprocessor invented by Intel

9.10. First memory disk was a floppy disk produced by IBM

9.11. First ethernet developed by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox

9.12. MS-DOS

9.12.1. Bill Gates and Microsoft

9.12.2. Computer Operating System

9.13. Lisa

9.13.1. Introduced by Apple in 1983

9.13.2. First personal computer with GUI

9.13.3. Xerox play in the creation of this computer because they were the first to develop GUI

9.14. Apple introduced the Macintosh Computer in 1984