History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. 30,000 years ago CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Mans first attempt to visually communicate with images and symbols

1.1.1.1. Had large animal, such as bison, horses, deer, and human hands

1.2. Lascaux Cave

1.2.1. The paintings were being damaged by the carbon dioxide emitted from tourists, so the cave had to close.

1.2.2. Most famous cave painting site

1.3. 3 Reasons Why Created

1.3.1. Instructional

1.3.2. Religious

1.3.3. Story Telling

1.4. Altamira, Spain

1.4.1. Cave paintings have red hue because the red clay in the soil

1.4.2. Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria discovered the cave painting site

1.5. Chauvet Pont d’arc in France

1.5.1. Oldest cave painting site

1.5.2. Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean Marie Chauvet discovered this site

1.5.3. The walls were scraped clear of debris, and there was a 3D effect on some paintings

2. CUNEIFORM

2.1. Why was it created?

2.1.1. To keep track of business transactions

2.2. What is Cuneiform?

2.2.1. A series of pictograms

2.2.2. Became more abstract and added more characters

2.2.3. The first written language

2.3. How did they write?

2.3.1. Wrote on clay tablets

2.3.2. Used wedge shaped stylus to make impressions in clay surface

2.4. Who created cuneiform?

2.4.1. The Sumerians

3. 6th century BC HIEROGLYPHICS

3.1. How were they discovered?

3.1.1. Invading armies found them in great pyramids, tombs, and temples

3.1.2. Armies noticed symbols all over the walls

3.2. What are hieroglyphics?

3.2.1. Combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.3. What were they used for?

3.3.1. Religion and government

3.4. Scribes

3.4.1. People who could read and write hieroglyphics

3.4.2. Military leaders

3.4.2.1. Could communicate in battle

3.4.3. Priest

3.4.3.1. Read and write instructions on the walls and on papyrus for rituals

3.5. Rosetta Stone

3.5.1. A slab with inscriptions on it

3.5.2. Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek

3.5.3. Now in a British museum

3.6. Jean Francois Champollion

3.6.1. Finally deciphered the hieroglyphics on the stone

4. PHONETIC ALPHABET

4.1. Based on

4.1.1. One sign represents one spoken sound

4.1.1.1. Letter starts with a consonants

4.1.2. Theories that its based on Hieroglyphics, Cuneiform, or and independent language

4.2. Why was it so popular?

4.2.1. Trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use into parts of Africa and Europe

4.2.2. First widespread script

4.2.3. Common people could learn to read and write

4.3. The Greek and the Romain alphabets originated from the Phonetic alphabet.

4.4. Writing

4.4.1. Baseline

4.4.1.1. The line that the letter sit on

4.4.2. Descender

4.4.2.1. The line that the top the letters rest on

4.4.3. There two styles of writing

4.4.3.1. A rigid, formal script for important manuscripts and documents

4.4.3.2. A quicker, informal style for letters and routine types of writing

5. THE BOOK

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. Long continuous piece of papyrus, others were made of separate sheets glued together at the edges

5.1.2. Were used for sequential usage

5.2. Codex

5.2.1. A covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

5.2.2. Some advantages: compactness, sturdiness and ease of reference

5.3. Parchment

5.3.1. A substrate used as paper made from animal skin such as sheep, goat, and cow

5.3.2. Parchment is more durable

5.4. Illuminated manuscript

5.4.1. A bible with drawings

5.4.2. The borders, illustrations and ornamentation added to each page of text

5.5. Printing Press

5.5.1. Caused the decline of the creation of illuminated manuscripts

6. GUTENBERG PRESS

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing.

6.2. First movable type system

6.2.1. Made is China

6.2.2. Carved from wood

6.3. Metal type vs wood type

6.3.1. Metal type could be reproduced more quickly once a single mold could be made

6.4. What is a matrix?

6.4.1. A mold to make the letter or punctuation

6.5. John Fust

6.5.1. Invested in Gutenberg's inventions

6.5.2. The agreement

6.5.2.1. If Gutenberg couldn’t repay the loan with interest after 5 years Fust would get the press, tools, and materials.

6.6. First printing

6.6.1. The bible

6.6.2. Fust and Schoeffer took credit for the first printing

6.7. How did the Gutenberg Press impact communication?

6.7.1. 1. Perfected script and made it easier to read

6.7.2. 2. Books were made more rapidly

6.7.3. 3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world.

6.7.4. 4. Cost of books decreased allowing more people to buy them.

6.7.5. 5. Demand grew. Population became more literate.

6.7.6. 6. Readers wanted books written in their own language and a greater variety.

6.7.7. 7. Book trade became to flourish, as well as industries such as papermaking.

6.7.8. 8. Economies became stronger.

6.8. What are the four major printing process still utilized today?

6.8.1. 1. Relief printing

6.8.2. 2. Intaglio

6.8.3. 3. Porous

6.8.4. 4. Lithography

7. LINOTYPE

7.1. Clephane

7.1.1. Invented the Linotype machine

7.1.2. Wanted to find an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs to produce multiple copies

7.2. Shole tested Clephane's machine

7.3. Ottmar Mergenthaler

7.3.1. Clephane wanted to give him advice to help improve the invention

7.3.1.1. His advice was casting type from a metal matrix versus a papier-mache

7.4. Allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

7.5. Where did it get its name?

7.5.1. The fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once

7.6. Keyboard

7.6.1. 90 character keyboard

7.6.2. No shift key

7.6.3. Separate uppercase and lowercase keys

7.6.3.1. Black keys are for lowercase letters

7.6.3.2. White keys are for uppercase letters

7.6.3.3. Blue keys are for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces

7.6.4. Arranged by letter frequency

8. PHOTOGRAPHY

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. An optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.2. Used as a way to observe light in the 4th century

8.1.3. Became a darkened room with convex lens inserted into one wall in the 1500s.

8.1.4. The outside scene passed through the lens and was projected onto the opposite wall

8.1.5. 17th and 18th centuries the camera shrunk to the size of a portable box.

8.2. Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph in 1827

8.3. Processes

8.3.1. Daguerreotype

8.3.1.1. Louis Daguerre invented it.

8.3.1.2. He exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positvie image

8.3.2. Calotype process

8.3.2.1. Invented by William Fox Talbot

8.3.2.1.1. The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative.

8.3.2.2. The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative.

8.3.3. Wet Collodion

8.3.3.1. Invented by Archer

8.3.3.1.1. glass plates were coated with collodion, a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether. The exposure time was reduced to 2-3 seconds.

8.3.3.2. Glass plates were coated with collodion, a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether. The exposure time was reduced to 2-3 seconds.

8.3.4. Dry Plate Process

8.3.4.1. Invented by Richard Maddox

8.3.4.2. Glass plates were coated with the gelatin

8.3.4.2.1. Gelatin- a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

8.3.5. Instant photography

8.3.5.1. Invented by Edwin Land

8.3.5.2. Produced a black and white photograph in 60 seconds

8.4. Eastman

8.4.1. Invented roll film, replaced glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls. Still coated in gelatin.

8.4.2. Eastman Kodak Company

8.4.2.1. First camera was the Brownie

8.4.2.1.1. It was created in an effort to bring photography to the masses

8.4.3. “You press the button, we do the rest.”

8.4.3.1. Owner sends in camera and the company processes the film, reloads the camera with new roll, and returns the camera to the owner

8.5. James Clerk Maxwell took the first color photograph.

8.6. Muybridge

8.6.1. Paved the way for motion picture photography

8.6.2. The debate

8.6.2.1. Hired to settle the debate of "All four of a horse’s hooves are off the ground at the same times during a gallop"

8.6.2.2. He settled it by using a series of large cameras placed in a line. Each being triggered by a thread as a horse passed by

8.7. Zoopraxiscope

8.7.1. a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

9. COMPUTERS

9.1. Mark series of computers

9.1.1. Invented by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.1.2. Used by the US NAVY for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.2. First commercial computer

9.2.1. Univac for the Census Bureau

9.2.1.1. Stands for Universal Automatic Computer

9.2.2. Invented by John Preseper Eckert and John Macuchly

9.3. IBM (International Business Machine)

9.3.1. Invented the IBM 701 EDPM computer

9.3.2. First high level programing language Fortran

9.3.2.1. Stands for the IBM mathematical formula translating system

9.4. The mouse

9.4.1. Invented by Douglas Engelbart

9.4.2. It was a more user friendly tool

9.4.3. Called the mouse because it has a “tail” that connects it to the computer.

9.5. First Internet

9.5.1. ARPANET

9.5.2. Developed to protect the flow of information between military installations.

9.6. First single chip mircoprocessor

9.6.1. Intel 4004

9.6.2. Invented by Intel

9.7. floppy disk

9.7.1. The first memory disk

9.7.2. Introduced by IBM

9.8. Computers made during the 1970s

9.8.1. Scelbi mark-8

9.8.2. Commodore PET

9.8.3. Trs-80

9.8.4. Apple 1 and 2

9.8.5. IBM 5100

9.8.6. Altair

9.9. MS-DOS

9.9.1. Invented by Bill Gates and Microsoft

9.9.2. An operating system

9.10. Apple Lisa

9.10.1. Introduce in 1983

9.10.2. First personal computer with a GUI

9.10.2.1. Xerox play in the creation of this computer, because the first GUI was invented by Xerox.

9.11. Apple Macintosh

9.11.1. Introduced in 1984

9.11.2. Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced the windows operating system in response to Apple’s operating system