BMIS 647 Ethnotheology - Readings

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1. Readings

1.1. Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “The Case For Contamination.” New York Times (January 1, 2006): 30.

1.2. Bailey, Kenneth. Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL.: IVP Academic, 2008.

1.3. González, Justo. Mañana : Christian Theology from a Hispanic Perspective. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1990.

1.4. Hood, Robert. Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-Talk. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.

1.5. Johnson, Elizabeth. She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse. 10th ed. New York: Crossroad, 2002.

1.5.1. Part I: Background: Speech about God at the Intersection of Mighty Concerns - 1

1.5.1.1. 1. Introduction: To Speak Rightly of God - 3

1.5.1.1.1. A Crucial Question - 3

1.5.1.1.2. Context: Mystery Mediated in History - 6

1.5.1.1.3. Purpose: Connecting Feminist and Classical Wisdom - 8

1.5.1.1.4. Plan - 13

1.5.1.1.5. Scotosis vs. the Glory of God - 13

1.5.1.2. 2. Feminist Theology and Critical Discourse about God - 17

1.5.1.2.1. The Lens of Women's Flourishing - 17

1.5.1.2.2. Speech about God at the Intersection of Mighty Concerns - 19

1.5.1.2.3. Feminist Theology - 22

1.5.1.2.4. Critique of Speech about God - 33

1.5.1.3. 3. Basic Linguistic Options: God, Women, Equivalence - 42

1.5.2. Part II: Foreground: Resources for Emancipatory Speech about God - 59

1.5.3. Part III: Speaking about God from the World's History - 121

1.5.4. Part IV: Dense Symbols and their Dark Light - 189

1.5.5. Epilogue - 273

1.5.6. Notes

1.5.7. Index of Authors

1.5.8. Index of Subjects

1.6. Koyama, Kōsuke. Water Buffalo Theology. 25th ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999.

1.7. Newbigin, Lesslie. “Christ and the Cultures.” Scottish Journal of Theology 31, no. 1 (January 1978): 1-22.

1.8. Orobator, Agbonkhianmeghe E. Theology Brewed in an African Pot. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008.

1.8.1. Preface

1.8.2. 1. Chukwuka: Talking about God - 1

1.8.3. 2. A "New God" Comes to Mbanta - 13

1.8.4. 3. The Mad Preacher and the Three Persons in One God - 26

1.8.5. 4. In the Beginning There Were Many Stories - 37

1.8.6. 5. Mama Mercy Meets Lady Grace - 52

1.8.7. 6. I Said "God Had a Son," But I Did Not Say "He Had a Wife"! - 66

1.8.8. 7. The Church Looked Like the Open Mouth of the Evil Forest - 81

1.8.9. 8. Mama Maria, Mother of Sorrows - 94

1.8.9.1. ...

1.8.9.2. From Eve to Mary

1.8.9.3. Hail Mary, Full of Grace

1.8.9.4. Blessed Are You Among Women

1.8.9.5. Blessed Is the Fruit of Your Womb

1.8.9.6. Q. Veneration or worship?

1.8.9.7. Q. Mary was special, but what exactly? Virtue? Ordinariness?

1.8.10. 9. Our Fathers and Mothers Who Art in Heaven - 110

1.8.10.1. ...

1.8.10.2. Warm Communion with the Ancestors

1.8.10.3. The Blessed Living Dead

1.8.11. 10. If Two Hands Wash Each Other, Both are Clean: The Meaning and Practice of Inculturation - 125

1.8.11.1. ...

1.8.11.2. Inculturation is a dynamic process

1.8.11.3. Inculturation is an integral process

1.8.11.4. Inculturation is a generative term

1.8.11.5. Conditions for inculturation

1.8.11.5.1. Freedom

1.8.11.5.2. Mutual Enrichment

1.8.11.5.3. Dialogue

1.8.11.5.4. To be creative

1.8.11.5.5. Mutual Respect

1.8.11.5.6. Critical

1.8.11.5.7. Humble

1.8.11.5.8. Conversion

1.8.11.6. Inculturation is a charismatic experince

1.8.12. 11. On the Other Side of Heaven: Spirituality Brewed in and African Pot - 139

1.8.12.1. blah blah

1.8.12.2. blah blah

1.8.12.3. blahblah

1.8.13. Postscript

1.9. Sanneh, Lamin. Whose Religion is Christianity?: The Gospel Beyond the West. Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans, 2003.

1.10. Sedmak, Clemens. Doing Local Theology: A Guide for Artisans of a New Humanity. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002.

1.10.1. 1. Walking, Talking, Doing Theology - 6

1.10.1.1. Theology: The Why, How, What, Who, and Where - 7

1.10.1.2. A Guiding Image: The Local Theologian as Village Cook - 17

1.10.2. 2. Jesus - 21

1.10.2.1. Teacher of Theology - 21

1.10.2.2. The Local Life of Jesus, the Christ - 23

1.10.2.3. The Authority of Jesus - 26

1.10.2.4. The Pastoral Theology of Jesus - 28

1.10.2.5. Theological Occasions - 29

1.10.2.6. A Theology That Builds Community "As If People Matter" - 31

1.10.2.7. Good Theology - 35

1.10.2.8. A Third Look at Jesus - 41

1.10.3. 3. Reappropriating Our Tradition - 43

1.10.3.1. Our Tradition: Asking Questions - 44

1.10.3.2. Rediscovering the Message of Jesus - 46

1.10.3.3. Reappropriating the Theological Tradition - 52

1.10.3.4. Reappropriating the Bible - 56

1.10.3.5. Inspiring Examples - 63

1.10.3.6. Good Theology 69

1.10.4. 4. Theologies and Local Culture - 73

1.10.4.1. Culture as a Local Reality - 73

1.10.4.2. Implicit Theologies - 75

1.10.4.3. "Value Stories" 77

1.10.4.4. Theology and the Dialogue with Culture - 79

1.10.4.5. Local Language - 81

1.10.4.6. The Filipino Concept f Bahala Na - 83

1.10.4.7. Cultural Games - 86

1.10.4.8. Cultural Stories - 90

1.10.5. 5. Local Theologies and the Social Situation - 95

1.10.5.1. Doing Theology within a Particular Social Structure - 96

1.10.5.2. Special Attention to the Poor - 98

1.10.5.3. Theological Eyes and Social Glasses - 104

1.10.5.4. Theological Social Analysis in Practice: Pastoral Letter on Poverty in Alabama (1990) - 109

1.10.5.5. Regional Theological Sketches - 111

1.10.6. 6. Little Theologies - 119

1.10.6.1. Little Theologies Are Not Cheap Theology - 121

1.10.6.2. Three Tasks of Little Theologies - 125

1.10.6.3. Constructing Little Theologies - 130

1.10.6.4. The Examined Life - 136

1.10.6.5. Theological Occasions - 141

1.10.6.6. Discovering Theological Occasions: The Art of Looking at Details - 144

1.10.6.7. Ingredients of Little Theologies - 146

1.10.6.8. Working with Images - 147

1.10.6.9. Working with Proverbs - 150

1.10.6.10. Working with Stories and Examples - 154

1.10.7. Epilogue: A Culture of Hope - 158

1.10.8. Fifty Theses for Doing Local Theology - 162

1.10.9. Introduction: Waking Up - 1

1.11. Whiteman, Darrell L. “Contextualization : The Theory, the Gap, the Challenge..” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 21, no. 1 (January 1997): 2-7.

1.12. Yeo, Khiok-Khng. Musing with Confucius and Paul: Toward a Chinese Christian Theology. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2008.

1.12.1. Foreward by Vincent Shen - ix

1.12.2. Preface - xv

1.12.2.1. Terror, Violence, and the Need of a Theology of Peace

1.12.2.2. Preview of the Book: Musing with Confucius and Paul for a Chinese Christian Theology

1.12.2.2.1. Overture and Epilogue with Six Movements in between

1.12.2.2.2. Analects and Galatians

1.12.2.3. The Henry Luce Family and their Christian Passion

1.12.2.3.1. Henry and Elizabeth Luce (1860s to 1940s): "missionaries in reverse" (p. xxiii)

1.12.2.3.2. Leads to Luce Foundation and influence on Time and Life magazines.

1.12.3. Abbreviations - xxvi

1.12.4. OVERTURE: Identifying with the Life-World of Confucius and Paul - 1

1.12.4.1. Cultural and Theological Identities - 1

1.12.4.2. A Diasporic Chinese: A Hybrid Chinese Christian Identity - 3

1.12.4.2.1. Malaysian Chinese - 3

1.12.4.2.2. Chinese Christian - 6

1.12.4.2.3. Migrant/Diasporic Chinese - 11

1.12.4.3. Confucius: The Ethics of Moral Education and Becoming a Sage-Ruler - 13

1.12.4.3.1. Family Background - 13

1.12.4.3.2. Political Career - 15

1.12.4.3.3. Academic Career - 22

1.12.4.4. Paul: Apostle of the Cross-Cultural Gospel - 25

1.12.4.4.1. Childhood and the Hellenistic Jewish World - 25

1.12.4.4.2. Jewish Christian - 27

1.12.4.5. Intertextuality of Confucius and Paul: Toward a Moral and Theological Identity of Chinese Christian - 33

1.12.4.5.1. ...

1.12.4.5.2. Intersubjectivity and Intertextual Reading - 33

1.12.4.5.3. Overarching Concepts in Confucius' and Paul's Worldviews - 35

1.12.4.5.4. Identifying with Confucius and Paul - 44

1.12.4.6. Hybridity of a Chinese Christian Identity and Theology - 50

1.12.5. 1. The Textual Worlds of the Analects and the Letter to the Galatians - 53

1.12.5.1. Intertextual Reading of Classics - 53

1.12.5.1.1. ...

1.12.5.1.2. Intersubjective Reading, Exegesis, and Eisegesis - 53

1.12.5.1.3. The Meanings of "Classics" - 55

1.12.5.2. The Analects: Text, Language, and Content - 56

1.12.5.2.1. The Classic Text and Its Composition - 56

1.12.5.2.2. Language of the Analects: Wenyen - 59

1.12.5.2.3. The Power of the Analects: From Yan (Word) to Wen (Culture) - 61

1.12.5.2.4. The Analects and the Scholarly Tradition of Learning to Become Human - 64

1.12.5.2.5. The Dao of "Human Becoming" and the Confucian Project of an Aesthetic Culture - 67

1.12.5.3. The Letter to the Galatians: Text, Setting, and Paul's Response to the Crisis in Galatia - 70

1.12.5.3.1. ...

1.12.5.3.2. The Crisis and the Congregation in Galatia - 70

1.12.5.3.3. Paul's Theological Response to the Crisis - 77

1.12.5.4. Toward a Chinese Christian Understanding of Theological Ethics - 80

1.12.5.4.1. Theology and Culture - 80

1.12.5.4.2. Theological Ethics--Ethics and Theology - 88

1.12.5.5. A Chinese Christian Ethic of Virtue - 101

1.12.5.5.1. Theological Ethics and Moral Choices - 101

1.12.5.5.2. The Ethics of Virtue and Doing Good for Goodness Sake - 104

1.12.5.5.3. The Ethics of Virtue, Coexistence of All, and the Common Good - 106

1.12.6. 2. Theological Ethics in a World of Violence - 110

1.12.6.1. ...

1.12.6.2. Commensurability: Tianming in Confucius and God's Will in Paul - 111

1.12.6.2.1. Religion, Zongjiao, Jia, and Piety - 111

1.12.6.2.2. Tian, Tianming: Heaven and the Mandate of Heaven - 115

1.12.6.2.3. Dao, Tian Dao, Ren Dao, and Dao De - 122

1.12.6.2.4. Conclusion - 131

1.12.6.3. The Political Ethics of Confucius and Paul - 132

1.12.6.3.1. Religious Violence Despite Piety - 132

1.12.6.3.2. Violence and the Galatian Community - 138

1.12.6.3.3. Hegemonic System (Ba) and Roman Ideology - 142

1.12.6.3.4. Crucifixion and the Evil Age - 151

1.12.6.4. A Chinese Christian Understanding of History: Eschatological and Golden Age - 155

1.12.6.4.1. The Apocalyptic Theology of Paul - 155

1.12.6.4.2. Traditions of the Past - 158

1.12.6.4.3. Paul, Confucius, and the Understanding of Time - 168

1.12.6.5. Toward a Chinese Christian Political Ethic - 173

1.12.7. 3. Li and Law, Yue and Music in a World of Ritual and Harmony - 177

1.12.7.1. ...

1.12.7.2. Law and Li in the Context of Community - 178

1.12.7.2.1. Self and Community - 178

1.12.7.2.2. Paul's View of the Law in Galatians - 179

1.12.7.2.3. Confucius' Understanding of Li in the Analects - 189

1.12.7.3. A Chinese Christian Theology of Li and Law - 201

1.12.7.3.1. ...

1.12.7.3.2. Ritual and Identity in Cross-Cultural Context - 202

1.12.7.3.3. Envisioning God's New Creation in Christ - 211

1.12.7.3.4. The Rule of Law/Li and Harmony in Society - 213

1.12.7.4. Yue (Music), Harmony/Naturalness, and Beauty - 215

1.12.7.4.1. The Understanding of Confucius - 215

1.12.7.4.2. Music and Its Lyrical Quality in the New Testament - 231

1.12.7.5. Toward a Chinese Christian Understanding of Harmony - 240

1.12.7.5.1. ...

1.12.7.5.2. Differences between Confucius and Paul on Music - 240

1.12.7.5.3. Ritual, Music, and Harmony - 243

1.12.7.5.4. Music as Systems of Harmony and Beauty - 245

1.12.7.5.5. Can Beauty Save the World? - 249

1.12.7.6. Modern Implications - 249

1.12.8. 4. To Be Human and To Be Holy in the New World--To Be the People of God - 253

1.12.8.1. ...

1.12.8.2. Confucius and Pauline Ethics: To be Holy and to be Human - 253

1.12.8.2.1. ...

1.12.8.2.2. The Different Understandings of "Grace" and "Human Nature" - 254

1.12.8.2.3. The Life of Holiness and Justification - 259

1.12.8.2.4. NOTES:

1.12.8.3. A Chinese Christian Ethics: Ritual (Law) of Love in the Life of Holiness - 261

1.12.8.3.1. Ren (Humaneness and Benevolence) and Co-Humanity - 261

1.12.8.3.2. Renren: To Be a Benevolent/Humane Person - 270

1.12.8.3.3. Junzi: The Exemplary Person of the Best Moral Self - 276

1.12.8.4. A Chinese Christian Anthropology: Sons of God, Renren, and Junzi - 282

1.12.8.4.1. Being Heirs of God (Sons of God), Becoming Renren and Junzi - 282

1.12.8.4.2. Living in the Spirit and Becoming Junzi and Renren - 285

1.12.8.4.3. Spirit and Law, Li and Ren - 289

1.12.8.5. Within the Confucian and Pauline Ethics: Love for One's Neighbors - 291

1.12.8.5.1. ...

1.12.8.5.2. Fulfillment of the Whole Law via Lev 19:18 - 292

1.12.8.5.3. Paul's Reinterpretation of the Whole Law into "Law of Christ" - 293

1.12.8.5.4. The Significance of Paul's Reinterpretation of the Law - 294

1.12.8.5.5. Law, Freedom, and Law of Love - 296

1.12.8.6. Beyond Confucian Ethics: Cruciform Ren and Love for One's Enemies - 300

1.12.8.7. Misc. Notes:

1.12.8.7.1. Yeo mentions imago Dei. What is the relationship between Confucius and Paul's respective understanding of theosis and becoming fully human?

1.12.8.7.2. Confucius: "tian (heaven) imparted ren (humaneness) as a part of human nature (xing)." p. 301 and elsewhere.

1.12.9. 5. Free to Be Human in a World of Difference - 304

1.12.9.1. ...

1.12.9.2. Spirit, Flesh, and Freedom in Gal 4:21-31 - 305

1.12.9.2.1. The Debate Between Paul and His Opponents: Two Gentile Missions in Galatia - 305

1.12.9.2.2. The Allegorical Interpretation of Paul - 306

1.12.9.3. Male and Female in the Thoughts of Paul and Confucius - 311

1.12.9.3.1. Paul: Equality and Differentiation - 311

1.12.9.3.2. Confucius on Women, Bie and Zhengming - 325

1.12.9.4. Toward a Chinese Christian Understanding of Human Nature and Moral Freedom - 333

1.12.9.4.1. ...

1.12.9.4.2. Human Nature and Moral Weakness - 333

1.12.9.4.3. Moral Freedom - 339

1.12.9.4.4. Notes:

1.12.9.5. A Chinese Christian Theology of Freedom - 344

1.12.9.5.1. ...

1.12.9.5.2. Freedom, Goodness, and Benevolence - 345

1.12.9.5.3. To Be Fully Human via Differentiation and Socialization - 346

1.12.9.5.4. Being Fully Human, Social Selves, and Moral Obligation - 347

1.12.9.6. Freedom, Death, and the Human Story - 351

1.12.9.6.1. Abel and Jesus "Jesus has died, no one else should, not even Cain." cf. Rabbi Jonathan Sacks. This is the christological side (again, economic and atonement theory questions remain) of junzi and ren. MAJOR: further down the page he talks about Abel dying. Death as retribution diminishes our humanity as a whole, but death as self-sacrificing love (cruciform) is living into the imago Dei or junzi.

1.12.9.7. Notes:

1.12.9.7.1. Here and in previous chapters, Yeo points out how Paul utilizes traditional language and concepts even while transforming and reinterpreting them.

1.12.10. 6. Zhongshu (Loyalty-Empathy), Xin (Trust), and Pistis (Faith) in a World of Fear - 355

1.12.10.1. Civil Society and Civility - 355

1.12.10.2. Toward a Chinese Christian Theology of Community - 356

1.12.10.2.1. ...

1.12.10.2.2. Zhong and Shu - 357

1.12.10.2.3. Shu in the Galatian Situation - 360

1.12.10.2.4. Hierarchy and Zhongshu - 364

1.12.10.2.5. The Unity of Zhongshu - 366

1.12.10.2.6. Dao and the Truth of the Gospel - 368

1.12.10.3. A Chinese Christian Theology of Jing (Respect) and Mutual Honoring - 370

1.12.10.3.1. Shame and Honor Culture and Jing - 370

1.12.10.3.2. Jing, Mutual Respect, and Mutual Honoring - 371

1.12.10.3.3. Abraham's Descendants as the People of and for Blessing - 374

1.12.10.4. A Chinese Christian Theology of Xin and Mutual Trust - 375

1.12.10.4.1. ...

1.12.10.4.2. Confucian Xin and Pauline Pistis - 375

1.12.10.4.3. The Pistis of Christ as the Divine Paradigm of the Fully Human - 380

1.12.10.4.4. Trusting in the Wholly Other - 394

1.12.10.5. Toward a Civil Society of Trust and Zhongshu - 398

1.12.10.5.1. Bottom of 398ff. Xander, like this focus on other-centeredness?

1.12.10.5.2. "...it also turns the Confucian system upside down by modeling for humanity how the cursed and rejected Son of God became the person of faithfulness." p. 400. There it is--the aforementioned critique! But more the abuse of hierarchy and estrangement than internal justification.

1.12.11. EPILOGUE: Implications for the Moral and Theological Identities of Chinese Christians Today - 402

1.12.11.1. The Ethical and Theological Tasks of Chinese Christians - 402

1.12.11.2. Theologico-Cultural Identities: Dynamic Change - 403

1.12.11.2.1. The Task of Being Creatively Faithful to Living Texts - 403

1.12.11.2.2. Beauty in Diversity: Journeying to Others and Self - 405

1.12.11.3. Chinese Identities: Hybridity and Diversity - 405

1.12.11.3.1. ...

1.12.11.3.2. China, Chinese, and Overseas Chinese - 406

1.12.11.3.3. Toward a Chinese Christian Theology of "Being Human": Human Rights in Chinese Identity - 410

1.12.11.3.4. Chinese Identity in Taiwan - 418

1.12.11.4. Toward a "Theologico-Cultural Chineseness - 423

1.12.11.4.1. Ethnic Identity and "Living Tree" - 423

1.12.11.4.2. Confucianist China and the Inclusion of Minorities - 425

1.12.11.4.3. Theological China--God's Country (Shenzhou)? - 426

1.12.11.5. The Challenge of Chinese Christians: Toward a Fiduciary and Global Community of the Spirit - 430

1.12.11.5.1. The Contribution of Chinese-Christian Theology to the Universal Church - 430

1.12.11.5.2. Mutuality Between Chinese Church and Global Church - 431

1.12.12. Bibliography - 433

1.12.13. Index of Subjects - 451

1.12.14. Index of Modern Authors - 462

1.12.15. Index of Ancient Texts - 466

1.12.16. Vocab:

1.12.16.1. Dao: way

1.12.16.2. Daode: Way of Virtue

1.12.16.3. De: Virtue

1.12.16.4. Junzi: best moral self

1.12.16.5. Li: ritual propriety

1.12.16.6. Ming ming: ?

1.12.16.7. Ren: benevolence/humaneness

1.12.16.8. Renren: benevolent person

1.12.16.9. Shu: Empathy, like-heartedness

1.12.16.10. Tian: heaven

1.12.16.11. Wulun: five areas of relationship

1.12.16.12. Xin: Trustworthiness

1.12.16.13. Xing: human nature

1.12.16.14. Yi

1.12.16.15. Zhengming: proper naming; befitting a name...

1.12.16.16. Zhong: Loyalty, single-heartedness

1.12.16.17. Jing: Respect

1.12.16.18. Shengren: Sage

1.12.17. Misc. Notes:

1.12.17.1. The cross-cultural person CANNOT be incarnational inasmuch as he or she cannot be born into the host culture. The best she or he can hope for is to be culturally aware/sensitive. HOWEVER, the gospel IS incarnational. As it is passed on, as it is received and expressed in each new generation, it is, in fact born anew in that context.

1.13. Zehner, Edwin. “Orthodox Hybridities: Anti-Syncretism and Localization in the Evangelical Christianity of Thailand..” Anthropological Quarterly 78, no. 3 (2005): 585-617.

2. Misc