Reading Disabilities

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Reading Disabilities by Mind Map: Reading Disabilities

1. Motivation

1.1. Moderately challenging tasks that focus on proximal not distal goals are effective motivating and creating positive self-preceptions Bandura 1994. So focus on the process and short term specific goals with positive feedback Attributional Retraining is learning process with feedback at challenging high expectations

1.2. Teachers with poor students give: 1. Less attention, 2. Less positive feedback, 3. Lower standards Brophy and Good 1970

1.3. Autonomy (Erikson, 1950) is an innate drive. So provide opportunities for students to choose or negotiate tasks. Select topics, texts, tasks.

1.4. Belonging (depth and quality of relationships) is motivating when students work in supports peer groups such as book club, literature circles, cooperative learning, peer tutoring. So more supportive relationships

1.5. More Collaboration and Less Competition: Mastery approach (learning for deep understanding) is preferred over performance approach (achieving to demonstrate superiority) which could lead to performance avoidance behaviors.

2. Developmental Patterns of Reading Proficiency and Reading Difficulty

2.1. Deaf Students

2.1.1. Banner and Wang 2010 Study shows good readers had lots of strategies

2.1.2. Luckner & Cooke 2010 meta-analysis show the value of cochlear implants and computers for vocabulary in multiple studies. Also, Total Communication, early intervention, tactile device, and intensive daily vocabulary integration as positive in single studies

2.1.3. Swanwick, Kitchen, & Clarke 2012 research has to listen to multiple voices including policy makers, administrators, and practitioners.

3. Developmental Interventions=Teaching Methods

3.1. Expert Classroom Instruction by Wharton-McDonald

3.1.1. Connie Juel 1988 of 54 students shows .88 correlation that if a reader is poor in 1st they will be in 4th as well, but Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block and Morrow 2001 show excellent instruction can alter a student's ability

3.1.2. Explicitness, Intensity (more time & lower group size)

3.1.3. Teachers provide: Instruction to match needs, scaffolding, level of challenge, motivation, flexibility,

3.2. Cultural Modeling

3.2.1. participant structures Au talk story, Phillips Warm Springs, Delgato Galltan 1988, Moll 1992 Lee 2007 music lyrics, art, videos,

3.3. Interventions to Develop Phonological & Orthographic Systems Darrell Morris

3.3.1. PE first & PE interactive Firth 1985 1. logographic=salient visual features then 2. alphabetic stage Ehri & Wlce 1996 Also intermediate stage with partial letter sound JL for jail

3.4. L M Phillips, R. Hayden, S. P. Norris (2006). Family Literacy Matters. Calgary, AB: Detselig

3.4.1. Provided 6 units of focus to 158 parents of young children: creative play (e.g. dress up act out book), developing language for literacy (rhymes, songs, puppets storytelling), games, beginning with books (e.g. discussions about reading and making books with children & some rereading), early reading, writing and drawing, environmental print, and advice and guidance. All students improved and sustained effects for children whose parents were below 80th percentile rank on pretest sustained significant improvement in subsequent 3 years.

3.5. Teaching Decoding Gaskins, Irene

3.5.1. Ehri’s Theory of Word Reading (2005) 1. Sounding out and blending letters – recognized into meaningful words “Synthetic phonics” – a parts-to-whole approach Can be difficult for some children – (don’t “b-uh”) 2. Analogizing to familiar words (e.g., frog to dog) “Rhyming approach – students look at the unknown word that makes the rhyming sound (vowel and consonant that follows) (e.g., like, strike, etc.) Tends not to work well for students who don’t understand key words 3. Predicting words based on context Use context surrounding an unknown word, plus one or a few letters of the word; discouraged except for a cross-check Works if context is clear; can be used to confirm word approximation 4. Sight word reading

3.5.2. Ehri's Phase Model 1. Initial (pre-alphabet) based on visual cues elephant for length and donkey based on the "y" tail. Also transferring to /e/ sound in "lady" and "story" 2. partial alphabet (e.g. h and s in horse) 3. Full alphabet (e.g. synthetic phonics), 4 consolidated alphabetic phase (multi letter chunks e.g. -tion) Overlapping wave model is the idea that children move through phases erratically

3.5.3. Synthetic phonics vs. onset-rhyme analogy instruction Lovett 2000 both are best

3.5.4. Juel Minden-cup 2000 Strategies good for sts at one level of development may not be best for all levels; 2. low first graders benefit from phonics and when reading independently other higher methods. Onsets and rhymes great together with phonics

3.5.5. 1) Professional Development–need to pursue 2) Commitment to early intervention 3) Frequent monitoring of progress (Monitor students’ needs and progress (CBM), etc. and adjust instruction based on data) (Graph progress) 4) Sensitivity to phases of development &the right level of instructional intensity 5) Attention to student characteristics in choosing instructional activities. (Support poor attention, lack of flexibility, impulsivity, or poor self-regulated learning) 6) Presentation of a systematic and structured approach (when teaching sound-letter matches) 7) Implement explicit instruction – with modeling and scaffolding (share diagram) 8) Priority for established use of instructional time. (Established time frames for each element of a lesson) (Half – Practice reading and rereading text; Other half – word-work activities) 9) System-wide plan for maintenance when intervention concluded

3.6. Vocabulary Graves & Silverman

3.6.1. Levels of word knowledge, Words to select, student friendly definitions, rich varied vocabulary experiences, Tchg individual words use definition and context, prior knowledge (feature analysis), intensive. Word learning strategies, word consciousness,

3.7. Narrative Almasi

3.7.1. Tutoring- highly trained teachers and volunteers showed significant progress. Process oriented (how, not skills) including visualization, summarization, monitoring, structures, repairing comprehension, timely use of strategies

3.8. Informational Text

4. Perspectives on Reading Disabilities

5. Causes and Consequences of Reading Disability

6. Assessing Reading Disability

7. Research on Reading Disabilities