Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning Jayme Hansen, Tanner Hageman, Chris Wilson

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Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning Jayme Hansen, Tanner Hageman, Chris Wilson by Mind Map: Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning Jayme Hansen, Tanner Hageman, Chris Wilson

1. Elements of the Cognitive Perspective

1.1. Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views

1.1.1. Cognitive learning is extending and transforming what you already know

1.1.2. The goal of behavioral researchers is to identify a few general laws of learning that apply to all higher organisms

1.1.3. The goal of cognitive psychologists is to study a wide range of learning situations

1.2. The Importance of Knowledge in Cognition

1.2.1. Knowledge and knowing are the outcomes of learning

1.2.2. Domain-specific knowledge pertains to a particular task or subject

1.2.3. General knowledge applies to many different situations

2. Cognitive Views of Memory

2.1. The human mind takes in information, performs operations on it to change its form and content, stores the information, retrieves it when needed, and generates responses to it.

2.2. Sensory Memory

2.2.1. The initial processing that transforms these incoming stimuli into information so we can make sense of them

2.2.2. Capacity is large

2.2.3. Duration is fragile (less than 3 seconds)

2.2.4. Perception is constructed based on both physical representations of the world and our existing knowledge

2.2.5. Attention is selective, we choose to look at some things and ignore others

2.2.5.1. Multitasking can take away from attention

2.2.5.2. First step to learning is paying attention

2.3. Working Memory

2.3.1. the interface where new information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from long-term memory to solve problems of comprehend a lecture

2.3.2. Includes both temporary storage and active processing

2.3.3. The central executive supervises attention, makes plans, and decides what information to retrieve and how to allocate resources

2.3.4. The phonological loop is a speech and sound-related system for holding and rehearsing words and sounds in short-term memory

2.3.5. The visuospatial sketchpad is the place in your mind where you can manipulate the image of something

2.3.6. The Episodic buffer is the process that brings together and integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory to create memories

2.3.7. Duration is about 5 to 20 seconds

2.4. Cognitive Load and Retaining Information

2.4.1. Intrinsic Cognitive Load

2.4.1.1. Unavoidable, amount of cognitive processing required to figure out the material

2.4.2. Extraneous Cognitive Load

2.4.2.1. Cognitive capacity you use to deal with problems not related to the learning task

2.4.3. Germane Cognitive Load

2.4.3.1. Directly related to high quality learning

2.4.4. Maintenance rehearsal is repeating the information to keep it in the working memory

2.4.5. Elaborative rehearsal involves connecting the information you are trying to remember with something you already know

2.4.6. Forgetting can come from interference or decay

2.4.6.1. Interference comes from new information getting in the way and getting mixed up with old information

2.4.6.2. Decay is when you fail to pay attention to information and it fades

3. Long-Term Memory

3.1. Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory

3.1.1. Declarative Knowledge

3.1.1.1. knowledge that can be declared through words and symbols

3.1.2. Procedural Knowledge

3.1.2.1. knowing how to do something, can be demonstrated

3.1.3. Self-regulatory Knowledge

3.1.3.1. Knowing how to manage your learning

3.1.4. Explicit Memory

3.1.4.1. knowledge from long-term memory that can be recalled and consciously considered

3.1.5. Implicit Memory

3.1.5.1. knowledge that we are not conscious of recalling but that influence behavior or thought without awareness

3.2. Explicit memories: Semantic and Episodic

3.2.1. Semantic Memory

3.2.1.1. Memory for meaning

3.2.2. Propositional Network

3.2.2.1. Set of interconnected concepts and relationships which long-term knowledge is held

3.2.3. Dual Coding theory

3.2.3.1. Suggests that information is stored in long-term memory as either visual images or verbal units, or both

3.2.4. Concepts

3.2.4.1. a category used to group similar events, ideas, objects, or people

3.2.5. Schemas

3.2.5.1. Basic structures for organizing information

3.3. Implicit Memories

3.3.1. Procedural memory

3.3.1.1. Long-term memory for how to do things

3.3.2. Script

3.3.2.1. schema for the sequence of steps in a common event

3.3.3. Productions

3.3.3.1. The contents of procedural memory

4. Becoming Knowledgable: Some Basic Principles

4.1. Reaching Every Student: Development of Declarative Knowledge

4.1.1. You must make material meaningful for it to stick

4.1.2. Mnemonics

4.1.2.1. Reduce Reuse Recycle

4.1.2.2. Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

4.1.2.3. My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos

4.1.3. Rote Memorization

4.1.3.1. Remembering information by repetition

4.2. Development of Procedural Knowledge

4.2.1. Automated Basic Skills

4.2.1.1. Skills that are applied without thought

4.2.2. Domain Specific Strategies

4.2.2.1. Consciously applied skills to reach goals in particular subject or problem