Biology 101

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Biology 101 by Mind Map: Biology 101

1. Chapter One

1.1. The Seven Properties and Process of Life

1.1.1. Order

1.1.2. Reproduction

1.1.3. Growth and Development

1.1.4. Energy Processing

1.1.5. Response to the Environment

1.1.6. Regulation

1.1.7. Evolutionary Adaption

1.2. Hierarchy of Organization

1.2.1. Biosphere

1.2.2. Ecosystem

1.2.3. Community

1.2.4. Population

1.2.5. Organism

1.2.6. Organ System

1.2.7. Organ

1.2.8. Tissue

1.2.9. Cell

1.2.9.1. Prokaryotic Cells

1.2.9.2. Eukaryotic Cells

1.2.10. Organelle

1.2.11. Molecule

1.3. The Three Domains of Life

1.3.1. Domain Bacteria

1.3.2. Domain Archaea

1.3.3. Domain Eukarya

1.4. The Process of Science

1.4.1. Inductive Reasoning

1.4.2. Hypothesis

1.4.3. Deductive Reasoning

1.4.4. Theory

2. Chapter Two

2.1. Subatomic Particles

2.1.1. Proton

2.1.2. Electron

2.1.3. Neutron

2.1.4. Nucleus

2.2. Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

2.2.1. Atomic Number

2.2.2. Mass Number

2.2.3. Atomic Mass

2.3. Isotopes

2.3.1. Radioactive Isotopes

2.4. Chemical Bonds

2.4.1. Covalent Bonds

2.4.2. Electronegativity

2.4.3. Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

2.4.4. Polar Covalent Bonds

2.4.5. Hydrogen Bonds

2.5. Water's Properties

2.5.1. Cohesion

2.5.2. Adhesion

2.5.3. Surface Tension

2.5.4. Heat

2.5.5. Temperature

2.5.6. Evaporative Cooling

3. Chapter Three

3.1. Organic Compounds

3.1.1. Hydrocarbons

3.1.2. Carbon Skeleton

3.1.3. Isomers

3.1.4. The Six Chemical Groups Important in the Chemistry of Life

3.1.4.1. Hydroxyl Group

3.1.4.2. Carbonyl Group

3.1.4.3. Carboxyl Group

3.1.4.4. Amino Group

3.1.4.5. Phosphate Group

3.1.4.6. Methyl Group

3.2. Macromolecules

3.2.1. Polymers

3.2.2. Monomers

3.2.3. Dehydration Reaction

3.2.4. Hydrolysis

3.2.5. Enzymes

3.3. Carbohydrates

3.3.1. Monosaccharides

3.3.2. Disaccharide

3.3.3. Polysaccharides

3.3.4. Starch

3.3.5. Glycogen

3.3.6. Cellulose

3.3.7. Chitin

3.4. Lipids

3.4.1. Hydrophobic

3.4.2. Fat

3.4.2.1. Unsaturated Fatty Acids

3.4.2.2. Saturated Fatty Acids

3.4.2.3. Trans Fats

3.4.3. Phosphlipids

3.4.4. Steroids

3.4.4.1. Anabolic Steroids

3.4.5. Cholesterol

3.5. Proteins

3.5.1. Amino Acids

3.5.2. Peptide Bond

3.5.3. Poypeptide

3.5.4. Denaturation

3.5.5. Primary Structure

3.5.6. Secondary Structure

3.5.7. Tertiary Structure

3.5.8. Quarternary Structure

3.6. Nucleic Acids

3.6.1. Gene

3.6.2. DNA

3.6.3. RNA

3.6.4. Nucleotides

3.6.5. Double Helix

4. Chapter Four

4.1. The Cell

4.1.1. Plasma Membrane

4.1.2. Prokaryotic Cells

4.1.3. Eukaryotic Cells

4.1.4. Chromosomes

4.1.5. Ribosomes

4.1.6. Cytoplasm

4.1.7. Nucleoid

4.1.8. Flagella

4.1.9. Organelles

4.1.10. Cellular Metabolism

4.2. Nucleus and Ribosomes

4.2.1. Nucleus

4.2.2. Chromatin

4.2.3. Nuclear Envelope

4.2.4. Nucleolus

4.3. The Endomembrane System

4.3.1. Vesicles

4.3.2. Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.3.2.1. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.3.2.2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

4.3.3. Glycoprotein

4.3.4. Transport Vesicle

4.3.5. Golgi Apparatus

4.3.6. Lysosome

4.3.7. Vacuoles

4.3.7.1. Central Vacuole

4.3.8. Peroxisomes

4.4. Energy-Converting Organelles

4.4.1. Mitochondria

4.4.2. Mitochondrial Matrix

4.4.3. Cristae

4.4.4. Chloroplasts

4.4.4.1. Stroma

4.4.4.2. Thylakoids

4.4.4.3. Granum

4.4.5. Endosymbiont Theory

4.5. Cytoskeleton and Cell Surfaces

4.5.1. Cytoskeleton

4.5.2. Microfilaments

4.5.3. Intermediate Filaments

4.5.4. Microtubules

4.5.5. Centrioles

4.5.6. Cilia

4.5.7. Extracellular Matrix

4.5.8. Integrins

4.5.9. Cell Wall

4.5.10. Plasmodesmata

5. Chapter Five

5.1. Membrane Structure and Function

5.1.1. Fluid Mosaic

5.1.2. Selective Permeability

5.1.3. Diffusion

5.1.4. Concentration Gradient

5.1.5. Passive Transport

5.1.6. Osmosis

5.1.7. Tonicity

5.1.8. Isotonic

5.1.9. Hypotonic

5.1.10. Hypertonic

5.1.11. Facilitated Diffusion

5.1.12. Aquaporin

5.1.13. Active Transport

5.1.14. Exocytosis

5.1.15. Endocytosis

5.1.16. Phagocytosis

5.1.17. Pinocytosis

5.1.18. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

5.2. Energy and the Cell

5.2.1. Energy

5.2.1.1. Kinetic Energy

5.2.1.2. Potential Energy

5.2.1.3. Chemical Energy

5.2.2. Heat

5.2.3. Thermodynamics

5.2.3.1. First Law of Thermodynamics

5.2.3.2. Second Law of Thermodynamics

5.2.4. Entropy

5.2.5. Cellular Respiration

5.2.6. Exergonic Reaction

5.2.7. Endergonic Reaction

5.2.8. Metabolism

5.2.9. Metabolic Pathway

5.2.10. Energy Coupling

5.2.11. Phosphorylation

5.3. How Enzymes Function

5.3.1. Activation Energy

5.3.2. Substrate

5.3.3. Active Site

5.3.4. Induced Fit

5.3.5. Cofactors

5.3.6. Coenzyme

5.3.7. Competitive Inhibitor

5.3.8. Noncompetitive Inhibitor

5.3.9. Feedback Inhibition

6. Chapter Six

6.1. Cellular Respiration

6.1.1. Kilocalories

6.1.2. Redox Reaction

6.1.3. Oxidation

6.1.4. Reduction

6.1.5. NAD+

6.1.6. Electron Transport Chain

6.2. Stages of Cellular Respiration

6.2.1. Glycolysis

6.2.2. Citric Acid Cycle

6.2.3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

6.2.4. Chemiosmosis

6.2.5. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

6.2.6. Intermediates

6.2.7. Acetyl CoA

6.2.8. ATP Synthase

6.3. Fermentation

6.3.1. Lactic Acid Fermentation

6.3.2. Alcohol Fermentation

7. Chapter Seven

7.1. Photosynthesis

7.1.1. Autotrohps

7.1.2. Heterotrophs

7.1.3. Chlorophyll

7.1.3.1. Chlorophyll a

7.1.4. Mesophyll

7.1.5. Stomata

7.1.6. Stroma

7.1.7. Thylakoids

7.1.8. Grana

7.1.9. NADP+

7.1.10. Carbon Fixation

7.1.11. Greenhouse Effect

7.1.12. Global Climate Change

7.2. The Light Reactions

7.2.1. Electromagnetic Spectrum

7.2.2. Wavelength

7.2.3. Photon

7.2.4. Photosystem

7.2.5. Photophosphorylation

7.3. The Calvin Cycle

7.3.1. C3 Plants

7.3.2. Photorespiration

7.3.3. C4 Plants

7.3.4. CAM Plants

8. Chapter Eight

8.1. Cell Division and Reproduction

8.1.1. Cell Division

8.1.2. Chromosomes

8.1.3. Asexual Reproduction

8.1.4. Sexual Reproduction

8.1.5. Binary Fission

8.2. The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Mitosis

8.2.1. Chromatin

8.2.2. Sister Chromatids

8.2.3. Centromere

8.2.4. Cell Cycle

8.2.5. Mitotic Phase

8.2.6. Mitosis

8.2.6.1. Interphase

8.2.6.2. Prophase

8.2.6.3. Prometaphase

8.2.6.4. Metaphase

8.2.6.5. Anaphase

8.2.6.6. Telophase

8.2.6.7. Cytokinesis

8.2.7. Mitotic Spindle

8.2.8. Centrosomes

8.2.9. Cleavage Furrow

8.2.10. Cell Plate

8.2.11. Growth Factor

8.2.12. Density-Dependent Inhibition

8.2.13. Anchorage Dependence

8.2.14. Cell Cycle Control System

8.2.15. Tumor

8.2.15.1. Benign Tumor

8.2.15.2. Malignant Tumor

8.2.16. Cancer

8.2.16.1. Metastasis

8.2.16.2. Carcinoma

8.2.16.3. Sarcomas

8.2.16.4. Leukemias

8.2.16.5. Lymphomas

8.3. Meiosis and Crossing Over

8.3.1. Somatic Cell

8.3.2. Homologous Chromosomes

8.3.3. Locus

8.3.4. Sex Chromosomes

8.3.5. Autosomes

8.3.6. Life Cycle

8.3.7. Diploid

8.3.8. Gametes

8.3.9. Haploid

8.3.10. Fertilization

8.3.11. Zygote

8.3.12. Meiosis

8.3.12.1. Interphase

8.3.12.2. Prophase

8.3.12.3. Metaphase

8.3.12.4. Anaphase

8.3.12.5. Telophase

8.3.12.6. Cytokinesis

8.3.13. Tetrads

8.3.14. Crossing Over

8.3.15. Chiasma

8.3.16. Genetic Recombination

8.4. Alterations of Chromosome Structure

8.4.1. Deletion

8.4.2. Duplication

8.4.3. Inversion

8.4.4. Translocation

9. Chapter Nine

9.1. Mendel's Laws

9.1.1. Heredity

9.1.2. Genetics

9.1.3. Character

9.1.4. Trait

9.1.5. Self-Fertilize

9.1.6. Cross-Fertilization

9.1.7. Hybrids

9.1.7.1. Cross

9.1.8. P Generation

9.1.9. F1 Generation

9.1.10. F2 Generation

9.1.11. Monohybrid Cross

9.1.12. Alleles

9.1.13. Homozygous

9.1.14. Heterozygous

9.1.15. Dominant Allele

9.1.16. Recessive Allele

9.1.17. Law of Segregation

9.1.18. Punnet Square

9.1.19. Phenotype

9.1.20. Genotype

9.1.21. Locus

9.1.22. Dihybrid Cross

9.1.23. Law of Independent Assortment

9.1.24. Testcross

9.1.25. Rule of Multiplication

9.1.26. Rule of Addition

9.1.27. Wild-Type Trait

9.1.28. Pedigree

9.1.29. Carriers

9.1.30. Cystic Fibrosis

9.1.31. Inbreeding

9.1.32. Achondroplasia

9.1.33. Huntington's Disease

9.2. Variations on Mendel's Laws

9.2.1. Complete Dominance

9.2.2. Incomplete Dominance

9.2.3. ABO Blood Group

9.2.4. Codominant

9.2.5. Pleiotropy

9.2.6. Sickle-Cell Disease

9.2.7. Polygenic Inheritance

9.3. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

9.3.1. Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

9.3.2. Linked Genes

9.3.3. Recombination Frequency

9.3.4. Linkage Map

9.4. Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes

9.4.1. Sex Chromosomes

9.4.2. Sex-Linked Gene

10. Chapter Ten

10.1. The Structure of the Genetic Material

10.1.1. Molecular Biology

10.1.2. Bacteriophages

10.1.2.1. Phages

10.1.3. Nucleotides

10.1.4. Polynecleotide

10.1.5. Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

10.1.6. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid

10.1.7. Thymine

10.1.8. Cytosine

10.1.9. Adenine

10.1.10. Guanine

10.1.11. Uracil

10.1.12. Double Helix

10.2. DNA Replication

10.2.1. Semiconservative Model

10.2.2. DNA Polymerases

10.2.3. DNA Ligase

10.3. The Flow of Genetic Information from DNA to RNA to Protein

10.3.1. Transcription

10.3.2. Translation

10.3.3. Triplet Code

10.3.4. Codons

10.3.4.1. Anitcodon

10.3.4.2. Start Codon

10.3.4.3. Stop Codon

10.3.5. Genetic Code

10.3.6. RNA Polymerase

10.3.7. Promoter

10.3.8. Terminator

10.3.9. Messenger RNA

10.3.10. Introns

10.3.11. Exons

10.3.12. RNA Splicing

10.3.13. Transfer RNA

10.3.14. Ribosomes

10.3.15. Ribosomal RNA

10.3.16. P Site

10.3.17. A Site

10.3.18. Translocation

10.3.19. Mutation

10.3.19.1. Silent Mutation

10.3.19.2. Missense Mutations

10.3.19.3. Nonsense Mutations

10.3.20. Reading Frame

10.3.21. Mutagenesis

10.3.22. Mutagens

10.4. The Genetic of Viruses and Bacteria

10.4.1. Virus

10.4.2. Capsid

10.4.3. Lytic Cycle

10.4.4. Lysogenic Cycle

10.4.5. Prophage

10.4.6. AIDS

10.4.7. HIV

10.4.8. Reverse Transcriptase

10.4.9. Retroviruses

10.4.10. Viroids

10.4.11. Prions

10.4.12. Transformation

10.4.13. Transduction

10.4.14. Conjugation

10.4.15. F Factor

10.4.16. Plasmid

10.4.16.1. R Plasmids

11. Chapter Eleven

11.1. Control of Gene Expression

11.1.1. Gene Regulation

11.1.2. Gene Expression

11.1.3. Promotor

11.1.4. Operator

11.1.5. Operon

11.1.6. Repressor

11.1.7. Regulatory Gene

11.1.8. Activators

11.1.9. Differentiation

11.1.10. Histones

11.1.11. Nucleosome

11.1.12. Epigenetic Inheritance

11.1.13. X Chromosome Inactivation

11.1.14. Barr Body

11.1.15. Transcription Factors

11.1.15.1. Enhancers

11.1.15.2. Silencers

11.1.16. Alternative RNA Splicing

11.1.17. MicroRNAs or miRNAs

11.1.18. RNA Interference or RNAi

11.1.19. Homeotic Gene

11.1.20. DNA Microarray

11.1.21. Signal Transduction Pathway

11.2. Cloning of Plants and Animals

11.2.1. Clone

11.2.2. Regeneration

11.2.3. Nuclear Transplantation

11.2.4. Reproductive Cloning

11.2.5. Embryonic Stem Cells

11.2.6. Therapeutic Cloning

11.2.7. Adult Stem Cells

11.3. The Genetic Basis of Cancer

11.3.1. Oncogene

11.3.2. Proto-Oncogene

11.3.3. Tumor-Suppressor Genes

11.3.4. Carcinogens

12. Chapter Twelve

12.1. Gene Cloning

12.1.1. Biotechnology

12.1.2. DNA Technology

12.1.3. Recombinant DNA

12.1.4. Genetic Engineering

12.1.5. Plasmids

12.1.6. Vector

12.1.7. DNA Ligase

12.1.8. Clone

12.1.9. Restriction Enzymes

12.1.10. Restriction Site

12.1.11. Restriction Fragments

12.1.12. Genomic Library

12.1.13. Reverse Transcriptase

12.1.14. Complementary DNA or cDNA

12.1.15. Nucleic Acid Probe

12.2. Genetically Modified Organisms

12.2.1. Vaccines

12.2.2. Transgenic Organism

12.2.3. Ti Plasmids

12.2.4. Gene Therapy

12.3. DNA Profiling

12.3.1. Polymerase Chain Reaction

12.3.2. Primers

12.3.3. Gel Electrophoresis

12.3.4. Repetitive DNA

12.3.5. Short Tandem Repeat

12.3.6. STR Analysis

12.3.7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

12.3.8. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

12.4. Genomics

12.4.1. Human Genome Project

12.4.2. Telomeres

12.4.3. Transposable Elements

12.4.4. Whole-Genome Shotgun Method

12.4.5. Proteomics