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Literary Device by Mind Map: Literary Device
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Literary Device

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Allusion

Definition - reference to another piece of literature or work. Usually recognizable by people

Example

Page 72 – in ten books of harsh verse on the first chapter of Genesis, This is an example of allusion because it gives reference to the Bible. (Genesis is one of the books", Through this Voltaire is satirizing Milton's work.

page 71 – Homer's poem, This is an example of allusion because it gives reference to Homer's poem. Homer's poems are easily recognized among many people., Through this Voltaire satirizes people's blindness over famous books. Many people just read Homer's work because it was famous since the Greeks. Voltaire satirizes this by making Pococurante openly despise the poem.

Hyperbole

definition - Excess exaggeration

Example

page 49 Dogs, monkeys, and parrots are a thousand times less wretched than I, This is an example of Hyperbole because it kind of exaggerates the state of the slave. Although horrifying, the state of the state cannot be "thousand times" worse, Through this, Voltaire satirizes slavery and violence. By this literary device he exaggerates the state of the slave and cause sympathy.

page 42 "They served four dishes of soup, each garnished with two young parrots; a boiled candor which weighed two hundred pounds; two roasted monkeys, of excellent flavor; three hundred humming-birds in one dish, and six hundred fly-birds in another; exquisite ragouts; delicious pastries; the whole served up in dishes of a kind of rock-crystal.", This is an example of hyperbole because it exaggerates the amount of food which Candide and Cacambo was served. It is almost impossible, and unlikely that the waiters would serve that much, Through this example Voltaire satirizes the dream of many Europeans. In that time there were many people who believed in a perfect utopia where everything was made up of gold. Voltaire makes fun of this by exaggerating how good El Dorado would be

Oxymoron

definition - a literary device that puts terms are normally opposite of each other together

Example

Page 5 "Heroic Butchery", This is an example of oxymoron because butchery and heroic is opposite of each other. Killing somebody cannot be "heroic" in any ways., Through this example Voltaire satirizes violence. By saying that killing is "heroic" he is making fun of it.

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Understatement

Definition - a literary device that understates a meaning. When something might be meaningful, this device reduces it's importance

Example

page 52 and though he had lost one hundred large red sheep, laden with the greatest treasure on earth, This is an example of understatement because it reduces the importance of the hundred sheeps, which is pretty big, Through this Voltaire satires optimism by making those hundred sheeps unworthy

Page 79 – since these two dogs of Christian slaves are Baron and metaphysicians, which I doubt not are high dignities in their country, I will give them for…, Through this example Voltaire tries to satirize ignorant people by showing how stupid those ignorant people look like, This is an example of understatement because it reduces the importance of a Baron and metaphysicians who normally have a high social status

Irony

definition - a device that has a meaning beyond what it actually looks like it means. However, the other meaning should give some feeling of hypocrisy, meaning that the two meaning should be opposing each other.

Example

page 53 they were as far advanced as on the first, This is an example of irony because it is saying that they went far as the first one, really meaning that they didn't go any further, Through this Voltaire satirized philosophy because they were talking about philosophy but they didn't get any improvement

Page 85 – he asserted it still, though he no longer believed it, This is an example of irony because it is saying that although he said it, he didn't mean it, Through this Voltaire satirizes the belief that this world is best of all possible world. By showing that even the person who believed in that belief strongly does not believe it anymore.

Page 50 - This Cacambo was a very honest fellow, Through this Voltaire tries to satirize people's gullibility because he writes in a way that readers sympathize Candide, This is an example of irony because in truth we know that he is lying, but Voltaire is being ironic by saying that he is honest.

Parody

Definition - a satirical imitation of an target and uses it for humor

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Example

Page 43 - The El Dorado, This is a parody of the wishes and dreams of all Europeans who dreamed of a perfect utopia. El Dorado imitate the characteristic of the utopia that many of the Europeans dreamed of. Therefore, this example of El Dorado is a parody, Through this example, Voltaire satirize the optimism and dream of many Europeans who dream of a perfect Utopia.

Page 83 “ ‘Thou mayest kill me again,’ said the Baron, ‘but thous shalt not marry my sister, at least whilst I am living.’”, This is an example of parody because it imitates the form of speech that all nobles have. This example shows Voltaire's annoy by showing the irritating social pride of the Baron, Voltaire satirizes the nobles through this example. Even when he/she was thrown off of his previous high social status, they still keep the attitude of high noble.