Education 100 Mind Map By:Laura Cormier

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Education 100 Mind Map By:Laura Cormier by Mind Map: Education 100 Mind Map           By:Laura Cormier

1. Unequal Student Attainments: Class, Gender, Race (Davies & Guppy)

1.1. Sociological

1.1.1. Class

1.1.1.1. Richer youth have a higher attainment than poorer youth

1.1.1.1.1. Dr. Kachur (in class)

1.1.1.2. The education, income, and occupation all are a strong predictor of the child's school success.

1.1.2. Gender

1.1.2.1. Today, there are more women enrolled in full-time undergraduate university than men.

1.1.2.2. There is a small flow of men moving into past female fields like nursing.

1.1.2.3. A small number of women are in fields like engineering and computer science

1.1.2.4. Women started going into the technical fields, but still are in the more nurturing part of them like family law and paediatrics.

1.1.3. Racial and Ethnic

1.1.3.1. Canada is a very diverse country, it is a mosaic. This means that Canadian schools are very diverse

1.1.3.2. There is much variation in attainment amount all ethnic groups, minorities, and immigrants.

1.1.3.2.1. There is very little trace of British domination like it was stated in The Vertical Mosaic

1.1.3.2.2. Attainment does not fall into just two groups like what was stated in the Abella image

1.1.4. Causes of inequalities

1.1.5. Social Mechanisms of Educational Inequality

1.1.5.1. Primary Mechanisms

1.1.5.1.1. Sources of Ablitly

1.1.5.1.2. Family-Based Learning Opportunites

1.1.5.1.3. Stress

1.1.5.1.4. Contexts of Schools and Neighbourhoods

1.1.5.2. Secondary Mechanisms

1.1.5.2.1. Orientations to School and Cultural Mismatches

1.1.5.2.2. Gender

1.2. Historical

1.2.1. Class

1.2.1.1. Higher education was largely for a small amount of middle and upper class children.

1.2.2. Gender

1.2.2.1. More nurturing fields didn't have the need to go to university. When these fields moved these fields into Universities, more women started going.

1.2.2.2. It was thought that males were better suited for more technical fields like math and science and women were better suited for more nurturing fields like teaching and nursing.

1.2.3. Racial and Ethnic

1.2.3.1. John Porter: The Vertical Mosaic

1.2.3.2. Abella Image

1.2.4. Causes of Inequalites

1.2.5. Sources of Ablilites

1.2.5.1. First intelligence tests were cultural based

1.2.5.2. These intelligence tests led many countries (including Canada) to sterilize people who were deemed unintelligent and unfit in order to be certain their genes wouldn't be passed along.

1.2.5.2.1. Eugenics (in class)

1.3. Philosophical

1.3.1. Racial and Ethnic

1.3.1.1. Functional Perspective

1.3.1.1.1. Schools need to be 'colour-blind'.

1.3.1.1.2. Reward everyone equally not putting into account skin colour, linguistics, or ancestry.

1.3.1.2. Marxist Model of Reproduction

1.3.1.2.1. Destinations are pre-orderd form birth, because of race.

1.3.1.2.2. No mobility for disadvantaged racial or ethnic groups.

1.3.1.3. Limited Compensation Model

1.3.1.3.1. Schools can partly counteract some inequalities but will still be constrained what they do because of ethnicity.

1.3.1.4. Vertical Mosaic

1.3.1.4.1. Ethnic groups were arrayed on hierarchy of power and privilege

1.3.1.5. Abella Image

1.3.1.5.1. People were either white or a visible minority

1.3.2. Sources of Ability

1.3.2.1. Nature Vs. Nurture

1.3.2.1.1. Nature: Genes and hereditary play a key role in our intelligence and abilities. We inherit this from our parents.

1.3.2.1.2. Nurture: Family setting, and environment, and the way we were raised play a big role in our mental abilities.

1.3.2.1.3. Instead of looking at nature and nurture as being competing and it is either one or the other, we need to look at them as two entities that work together and both have influence on a person's mental capabilities.

1.3.2.2. Secondary Mechanisms

1.3.2.2.1. Goldthrope

1.3.2.2.2. Pygmalion Classrooms

1.3.2.2.3. Bourdieu

2. Public Education, Globalization, and Democracy: Whither Alberta? (Kachur & Harrison)

2.1. Globalization and the Welfare State

2.1.1. Sociological

2.1.1.1. Competitive advantage in the global economy goes to the nation with the best educated workforce.

2.1.1.1.1. because of this thought, education has taken on a great political significance in terms of quality of the education

2.2. New Right Ideology and Educational Reform in Canada

2.2.1. Sociological

2.2.1.1. Provinces have the responsibility for education

2.2.2. Historical

2.2.2.1. 1970s

2.2.2.1.1. Economic Social and Political Crises

2.2.2.2. 1993-1997

2.2.2.2.1. Deficit Crisis

2.2.2.3. 1997/98

2.2.2.3.1. Alberta's entire budget would go towards paying the provinces net debt

2.2.2.3.2. Martain

2.3. Liberal Education

2.3.1. Sociological

2.3.1.1. Promotes equal opportunity of education based on merit and disclosing family, race, gender, or social class

2.3.1.2. Provision to get children from working class families to post secondary

2.3.1.3. Teachers use techniques to enhance the development of students and eliminate repressive measures of power

3. The School as an Informal System of Socialization (Barakett and Cleghorn)

3.1. Philosophical

3.1.1. Socialization

3.1.1.1. Theories

3.1.1.1.1. Individuals develop sense of self, become socialized to one specific context.

3.1.1.1.2. External

3.1.1.1.3. Internal

3.1.1.1.4. Mead's Theory

3.1.1.1.5. Schutz

3.1.1.1.6. Freud

3.1.1.1.7. Piaget

3.2. Historical

3.2.1. Mead lived 1863-1931

3.2.2. Freud 1856-1939

3.2.3. Piaget 1896-1980

3.2.4. Shutz1925-2002

3.2.5. Moral and political considerations were put into the education system

3.2.5.1. The British Class Model used to deeply influence the education system.

3.2.5.1.1. Elite

3.2.5.1.2. Working Class

3.2.5.1.3. Maintaing power and social status quo

3.3. Sociological

3.3.1. Teacher Typifications of Students

3.3.1.1. Tracking

3.3.1.2. Streaming

3.3.1.2.1. Prepares students for mainstream society, some children are streamed for university and some are streamed in order for them to pass.

3.3.1.3. Children are socialized in schools

3.3.2. Moral and Political Socialization

3.3.2.1. Schooling passes on society's normative system of injustice and inequality.

3.3.2.1.1. Moral Socialization

3.3.2.1.2. Political Socialization

3.3.3. The Hidden Cirriculum

3.3.3.1. Students do not only need to learn what is on the curriculum, but also the "hidden" rules and expectations that affect their dispositions, identities, and personalities.

3.3.3.1.1. Not only the acquisition of knowledge but also the students development of identity.

3.3.3.2. Teaching of norms, values, and dispositions

3.3.4. Peer Group and Popular Culture

3.3.4.1. Students are also influenced by their peer groups. Especially during adolescence Peers have a significant effect on student's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour.

3.3.4.2. Adolescents develop subcultures in schools that have a big part in instilling norms and values.

3.3.4.3. Popular Culture

3.3.4.3.1. Has an impact on students and teachers.

3.3.4.3.2. Teachers must become aware how pop. culture is affecting their practices

3.3.4.3.3. Pop. culture affects the informal schooling

4. Racism: A Hidden Cirriculum (Ghosh, Ratna)

4.1. Historical

4.1.1. Racism has occurred throughout the history of Canada.

4.1.1.1. Residential Schools (in class)

4.2. Sociological

4.2.1. Not everyone understands racism in the same way.

4.2.2. Race is something that has been socially created by humans for classifying people that look visibly different than one another.

4.2.2.1. Even though race doesn't "exist" it still has a lot of power. It affect's people's lives socially.

4.2.2.1.1. Racism is based on the belief that the inherent differences among people determine cultural or individual achievement.

4.2.2.2. It is culture and history that divide us, not genetics.

4.2.3. Racist and sexist materials have been removed by former curriculum in Canada.

4.2.4. Teachers can use their power to reinforce social attributes through their own prejudices to students. Teachers need to be aware of this power, and teach the curriculum critically.

4.2.4.1. Fair is not always equal (in class)

4.2.5. Sometimes as the result of the hidden curriculum, racism can take place in schools.

4.2.5.1. Social isolation

4.2.5.2. bullying

4.2.5.3. ostracizatin

4.2.5.4. Physical Violence

4.2.5.5. May not be as apparent now as in the past, but never less it still happens.

4.2.5.6. Making sure that school is safe and conducive to learning is apart of an educator's responsibilities.

4.2.5.6.1. (We discussed this idea in class)

4.2.6. The education system needs to look at several multiple perspectives and different ways of knowing/learning

4.2.6.1. Universal Design for Learning (in class)