Developments in 4th Century BC Male Free-Standing Sculpture

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Developments in 4th Century BC Male Free-Standing Sculpture by Mind Map: Developments in 4th Century BC Male Free-Standing Sculpture

1. Also for beauty, Lysippus of Sikyon made the Apoxyomenos, a character study of an ordinary athlete which showed the real human body, not an exaggerated one.

2. Polkykleitos' trailing leg technique - used by Praxiteles

2.1. Sculptors were now able to be more daring with design and show statues in different, more realistic poses - no longer rigid and 2D.

3. Change in subject matter and purpose

3.1. Rather than being grave markers, their purpose changed to being dedications for Gods, to add religious decoration to temples: the 40ft chryselephantine statue of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, or the statue of Athena at the Parthenon.

4. Drapery

4.1. Drapery became more detailed and realistic in appearance, such as the cloak that drapes over Hermes' arm in Praxiteles's statue of Hermes and the infant Dionysus.

5. Pose

5.1. Poses of the sculptures changed, sculptors such as Praxiteles incorporated trees into their works to equal out the statue, allowing more daring poses: arms could be away from the body, contrapposto and trailing legs. On the statue of the Youth of Marathon, the right leg is almost entirely off the floor, only the toes touching the ground, arms raised and hips tilted.

6. Musculature

6.1. The bodies of the statues became less pronounced such as that of the Doryphoros. Figures became appropriate for the age, with softer musculature, faint inguinal ridges and lean bodies.

7. Emotion

7.1. The emotion changed, no longer looking at the viewer, the figures mostly concentrated on what they were doing in their action, such as the Apollo Sauroktonos looking intently at the lizard he is (perhaps) about to kill.

7.1.1. The statues had dreamy expressions.

8. Humanising the Gods

8.1. Sculptors such as Praxiteles became known for the skill of humanising the gods, creating emotion in the figures. The statue of Hermes and the infant Dionysus portrays Hermes in a human act of babysitting, whilst looking contently at the infant, as if both are happy in each other's presence, giving the Gods the emotion of happiness and content, different to their usual portrayal as being almighty; such as the God of Artemisium.

9. Pattern and proportion

9.1. The hair became thicker, tousled and had more pronounced curls, it could also be shown as tied back.

9.1.1. Figures were life size, but - especially with statues made by Praxiteles - often had smaller heads in proportion to the body, the Youth of Marathon's head:body ratio being 1:7 1/2

10. Quadrifacial frontality

10.1. The Apoxyomenos was created by Lysippus of Sikyon, perhaps the first 3D image ever. The statue became 3D with the figures arm outstretched towards the viewer.