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Tourism by Mind Map: Tourism

1. 1 How does the nature of tourism vary from place to place?

1.1. How do tourist destinations differ from one another?

1.1.1. Places of Scenic Beauty Includes earth's natural environments such as mountains, valleys, rivers, deserts, waterfalls, coral reefs and rain forests. Such places attract tourists for their awe-inspiring scenery and are different from the urban landscape/lifestyle of their home land, not forgetting hiking, cycling and swimming activities Example: Rocky Mountains, North America Himalayas, South Asia Honeypot Tourism refers to tourism that attracts large numbers of people due to a site's scenic beauty. Theses sites tend to be overcrowded during peak seasons. Examples: Grand Canyon

1.1.2. Places with good facilities Meetings, Incentives, Convention and Events(MICE) MICE locations are usually capable of hosting large scale events such as meetings/conventions. Supporting infrastructure and services such as hotels and retail shops are also present. These attract people who organise trade fairs and international conferences which bring in more business travellers Example: According to the International Congress & Convention Association(ICCA), Singapore was the leading convention city in Asia Pacific in 2012. Singapore Tourism Board(STB) figures show 3,2 million business travelers coming to Singapore that year, accounting for 24% of all visitors to Singapore for 2012. Educational Facilities Educational tourism: People travel to a place for educational purposes or to learn something about the place. Study Tours Overseas Educational Programme Example: UK attracts close to 1 million people yearly from overseas to study. Education fees, accommodation and recreational spending estimated to earn the country over USD 4 billion annually. Medical/Spa Facilities Medical tourism: People travelling to a destination to undergo medical procedures that would enhance/restore health. Health tourism: People travelling to a destination to maintain, enhance or restore their minds and bodies. A growing number of people, mostly from developing countries, are turning to developed countries such as the USA/UK for better medical treatment than what's available back home. These people are avoiding long waiting periods/high costs for medical treatment back home or probably seek better quality medical treatment that may also not be available back home. Example: Being renowned for its highly skilled doctors and advanced technology, South Korea is a popular destination for cosmetic surgery. Medical tourism is also rising in Singapore. Theme Parks Places with amusement park settings/attractions with a central subject or theme such as movies. They cater to a wide variety of people, whether young or old. Example: Walt Disney Company operates theme parks in California and Florida, USA; Tokyo, Japan and many other countries. Theme parks may also be based on history, education and fantasy. Water parks are also considered as theme parks

1.1.3. Places with rich culture Heritage Tourism People travelling to locations to experience different cultures and to understand the history of places better. Heritage sites help reinforce national identities for domestic tourists and promote a country's identity culture and history to international tourists. Film-induced tourism People travel to see locations featured in films. These locations may not have been considered before watching the film and by visiting such places, people can understand how certain scenes were executed. Food & Shopping tourism Trips may be organised to enjoy certain cuisines or shopping. Pilgrimage tourism People take part in a religious activity, usually involving a journey to a sacred place that is important to a person's beliefs and faith.

1.1.4. Places of conflict Dark Tourism Involves travelling to sites associated with death/tragedy. People who take part in such tourism include survivors, relatives and friends of those affected as well as people interested to know more about an event. Site include battlefields, fortifications, museums etc, at locations important in modern history

1.1.5. Space Tourism People travelling into space. Trips can either be short or longer ones to a space station. For example, the Russian Space Agency organises trips to International Space Station(ISS) but the trips are costly at around USD 20-35 million for 8-15 days in space

1.2. What factors affect the nature of tourism?

1.2.1. Government Can influence number of visitors and length of stay, authorise air landings and allow building of facilities such as hotels. Play major role in ensuring safety and security of tourist sites frequently patronised. Directly involved in planning, funding and building infrastructure projects linked to tourism Example: Singapore Tourism Board(STB) promotes Singapore as a tourist destination and as an industry attracting tourism-related business to come invest in Singapore. STB aims to develop Singapore as leading tourist destination for leisure/business in the region.

1.2.2. Media Media can influence decisions of tourists to visit that country. Positive reports such as friendliness of local population, intriguing culture, good shopping opportunities and attractive scenery can encourage tourists to visit. Negative reports on other hand such as violence, outbreak of disease and natural disasters can deter tourists from visiting the country. Example: As a result of the media, visits to Antarctica, treks in Himalayas, long distance train rides are growing in popularity.

1.2.3. International Organisations A group of different countries working together to produce reports that either encourage or discourage tourists from visiting a place. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) UNWTO World Health Organisation(WHO) Example: WHO has provided situation updates and health advisories on H5N1 from 2003 - 2013, discouraging tourists from visiting at-risk countries.

1.2.4. Travel Writers Visit and write reviews about places, evaluating the destination for readers. Evaluations include type of accommodation, transport and food choices available, also involving advice on best/cheapest places to visit together with "dos and don'ts" on tourist behaviours that could violate the cultures of the local community. Such reviews inspire readers to travel to places previously not considered.

2. 2 Why has tourism become a global phenomenon?

2.1. In what ways is tourism changing?

2.1.1. International Tourism Before 1980s, most tourist destinations were in developed regions. North and South Europe got 61% of all international arrivals in 2012, according to UNWTO. This a decrease from 81% in 1980 and 96% in 1950 Asia Pacific region has a rise of arrivals from 8.2% in 1980 to 21.7% in 2010.

2.1.2. Domestic Tourism Worldwide, 83% of tourist arrivals were domestic. 69% of overnight stays were by domestic tourists

2.2. Evolution of mass tourism to niche tourism

2.2.1. Forms of Tourism Mass Tourism Travel involving large numbers of tourists visiting a certain place together. Package Holidays A form of mass tourism, such holidays involve a tour usually arranged by travel agents with transport, accommodation and most meals included. Niche Tourism Special-interest tourism based on a particular area, interest or activity either done by solo travelers or with package tours Ecotourism A form of niche tourism where people go to remote natural areas to help them better appreciate natural beauty. It may include funds for conservation enabling such tourism to benefit local communities involved in it.

2.2.2. Short/Long Haul Destinations Short Short distance away from tourist's home country, usually accessible by car/bus/train or flight generally <5 hrs Long Long distance away from tourist's home usually accessible by a flight lasting ≥5 hrs.

2.3. Reasons for growth in global tourism

2.3.1. Developments in Technology Better & Affordable Transport Improvements to safety, shorter travel time and lower travelling costs. Rise in budget airline carriers offering low cost air fares due to their no-frills policy. Extras that are typically included in conventional carriers' fares such as food/sleeping packages come at a charge on budget carriers. Thus more people can travel internationally and frequently, going to places not covered by major commercial airlines such as Bhutan and the Pacific Islands More Air Routes & Agreements Increased number of air routes and agreements have made the world more accessible. Open Skies Agreements between countries lift restrictions on commercial flights between them, leaving the airline to freely decide the route, capacity and fare, creating a free market environment competition. It has allowed for growth of aircraft routes/flights, commercial and budget airlines and reduced air fares with the increased competition between airlines. Deregulation also allows air fares to rise and fall according to market demand and competition between various airlines Example: Singapore-USA open skies agreement signed in 2001 Ease of access to information Helps promote air travel and global tourism Online booking and research helps travelers to buy their tickets without going thru travel agencies, view feedback on recommendations of places from other travelers.

2.3.2. Demand Factors Influence people's decision to travel. Disposable Income Leisure Time Changing Lifestyle

2.3.3. Destination Factors Attractions Often promoted/enhanced by tourism industry to attract even more tourists. Some attractions are natural, others built. Places are scenic beauty are examples of natural attractions. Theme parks are examples of built attractions. Without them, tourists are less likely to visit a place Example: Dubai has become a major destination and stopover location between Europe and Asia, receiving >9 million travelers in 2011. The high numbers are due to the well known attractions such as Burj Al Arab a 7 star luxury hotel built on an artificial island Investment in Infrastructure and Services From transport to communication networks to waste disposal, tourist attractions need large investments in infrastructure and services to handle the crowds. Fewer tourists will visit a country whose airport can't manage growth in passenger traffic, causing the country to be at a disadvantage and be less appealing to tourists. Service wise, there is a need for food outlets, entertainment, concierge in various tourist attractions Example: To cater to increased international tourist arrivals, Changi Airport's Budget Terminal was closed in 2012 to make way for T4 to open 2017. T4 will raise airport's total capacity to 85 million passengers annually as compared to 73 in 2013. Free WiFi service is offered in most hotel rooms and lobbies. Housekeeping services are also available upon request. Access to Information Tourists are more likely to visit a destination where travel-related info is easy to obtain. The info should also be in a language they understand; most times English. Thus most signage at major tourist attractions are displayed in different languages, helping to provide security and comfort to visitors that there are people they can communicate with for help. Examples: Transport routes, schedules, weather conditions and available accommodation

2.4. Why is tourism subject to regional fluctuations?

2.4.1. Disasters Disasters can discourage tourists from visiting a destination since it poses greater risks to safety of tourists and may disrupt essential tourist infrastructure. In Japan, the 2011 Earthquake caused a further dip in tourist arrivals. From January to February 2011 there was a natural dip in arrivals due to it being off peak but didn't pickup by March or even April, the peak season, where the cherry blossoms start blooming Disasters also discourage citizens of affected country to travel overseas. In 2010, South Korea received a third of arrivals from Japan but in March 2011, arrivals fell by 12%. The disaster also affected the tourism industry of nearby countries thru lost income from Japanese tourists.

2.4.2. Regional/Global Recessions During such general slow down of economic activities, people experience a pay cut or loss of job, forcing them to cut back on spending. Leads to decline for demand for goods and services thus people are less likely to travel overseas during such times, resulting in fewer international tourists. Example: Regional Recession - European Sovereign Debt Crisis Started in 2010 when Greece was unable to repay its government debt. Crisis affected many countries using the Euro as their currency resulting in collapse of businesses and unemployment Global Recession - Global Financial Crisis Started when some of the largest financial firms went bust in 2007-2008. These firms collapsed after losing large amounts of investments in crash of housing market in USA. That triggered panic in most financial institutions around the world.

2.4.3. Unfavourable political Situations When there is disagreement between different groups of people, political conflicts arise and may result in wars. This poses danger to tourists as well as residents as services and infrastructure are damaged and disrupted. Thus potential tourists may postpone or cancel their travel plans to the affected country. Government authorities may issue travel advisories to discourage their people from visiting the place of conflict. Example: Governments of many countries banned their people from visiting Libya for most of 2011 due to the civil war happening then. In such cases armed groups are a threat to civilian lives. Commercial airlines reduced/stopped their flights to Libya and no flights entered Libya airspace between March and October 2011.

2.4.4. Outbreak of Diseases A sudden and widespread occurrence of disease in an area can cause a huge drop in tourist arrivals. Tourists don't want to risk getting infected by the contagion Government agencies may advise travellers to avoid areas with disease outbreaks. Thus outbreaks such as H1N1 can have strong negative impacts on tourism, causing significant declines in tourist arrivals and businesses to postpone or cancel their MICE activities. Example: The SARS outbreak in 2003 killed 775 and infected >8000 in 25 countries. Hotel occupancy in Hong Kong dropped from 82% to 15%.

3. 3 Developing tourism at what cost?

3.1. What are the impacts of tourism?

3.1.1. Economic Employment Opportunities Growth of tourism led to increase in number of jobs available. Jobs include workers in hotels, transportation, souvenir shops and tour agents. Others include guides, hotel waiters. They cater to the needs of tourists whether directly or indirectly. In 2011, the UNWTO estimates that the tourism industry has employed >235 million people worldwide, 6-8% of the jobs in the world Growth in income Growth in tourism causes growth in income but not all the revenue generated remains in the country where the purchases were made. Large portions of these transactions are leaked to pay other countries for import of goods and services needed to meet the needs of tourists. For every USD 1 spend in Phuket, 70 cents goes to the Global Economy, 24 to Thai and only 6 to the local economy. Fisherman on Pamilacan Island, Phillipines are hired by local tour companies to take tourists on boats to look for and swim with whale sharks and dolphins. They are paid USD 80-100/boat which is a significant amount for an average fisherman there. Increase in foreign exchange This money earned from other countries in exchange of goods and services plays a big role in the country's economy. A large amount of money earned from other countries means more can be spent on purchase goods and services elsewhere. Other sources of government revenue comes from taxes on tourists(airport tax) and income tax on employees in tourism related businesses Singapore is host to many international hotel chains such as InterContinental, Marriott whom invest in hotels and resorts in many countries across the globe. Since they operate in Singapore, they buy SGD to make local investments, increasing demand for SGD and contributing to our capital inflow. Infrastructure Development Without transport/communication networks, electrical frameworks and utility systems together with airports roads electricity and hotels, tourism cannot develop well and unable to operate on large scales. Developing infrastructure also creates employment for locals as workers are needed to build them. Demand for materials can be satisfied by local industries and this encourages local economic growth. In Beijing, China, underground rail systems were expanded to cater to large numbers of visitors during the 2008 Olympics and continue to serve everyone even after the Games. Seasonal Unemployment Due to climatic conditions, tourism industry in some places face seasonal unemployment. They face a rise in tourists for few months then a drop for the next. Thus employees have to find other sources of income when the season is low Majority of hotel stays in European countries close to Mediterranean take place in Summer. During summer, employment in hotels/restaurants across the European Union reaches a peak for the year. Underuse of facilities Due to seasonal tourism, some facilities build specifically for those seasons are underused when the time is over. They can be costly to maintain as the admission fees paid by tourists are often used to cover such costs. But lesser tourists are present during the low season thus these facilities may be neglected during those times. Some venues built specifically for the 2008 Beijing Olympics were said to be deteriorating a few years after that. According to a Beijing Sports University 2011 report, only 1/3 of major sporting venues have managed to break even in terms of covering annual maintenance costs Shortage of Services Tourist infrastructure may require use of large amounts of land, water and power. This leads to a shortage of services such as water supply and power in non-tourist areas such as settlements affecting residents there. Large amounts of water required to water grass on golf courses and fill swimming pools. Leads to drinking water for nearby residents diverted to meet the needs of the tourist infrastructure

3.1.2. Socio-cultural Preservation of heritage, culture and local customs When places of heritage, cultural or local significance get preserved, more tourists get attracted. The local population can enhance their sense of history and build a sense of belonging to their community. Revenue generated from the tourism can fund further preservation and restoration efforts of these sites. Entry fees to Angkor Wat, Cambodia can be used directly to fund conservation efforts Dilution of culture and local customs Identity/culture/values of a place can be lost when tourism is the main activity in the area. Commercial activities catering mainly to tourists from restaurants to hotels can force locals to relocate their activities to elsewhere, thus causing the identity of a place to be lost. This also causes original atmosphere, appearance and function of the area to change too. To cater to demands and expectations of tourists, local cultural festivals and rituals maybe shortened to fit into tourists' itinerary and can be repeated several times daily to cater to different groups of people. The authenticity and significance of these cultural events may be compromised when commercialised. In the village of Kayan Lahwi, Thailand, the high fees tourists pay makes some treat the women there as exhibits, aggressively taking pictures of them without permission. Increased Crime Popular tourist sites mean high crime levels. Many tourists carry their vauluables with them and especially in developing countries, makes them more vulnerable to get mugged near hotels or airports. Some tourists are also prone to be cheated in these areas. These areas known as 'tourist traps' often have most of the goods and services there sold at high prices. These traps eventually deter tourists from visiting the country, thus many countries have police to ensure no one is shortchanged. In 2013, due to pickpockets, employees of The Louvre, France closed the museum in protest of this problem. They gathered in front of the Ministry of Culture as part of their walk-out to demand action.

3.1.3. Environmental Conservation of Natural Environments Revenue generated from tourism whether from national parks, diving sites can go to conservation efforts for coral reefs, rainforests etc. In Kenya, the survival of animals in the country's nature reserves and national parks relies on funding from international tourists whom want to see them in the wild. The local authorities have estimated that a lion can generate USD 7000/year and a herd of elephants USD 600 000/year in tourist revenue. Increased Congestion Large numbers of tourists can cause overcrowding in areas close to popular attractions. Shops and accomodations can cluster near such areas causing them to be even more congested In Rome, Italy, many older walkways and narrow streets are filled with tourists with the local traffic contributing to air pollution. Vandalism Cultural, historical or natural sites maybe vandalised by individuals or developers. Thousands of bricks of the Great Wall of China, visited by about 10 million tourists/year are covered with graffiti Pollution and Littering Authorities fail at times to implement measures that properly manage waste left behind by tourists, leading to degradation of such areas Tourists often dump plastic bottles, food packaging overboard cruise ships causing harbours, marinas and the ocean to be polluted. Many islands in the Carribeans have limited spaces on land to treat waste from ships thus causing solid & liquid waste to be dumped into the sea. Destruction of Habitats Popular tourist sites such as quiet stretches of beach or scenic villages can get overwhelmed by visitors during the high season. Tourists may inadvertently destroy habitats or wildlife. Others may collects eggs and feathers as souvenirs and the noise pollution produced can disturb animals. Egypt's Red Sea coast is a major diving/snorkeling destination for 1.2 million visitors/year. Unfortunately, coral reefs and exotic fish have been damaged by swimmers collecting shells as souvenirs and by hotels and restaurants releasing waste into the sea Increased Carbon Footprint Increased tourism activity around the world causes increased carbon footprint as there is more demand for services such as transportation from planes to tour buses and electricity consumption by hotel that produces the greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels Carbon foot of a 1 way economy class flights from Singapore to KL, Malaysia is 30 kg of CO2/passenger

3.2. How are the impacts of tourism managed?

3.2.1. Conservation of fragile environments and sustainable tourism Sustainable tourism is one done in a way that allows it to continue without causing damage to environment or leaving negative impacts on surrounding society and culture. Conservation prevents wastage of resources and important for fragile environments, easily affected by change. Examples include mangroves and coral reefs. They can be disturbed when for example waste from tourist facilities are dumped into the habitat, removal of vegetation to develop the land. Both conservation and sustainable tourism can also occur with help of laws, regulations and support from locals. For example the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Its diverse ecosystem and beauty gave itself a place in UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1981.

3.2.2. Tensions in managing the impacts of tourism Tourist vs Locals Happens when needs of tourists conflict with needs/values/cultures of locals In Bali, Indonesia, 2012, there were 2.9 million international tourist arrivals. With a population of 4.2 million, the large influx of tourists created some tensions between tourists and locals. Tourist sites such as Kuta often congested often due to bus loads of increasing tourists. The congestion made it more difficult for locals to conduct their businesses. Locals expect tourists to respect local customs/values which tourists at times fail to do so. This includes display of public affection. Many locals perceive it offensive whilst tourists don't. Tourist vs Environment Happens when needs of tourists conflict with need to conserve the environment. Machu Picchu, Peru. Its rich history and spectacular landscape drew average 3300 visitors daily in 2011. The site's popularity caused tensions between needs of tourists and environment. Physically able tourists use the 'Inca Trail' for the mountain scenery, cloud forests and rare flora and fauna species. But this trail is slowly being eroded as >75000 tourists hike on it annually. Some even leave their rubbish behind from water bottles to plastic wrappers Due to noise pollution, wildlife along the trail could get disturbed thus in 2010, authorities had to ban the use of helicopters to get tourists to the trail out of convenience.

3.2.3. Measure to manage tensions Limit number of visitors at site to minimise congestion and degradation Employing staff to maintain/repair site and prevent tourists from tampering with it Holding discussions with locals regarding their needs and concerns Restricting areas to where only locals can enter

3.2.4. Responsibilities of various groups Local Communities Play key role in conserving/protecting tourist areas especially via community-based tourism(CBT) With govt support, villigers Candierjo Village, Indonesia setup a cooperative in 2003 to manage and implement the community's tourism related programs. Included developing home stay accommodations, organic farms and organising local transport. Local communities can enlist residents in discussions about tourism management strategies to be executed, together with other decisions. Some local communities may face funding problems when setting up businesses or investment in getting vehicles to facilitate tourism in area. Visitors Have responsibility to respect both environment and local population of place they're visiting. Visitors must dress appropriately in order to visit the Silver Pagoda in Phenom Penh, Cambodia or else be rejected entry. Visitor spending can provide funds especially from entrance fees to souvenirs. to conserve/restore the environment or tourist attraction. Visitors may exhibit behaviors that could damage the tourist attraction. Includes vandalism, littering or touching of artifacts Tour Operators Affiliated with organisations/unions working towards conserving and protecting environments visited by tourists Phuket Alternative Tours(PAT) setup in 2006, commits members to operate tours under terms that tours are operated in environmentally sustainable way, and create awareness about environmental conservation for tourists in Phuket. Tour guides able to offer feedback to operators on social and environmental conditions of a tourist attraction. The feedback is often used to constantly review tourism management strategies within the attraction. Since tour operators are businesses and need to be profitable for survival in industry, this could override concerns to preserve environment as addressessing these concerns could reduce their profits! Non-governmental Organisations(NGOs) Operating independently of governments, they are concerned with tourism's impact on natural/human environments Since 1990, The International Ecotourism Society(TIES) has worked with numerous organisations across 124 countries, developed guidelines, and provided assistance. NGOs can support tourism management efforts of stakeholders from locals to the authorities. This support comes in form of more manpower and expertise. As non-profit organisations, NGOs rely on donations and efforts often hampered by such financial constraints Planning Authorities Responsible in considering local sensitivities in area while maintaining physical and socio-cultural condition. While Singapore Tourism Board(STB) ensures that while attracting large numbers of tourists into Singapore, its development plans consider need to conserve national heritage. Efforts have been put in to enhance the cultural zones of Chinatown, Kampong Glam and Little India. As part of the government, planning authorities can cooperate more easily with other government agencies to manage impact of tourism. They have the advantage of utilizing a range of government resources(URA Land Use Masterplan) Even the most well-planned or funded programs can fail due to unforeseen factors including extreme weather, natural disasters or lack of interest from public.