1) A hyperbole is a figure of speech in which statements are exaggerated.
2) Examples: a) "...touch the sky." (page 43) b) "I am one hundred and seventy-two years of age." (page 46)
3) a) To touch the sky is a hyperbole because you cannot literally touch the sky. It is an exaggeration to show how high the rocks were. b) This is a hyperbole because it's impossible to be that old. This would have been a hyperbole to exaggerate how wise the old man was by the experience he would have.
4) a) I do not believe that Voltaire was satirizing anything when he said that the rocks were really high. b) Voltaire satirized the stereotype that old men were the wisest and were the only ones who deserved to be sages.
1) An Allusion is a literary device that is used to indirectly reference itself to a person, place, practice, or event in hopes that ideas and thoughts will spur in the reader's mind.
2) Examples: a) Te Deums (page 8) b) Journal de Trevoux (page 39)
3) a) Te Deums is an allusion because it was a Thanksgiving hymn in the Catholic liturgy and was often sung after victories. Therefore, Te Deums is an allusion for it brings up thoughts of something historical in the readers mind. b) Journal de Trevoux is an allusion, because it was a periodical that was meticulously written and was related to the history of sciences and art. Therefore, Journal de Trevoux is an allusion because it related to a historical artifact and would allow the reader to relate this to the storyline.
4) a) Voltaire was satirizing how ignorant the kings were in their lust of war to have a victorious song sung after a battle regardless of whether who won or lost b) Voltaire was satirizing how the Journal de Trevoux had offended philosophy but having no philosophy at that moment would make Candide look unjust.
1) Irony is a literary device that is used to bring upon a meaning underneath the actual words. The words and the meaning underneath it are opposites.
2) Examples: a) The introduction of the Anabaptist, Jacques (page 9) b) Pangloss explaining how he got a STD from the maid (page 11)
3) a) During the introduction of the Anabaptist, it says, "A passerby who had never been baptized, a good Anabaptist named Jacques.." This is ironic because an Anabaptist should believe that getting baptized at birth is inappropriate, but is appropriate when you are older. A full grown man not being baptized yet an Anabaptist is ironic. b) Pangloss getting a STD is ironic because he was a philosopher who taught Candide of the world and only of just actions. His adultery with the maid gave him a STD. Somebody who preaches of just actions commits an unjust one is ironic.
4) a) Voltaire was satirizing how people who claim to be a part of a certain group shouldn't say that they are actually a part of it because most of them don't even practice the rules of their own group. b) Voltaire satirized how some people are all talk and contradict what they say by their actions.
1) A parody is work intended to mock something by means of humorous imitation.
2) Examples: a) Pangloss preventing Candide from saving the drowning Anabaptist (page 13) b) "If this is the best of all possible worlds, what must the others be like?" (page 16)
3) a) This is a parody because Ponglass' actions mocks how ridiculous some philosophies are and how they affect people in the most desperate times. b) This is a parody of how the general belief at the time was that this world was the best of all worlds. Candide's words here question this belief and mocks it by how Pangloss gets hanged and Candide himself gets flogged.
4) a) Voltaire satirized how some people were be too ardent in their beliefs and philosophies that they would act in the most ridiculous ways in the most desperate situations. b) Voltaire satirized how the saying, "This is the best of all worlds," was a lie. He wanted people to realize that that thought was ridiculous to think of even in the most dire times.
1) An oxymoron is a figure of speech that combines contradictory terms.
2) Examples: a) Metaphysico-theologico-cosmo-nigology. (page 4) b) Heroic butchery (page 8)
3) a) This is an oxymoron because the study of metophysico-, theologico-, and cosmo- are are types of studies but the end -nigology shoots down the three previous studies. The prefix nig- means nothing. b) This is an oxymoron because there is nothing heroic about butchering people.
4) a) Voltaire was satirizing how the teachings and studies of philosophers all came down to be worthless to know and should be considered nothing. b) Voltaire was satirizing how soldiers and kings had a disgusting lust of war and considered killing humans heroic.
1) An understatement is a form of speech that makes something sound less than it actually is.
2) Examples: a) "...well have amounted to thirty thousand or so corpses." (page 8) b) "A merchant bought me and took me to Tunis, where he sold me to another merchant... after Symyrna resold in Constantinople." (page 29)
3) a) This is an understatement, because Voltaire speaks of the great number of casualties (thirty thousand) casually as if it was a rather smaller amount than normal. b) This is an understatement, because the old woman makes the life of a slave (she was practically treated as a slave) sound so general as in being sold from place to place.
4) a) Voltaire satirized how wars resulted in great numbers of casualties and kings and nobles were practically indifferent about the number of deaths. b) Voltaire satirized how slaves were mistreated and were sold off as if they were objects.