Political and Social Legacies of the Persian Empire compared to Han China - Thesis: While the adm...

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Political and Social Legacies of the Persian Empire compared to Han China - Thesis: While the administration of Han China was centralized, ruled by a forced religion, and contained one culture, Persia was more open, including other cultures' languages, religions, and traditions. The Han economy was founded on agriculture, while Persia worked to increase taxes to support their empire. by Mind Map: Political and Social Legacies of the Persian Empire compared to Han China - Thesis: While the administration of Han China was centralized, ruled by a forced religion, and contained one culture, Persia was more open, including other cultures' languages, religions, and traditions. The Han economy was founded on agriculture, while Persia worked to increase taxes to support their empire.

1. Economic Foundations

1.1. Han China

1.1.1. Colonization

1.1.1.1. Little to none

1.1.2. Standardization

1.1.2.1. Continued standardizations made by Qin Shihuangdi, such as that of the wheel

1.1.3. Agriculture

1.1.3.1. High productivity for most of the empire's time of prosperity

1.1.3.2. Land concentrated in the hands of the elite, not effectively controlled by the government, eventually destroyed the dynasty

1.1.3.3. Caused iron industry to grow, creating more efficient iron farm implements, allowing Chinese to have more food and produce more goods for more trade

1.1.3.3.1. "High agricultural productivity continued through the Qin and Han Dynasties, and it supported the development of craft industries." (Traditions 162)

1.1.3.3.2. For instance, the sickle

1.1.4. Trade and Commerce

1.1.4.1. Established imperial monopolies for trade goods

1.1.4.1.1. "To finance the vast machinery of his government... [Han Wudi] established monopolies on the production of essential goods." (Traditions 159)

1.2. Achaemenid Empire

1.2.1. Cyrus

1.2.1.1. Achieved economic prosperity through his many vassals from the nations he had taken over, and who respected him

1.2.2. Darius

1.2.2.1. Levied taxes to provide income for his bureaucracy & army

1.2.3. Standardization

1.2.3.1. Code of laws

1.2.3.2. Coins

1.2.3.2.1. "When Cyrus absorbed the forces of Lydia into his expanding realm, he brought the advantages of standardized coins to the larger Achaemenid empire." (Traditions 142)

1.2.4. Agriculture

1.2.4.1. Used fertile regions to cultivate and mobilize agricultural surplus

1.2.4.1.1. "Agriculture was the economic foundation of classical Persian society." (Traditions 141)

1.2.5. Trade and Commerce

1.2.5.1. "Long distance trade grew rapidly during the course of the Persian empires." (Traditions 142)

1.2.5.2. Royal Road and sea lanes facilitated long-distance trade

1.2.5.3. Traded with India, Iran, Asia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Phoenicia, Arabia, Egypt, Nubia, and Greece

2. Religion

2.1. Han China

2.1.1. No mandated state religion, yet many philosophies

2.1.1.1. Daoism

2.1.1.1.1. Focused Around Reflection and introspection,and unlike Confucianism, social activism wasn't a concern. Traditions, 153

2.1.1.2. Legalism

2.1.1.2.1. Not concerned with ethics or morality, just the right of the law above all. Attention was given exclusively to the state. Traditions, 154

2.1.1.3. Confucianism

2.1.1.3.1. Follows the teachings of Kong Fuzi, who taught values of piety and principles of human nature. Traditions, 150-151

2.1.2. Each firm believer of these philosophies criticized one another heavily, yet some synthesized them into one belief (i.e. the Han synthesis)

2.1.3. Each ruler brought about his own philosophies to help him rule. The King of Qin was a strong legalist (Traditions 156), while the Kings of Han synthesized the three most popular philosophies into one philosophy called "The Han synthesis"

2.2. Achaemenid Empire

2.2.1. Zoroastrianism. Not an officially mandated religion by the Achaemenid dynasty, but mandated by the Sasanids, who claimed to be heirs to the Achaemenids. Very popular religion in Persia. Tradition, 142-143

2.2.1.1. For the most part, Persian rulers allowed different religions to thrive, which is why there was no mandated religion.

2.2.1.2. Zoroastrianism was very popular among the rich and political elite. They liked the idea that the current world is a paradise, instead of there being a heavenly afterlife.

2.2.1.3. "Zoroastrians have often summarized their moral teachings in the simple formula "good words, good thoughts, good deeds."

2.2.1.4. "Zoroastrians have often summarized their moral teachings in the simple formula "good words, good thoughts, good deeds."

2.2.1.5. "Zoroastrians have often summarized their moral teachings in the simple formula "good words, good thoughts, good deeds."

3. Government Structure

3.1. Han China

3.1.1. Liu Bang

3.1.1.1. Governed using Legalist principles

3.1.1.2. Settled on a centralized governmental structure after being unable to find help from his family

3.1.1.3. "He divided his empire into administrative districts governed by officials who served at the emperor's pleasure in the expectation that he could exercise control." (Traditions 159)

3.1.2. Han Wudi

3.1.2.1. Administrative Centralization

3.1.2.1.1. Administered rule by a Legalist central bureaucracy

3.1.2.1.2. Maintained power using imperial officers

3.1.2.2. Taxes

3.1.2.2.1. Han Wudi levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft as a tribute to his government

3.1.2.3. Confucian Education System

3.1.2.3.1. There was no real public education anywhere in the world at this time. While this was no education granted to the community, it was the first education system catered towards specializing in a certain field. Traditions 16

3.1.2.4. Imperial expansion

3.1.2.4.1. Despite Han Wudi aggressively centralizing his government, he was also very proactive in expanding his empire. He expanded his empire all the way into northern Vietnam and Korea. Traditions 160

3.2. Achaemenid Empire

3.2.1. Darius

3.2.1.1. Satrapies

3.2.1.1.1. Balanced amount of centralization and local administration

3.2.1.2. Taxes and laws

3.2.1.2.1. Replaced inconsistent tribute payments with taxes

3.2.2. Xerxes

3.2.2.1. Disregarded the tolerance policy

4. Social Organization and Norms

4.1. Han China

4.1.1. Daoism

4.1.1.1. Daoists expected people to live in harmony with nature and to strive to do nothing. People were supposed to live in small, dependent communities and only worry about the Dao.

4.1.1.1.1. “Daoists devoted their energies to reflection and introspection, in hopes that they could understand the natural principles that governed the world and could learn how to live in harmony with them. The Daoists believed that over time, this approach would bring harmony to society as a whole, as people ceased to meddle in affairs that they could not understand or control.” (153 Traditions and Encounters)

4.1.2. Legalism

4.1.2.1. Since Legalists believed that humans were inherently evil, they restrained people and expected people to serve the empire at all cost. People were expected to put the state above their own personal individual needs and desires

4.1.2.1.1. “(Legalists) devoted their attention to exclusively to the state, which they sought to strengthen and expand at all costs” (154 Traditions and Encounters)

4.1.3. Patriarchy and Women

4.1.3.1. Patriarchal values were influenced by schools of thought.. In, Confucian relationship of wife to husband,women were seen as second class citizens with limited rights.Ban Zhao, author of Lessons for Women, argued that women should receive the same education as men so they can better serve their husbands. Women were always expected to take care of the family and to always serve her husband.

4.2. Achaemenid Empire

4.2.1. Women

4.2.1.1. Women were still expected to take care of the household and the famly

4.2.1.2. "The weaving of textiles was the job of the women." Traditions,140

4.2.2. Commoners

4.2.2.1. "Free residents of rural areas had the right to marry and move as they wish." Traditions, 140

4.2.3. Peasants

4.2.3.1. Peasants had the right to rule land

4.2.4. Steppe Nomad

4.2.4.1. Family and clan relationships were extremely important.

4.2.4.2. "Persian society reflected its origins on the steppes of central Asia."

4.2.5. Slaves

4.2.5.1. "Slaves were the property of an individual, the state, or an institution such as a temple community." Traditions, 141

4.2.5.2. Slaves did agricultural tasks and performed administrative chores for their masters.

4.2.5.3. State owned slaves worked on large construction projects like roads, irrigation systems, city walls, and palaces.

5. Public Works/Infrastructure

5.1. Han China

5.1.1. Roads and Canals

5.1.1.1. Han China continued the Qin policy of building roads and canals to facilitate trade.

5.1.1.2. "The roads and bridges....encouraged economic integration and were used as highways for transporting supplies." Traditions, 157

5.1.1.3. The roads were also used for the military to transport and move supplies

5.2. Achaemenid Empire

5.2.1. Canals

5.2.1.1. Qanats or underground canalsled to enhanced agricultural production and population growth." Traditions, 135

5.2.1.1.1. Qanats allowed cultivators to distribute water to fields. The Qanats brought water through the dry Persian Empire.

5.2.2. Roads

5.2.2.1. Roads were built to "knit their far-flung realm into a coherent whole." Traditions,135

5.2.2.2. Persian Royal Road (1600 miles long)

5.2.2.2.1. "The imperial government organized a courier service and built 111 postal stations at intervals of 40 to 50 kilometers." Traditions, 135

5.2.2.2.2. The Royal Road also helped facilitate trade. The Achaemenids built roads to India, Anatolia, and Egypt. This increased accessibility from one place to another created trade that ingrated the empire's various regions into a larger economy.

5.2.2.2.3. The Persian Royal Road also allowed for communication to spread to other places quicker and faster.

5.2.2.2.4. "The imperial government organized a courier service and built 111 postal stations at intervals of 40 to 50 kilometers." Traditions, 135

6. Leadership

6.1. Achaemenid Empire

6.1.1. Cyrus

6.1.1.1. Cyrus was a military leader that built a strong army. He took over Medes in three years and built Persian Empire. He also Led Army in conquest of Babylon, Assyria, and Lydia.

6.1.1.1.1. "By 548 B.C.E he had brought all of Iran under his control..." (133 Traditions and Encounters)

6.1.1.2. His brilliant leadership allowed him to take control of a territory spanning from the borders of Egypt to India in just twenty years. He was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.

6.1.2. Darius (521-486 B.C.E)

6.1.2.1. Darius was also an administrative and political leader. He built a centralized administration located in Persepolis. He divided his realm into 23 satrapies and had imperial spies make sure his governors were loyal. He also taxed to make sure he had all the administration. Darius standardized laws and coinage to increase trade.

6.1.2.1.1. The spies known as the “eyes and ears of the king” (134 Traditions and Encounters)

6.1.2.1.2. Political stability made it possible to undertake extensive public work projects such as the construction of qanat (underground canals)… (136 Traditions and Encounters)

6.1.2.2. Darius was a military leader that pushed his armies into India as far as the Indus River. He also capture Thrace, the West Cost of the Black Sea, and some parts of Macedonia.

6.1.2.2.1. When Darius captured Mesopotamia, he "did not portray himself as a Persian conqueror but, rather, as legitimate Babylonian rulers..." (136 Traditions and Encounters)

6.1.3. Xerxes (486-465 B.C.E)

6.1.3.1. Xerxes was a military leader. His leadership of armies allowed him to quickly and harshly crush rebellions.He led massive assaults against Greek Forces. Xerxes harsh policies led to his reputation of being a cruel leader He was despised by many of his subjects.

6.1.3.1.1. "Xerxes... had difficult relations with his subject peoples." (136 Traditions and Encounters)

6.2. Han China

6.2.1. Liu Bang

6.2.1.1. With unwavering loyalty from his troops, he returned order to China almost immediately after the fall of the Qin Dynasty. He formed new dynasty: The Han, one of the longest and most successful in Chinese history. Government structure between decentralized network of political alliances and imperial centralization, this failed and he changed the government structure to centralized imperial rule. He built extensive bureaucracy of brilliant advisers.

6.2.1.1.1. “He (Liu Bang) surrounded himself with brilliant advisors and enjoyed the unwavering loyalty of his troops. By 206 B.C.E, he had restored order throughout China…” (159 Traditions and Encounters)

6.2.2. Han Wudi

6.2.2.1. Han Wudi used influence to promote administrative centralization and build an enormous bureaucracy. He invested in huge public works projects: building roads and canals to facilitate and communication trade in the empire. He also levied taxes on industries that benefited the state (agriculture, trade, craft, etc.) and established imperial monopolies on industries that produced essential goods (iron and salt). Due to the need for educated officials and advisers to staff his bureaucracy, he established imperial Confucian schools that prepared young men for government service

6.2.2.1.1. “Much of the reason for the Han dynasty’s success was the long reign of the dynasty’s greatest and most energetic emperor, Han Wudi…” (159 Traditions and Encounters)

6.2.2.1.2. “Han Wudi ruled his empire with vision and vigor. He pursued two policies in particular: administrative centralization and imperial expansion.” (159 Traditions and Encounters)

6.2.2.1.3. “… Han Wudi recognized that the success of his efforts at bureaucratic centralization would depend on a corps of educated office holders.” (161 Traditions and Encouters)

6.2.3. Wang Mang

6.2.3.1. • Wang Mang undertook program of reform that led to him being called the “Socialist Emperor." He limited amount of land a family could own and had his officials dived estates and redistributed them to the people. His insufficient preparation and communication of these reforms led to confusion and almost all subjects resisted this plan. His short reign ended when angry citizens revolted

6.2.3.1.1. “Wang Mang introduced a series of wide ranging reforms that prompted historians to refer to him as the “”Socialist Emperor””.” (165 Traditions and Encounters)