Educational Interventions and Scaffolding.

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Educational Interventions and Scaffolding. by Mind Map: Educational Interventions and Scaffolding.

1. Cognitive Development

1.1. Piaget

1.1.1. Key Ideas

1.1.1.1. Stages

1.1.1.1.1. Sensory-motor( Birth To age 2 )

1.1.1.1.2. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (AGES 2 TO 7)

1.1.1.1.3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (AGE 7 TO 11)

1.1.1.1.4. FORMAL OPERATION STAGE (AGE 11 TO ADULTHOOD)

1.1.2. Criticisms

1.1.2.1. Task can be taught at an early developmental stages.

1.1.2.2. children's skill develop in different ways on different tasks.

1.2. Vygosty

1.2.1. Key Ideas

1.2.1.1. Learning Precedes development

1.2.1.2. Learning involves acquisition of signs by means of information from others and deliberate teaching

1.2.1.3. Self- Regulation

1.2.1.3.1. Learning that action and sound have meaning

1.2.1.3.2. Practice

1.2.1.3.3. use of signs to think and solve problem without the help of others.

1.2.1.4. How it occurs

1.2.1.4.1. Private speech

1.2.1.4.2. The Zone of Proximal Development

1.2.1.4.3. Scxaffolding

1.2.1.4.4. Cooperative learning

1.3. Similiarites

1.3.1. Social interaction played an irreplaceable role in cognitive development

1.3.2. Development declines with increase in age

1.3.3. Development occurs with cognitive conflicts

1.3.4. Agree that abstract thought comes later in development

1.3.5. Active learning

1.3.6. Equilibrium

1.3.7. The ability to organize information is important

2. Educational Implications

2.1. Piaget

2.1.1. Developmentally appropriate education

2.1.1.1. Focus on the process and not only on its product

2.1.1.2. self initiated active involvement in learning activity.

2.1.1.3. De-emphasis on making children adult like in their thinking

2.1.1.4. Acceptance of individual difference in developmental progress

2.2. Vygpotsky's

2.2.1. stay within the Zone of proximal development

2.2.1.1. Guided Practice is expected in early development

2.2.1.2. Plan for students to work in group

2.2.1.3. Allow practice time

2.2.1.4. Do not simplify task provide gradual assistant

2.2.1.5. Plan group work

2.2.2. Cognitive differences

2.2.2.1. Younger children cannot address abstract thoughts

2.2.2.2. Older children Begin to comprehend abstract issues

2.2.3. Scaffolding should be provided to improve educational sucess

3. Vocabalary

3.1. Techniques

3.1.1. Word of the day

3.1.1.1. Teacher and student share word of the day around them having context from reading, TV, and other media.

3.1.2. List- Group- share

3.1.2.1. It builds on what children already know.

3.1.2.2. List- Children brainstorm all the words related to the topic

3.1.2.3. Group- Grouping the words into categories.

3.1.2.4. share- share with other groups

3.1.3. Visual- Auditory-Kinesthetic - tactile

3.1.3.1. Children choose the word, they say the word, trace the word in sand or shaving cream and also touch the word.

3.1.4. Word Map

3.1.4.1. connecting words to literature,the world and life experience.

3.1.5. Secret Word

3.1.5.1. Teacher Decides a secret word that uses all the letters.

3.1.5.2. Students makes words using a given number of letters, they manipulate these words and make new words until they build the secrete word

3.2. Language development

3.2.1. Typical

3.2.1.1. 0–4 Week

3.2.1.1.1. Smiles selectively at mother’s voice

3.2.1.2. 3–6 Months

3.2.1.2.1. Babbles and coos, squeals and gurgles

3.2.1.2.2. Laughs

3.2.1.3. 6–9 Months

3.2.1.3.1. Imitates playful sounds

3.2.1.4. 9–12 Months

3.2.1.4.1. Responds to verbal request

3.2.1.4.2. Repeats performances that are laughed at

3.2.1.5. 12–15 Months

3.2.1.5.1. Communicates by gesture

3.2.1.5.2. Says 2–3 “words

3.2.1.6. 15–18 Months

3.2.1.6.1. Has vocabulary of 10–15 words.

3.2.1.7. 18–24 Months

3.2.1.7.1. Has vocabulary of 20 words—mostly nouns.

3.2.1.7.2. Enjoys simple stories.

3.2.1.8. 24–30 Months

3.2.1.8.1. Speaks 50 or more words.

3.2.1.8.2. Has vocabulary of 300 words.

3.2.1.8.3. Uses phrases and 3- to 4-word sentences.

3.2.1.9. 30–36 Months

3.2.1.9.1. Has vocabulary of 900– 1,000 words

3.2.1.9.2. Uses verbal commands

3.2.1.9.3. Increases use of verbs

3.2.1.9.4. Begins using adjectives and prepositions

3.2.1.10. Preschool Years: 3 Years Old

3.2.1.10.1. Receptive Language

3.2.1.10.2. Expressive Language

3.2.1.11. Preschool Years: 4 Years Old

3.2.1.11.1. Uses all parts of speech correctly

3.2.1.11.2. Has vocabulary of 2,000- plus words

3.2.1.11.3. Has 100% production and use of consonants

3.2.1.11.4. Corrects own errors in pronunciation of new words.

3.2.1.12. Preschool Years: 5 Years Old

3.2.1.12.1. Has vocabulary of 2,500- plus words

3.2.1.12.2. Acts out stories

3.2.1.13. Elementary School Years: 6 Years Old

3.2.1.13.1. Likes to use big words

3.2.1.13.2. Shows increasingly symbolic language

3.2.1.14. Elementary School Years: 7 Years Old

3.2.1.14.1. Speaks fluently

3.2.1.15. Elementary School Years: 8 Years Old

3.2.1.15.1. Easily expresses and communicates.

3.2.1.15.2. Likes to use big words

3.2.1.16. Elementary School Years: 9 Years Old

3.2.1.16.1. Frequently discusses

3.2.1.17. Elementary School Years: 10 Years Old

3.2.1.17.1. Participates in discussion of social and world problems

3.2.1.18. Early Adolescence: Beginning Age, 11–13 Years Old

3.2.1.18.1. Looks beyond literal meaning of speech

3.2.1.18.2. Understand complex sentences

3.2.1.19. Late life 14- adhulhood

3.2.1.19.1. Master complex Vocal inflection

3.2.1.19.2. Understands figurative language

3.2.1.19.3. complex conversation over abstract issues

3.2.2. Atypical

3.2.2.1. chronic ear infection can have difficulty in phonics

3.2.2.2. If a child cannot focus on verbal communication, development may slow down

3.2.2.3. Bilingual child could show delay

3.2.2.4. speech disorder will become evident

3.2.3. Promoting Literacy

3.2.3.1. Average student adds 3000 words a year

3.2.3.2. reading to children surrounding them with books and other printed materials.

3.2.3.3. Point out and indicate features in print

3.2.3.4. Encourage reading on topics that interests them

3.2.3.5. teach frequently and broadly used words

4. Reading

4.1. Techniques

4.1.1. Modeling Fluent reading by reading aloud

4.1.1.1. Teachers or other proficient guest readers read with expression, enthusiasm.

4.1.2. Repeated Reading

4.1.2.1. Repeated reading until text can be read smoothly creates confidence.

4.1.3. Paired Reading

4.1.3.1. Adults and children read together

4.1.4. Pre- teach vocabulary

4.1.4.1. Introduce content vocabulary before teaching

4.1.5. reciprocal teaching

4.1.5.1. During reading teacher raises questions about reading, makes predictions, summaries and clarifies vocabulary and idea.

4.2. Literacy Development Typical

4.2.1. Birth to grade 1

4.2.1.1. Emergent Literacy

4.2.1.1.1. Gains control on oral language

4.2.1.1.2. Relies heavily on pictures in text

4.2.1.1.3. Pretends to read

4.2.1.1.4. Recognizes rhymes

4.2.2. Beginning Grade 1

4.2.2.1. Decoding

4.2.2.1.1. Aware of sound symbol relationship

4.2.2.1.2. Focuses on [printed symbols

4.2.2.1.3. Attempts to break code of print

4.2.2.1.4. Use decoding to figure out words.

4.2.3. End of Grade 1 to end of Grade 3

4.2.3.1. Confirmation and fluency

4.2.3.1.1. Develops fluency in reading

4.2.3.1.2. Recognizes patterns of words

4.2.3.1.3. checks for meaning and sense

4.2.3.1.4. Knows a stock of sight words

4.2.4. Grade 4 to Grade 8

4.2.4.1. Learning the new (single view point)

4.2.4.1.1. Uses reading as a tool for learning

4.2.4.1.2. Applies reading stratergies

4.2.4.1.3. expands reading vocabalary

4.2.4.1.4. comprehends from singular point of view

4.2.5. Secondary and early higher educattion

4.2.5.1. Multiple View points

4.2.5.1.1. Analyzes what is read

4.2.5.1.2. Reacts critically to texts

4.2.5.1.3. Deals with layers of facts and concepts

4.2.5.1.4. Comprehends from multiple point of view

4.2.6. Late higher education and graduate school

4.2.6.1. A world view

4.2.6.1.1. Develops a well rounded view of the world through reading

4.3. A typical

4.3.1. lack of exposure to book can slow literacy in early childhood

4.3.2. Dual language households can increase literacy

4.3.3. Phonological deficiency can reduce child's efficiency to read

4.3.4. Child with learning disability may find difficulty in reading

4.4. Promoting Literacy

4.4.1. Reading to children

4.4.2. Exposure to lot of environmental print

4.4.3. Motivation

5. Writing

5.1. Techniques

5.1.1. Embellish a comic strip

5.1.1.1. Cut apart and scramble the segments of a comic strip

5.1.1.2. ask children to arrange them in order. Then ask them to write about what is going on in each segment.

5.1.2. Make a list

5.1.2.1. creating a wish list of gifts for an upcoming birthday or holiday

5.1.3. Get a pen pa

5.1.3.1. tells her pal about her family, friends, school, house, etc

5.1.4. Make a photographic journal

5.1.4.1. Ask the child to write captions to explain what is going on in each photo, when and where it was taken, and his relationship with each person.

5.1.5. , "I'm going to say, 'Go,'

5.1.5.1. Teacher say Go and students write everything they can think of until teacher says say, 'Stop.'" Begin with a short interval—three minutes —and gradually increase it.

5.2. Writing Development

5.2.1. Typical

5.2.1.1. 2- and 3-year-olds

5.2.1.1.1. Random Scribbling

5.2.1.2. 3-year-olds

5.2.1.2.1. Controlled Scribbling

5.2.1.3. 3- and 4-year-olds

5.2.1.3.1. Letter-Like Forms

5.2.1.4. 4-year-olds

5.2.1.4.1. Letter and Symbol Relationship

5.2.1.5. 4- and 5-year-olds

5.2.1.5.1. Invented Spelling

5.2.1.6. 5-, 6- and 7-year-olds

5.2.1.6.1. Standard Spelling

5.2.2. Atypical

5.2.2.1. Visual impairment might cause a lack of development in writing skill

5.2.2.2. Dysgraphia may cause developmental delay in writing

5.2.2.3. Phonological deficiency causes delay in writing

5.2.3. Promoting Literacy

5.2.3.1. Allow time

5.2.3.2. Respond to child's writing

5.2.3.3. Praise your child's writing

5.2.3.4. Teach organization and planning

5.2.3.5. Model good writing

5.2.3.6. Encourage Authentic writing

6. characteristics of scaffolding

6.1. provides clear directions

6.2. clarifies purpose

6.3. keeps students on task

6.4. offers assessment to clarify expectations

6.5. points students to worthy sources

6.6. reduces uncertainty, surprise and disappointment

6.7. delivers efficiency

6.8. creates momentum