# Structures and Forces

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Structures and Forces

## 3. Purpose, form and function of a structure

### 3.1. Purpose

3.1.1. Very similar to function, basically what it is designed to do

3.1.1.1. Ex. Cars are used to transport us around faster

### 3.2. Function

3.2.1. What the structure is made to do

3.2.1.1. Ex. Bridge is to help people cross water without swimming or boat

### 3.3. Form

3.3.1. What a structure looks like and what it is made out of

3.3.1.1. Three basic forms

3.3.1.1.1. Frame

3.3.1.1.2. Solid

3.3.1.1.3. Shell

## 4. Different Types of Structures

### 4.1. Solid

4.1.1. Solid all the way through

### 4.2. Frame

4.2.1. Not solid all the way usually just a frame, saves more materials

4.2.1.1. Ex. Frame bridge, a car, etc.

### 4.3. Shell

4.3.1. Not solid all the way through usually hollow in the inside

4.3.1.1. Ex. A igloo, a egg, etc

5.1.1. Permanent force acting on a structure like the weight of the structure itself

5.1.1.1. Ex. If the person was standing on the bridge the bridge would be the dead load

5.2.1. A changing force acting on a structure

5.2.1.1. Ex. Wind, snow, etc.

5.3.1. Natural forces acting on the structure

5.3.1.1. Ex. Wind blowing against a structure

5.4.1. The effect of gravity acting on a structure

5.4.1.1. Ex. Weight of a bridge

## 6. Forces

### 6.1. External forces

6.1.1. Direction

6.1.1.1. Direction of the force that is being applied

6.1.1.1.1. Ex. Push or pull

6.1.2. Point of application

6.1.2.1. Where the force hits on the structure

6.1.2.1.1. Ex. The force hits the centre

6.1.2.1.2. For example a tap is a weak force

6.1.3. Magnitude

6.1.3.1. How strong,heavy,light a force acting on a structure is

6.1.4. Plane of application

6.1.4.1. The angle which the force is applied

6.1.4.1.1. Ex. A wrecking a ball

### 6.2. Internal forces

6.2.1. Compression

6.2.1.1. Pushing against each other

6.2.1.1.1. Ex. Squeezing a rubber ball

6.2.2. Shear

6.2.2.1. Parallel forces acting opposite on a structure

6.2.2.1.1. Ex. Licorice getting pulled in opposite directions

6.2.3. Torsion

6.2.3.1. When opposite rotational forces are applied to a object

6.2.3.1.1. Ex. When a rope is getting twisted in opposite directions

6.2.4. Tension

6.2.4.1. When something is being pulled in opposite directions

6.2.4.1.1. Ex. a elastic band getting stretched