Socialization and Social Inequality in Canadian Education

A mind map for EDU 100

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Socialization and Social Inequality in Canadian Education by Mind Map: Socialization and Social Inequality in Canadian Education

1. Philosophy

1.1. Neoliberalism: An economic philosophy that favours market freedom, competitive individualism, and privatization over public services and government intervention (Kachur & Harrison, 1999).

1.1.1. believes education...

1.1.1.1. prepares students for work

1.1.1.2. leads to competitiveness in the global marketplace

1.1.1.3. should be privatized

1.1.1.4. education = economic growth

1.2. Postmodern socialism: A philosophy that upholds the interests of marginalized groups, civil and individual rights, intellectual rigour, and a shared sense of community. It challenges hierarchy and authoritarianism, possessive individualism, and the false tolerance or relativity (Kachur & Harrison, 1999).

1.2.1. believes education...

1.2.1.1. develops human potential and promotes democracy

1.2.1.2. should instill values common to all cultures (respect, responsibility, self-discipline, courage)

1.2.1.3. should "provide a safe space for the development of personal autonomy and social criticism" (p. 213).

1.2.1.4. helps maintain an active citizenry

1.2.1.5. should be public

1.3. Symbolic interaction, phenomenology, and interpretive sociology (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009).

1.3.1. Mead's theory

1.3.1.1. the individual is an active learner who interprets, selects, and acts. The self is made up of an "I" which is a person's individuality and a "me" which represents internalized social expectations.

1.3.1.2. The acquisition of language is essential to socialization

1.3.2. Shutz's theory

1.3.2.1. "to understand social interaction we must uncover or make explicit the hidden facts of the interaction process" (p. 128).

1.3.2.2. Intersubjectivity is the knowledge we accumulate through experience and that has been passed to us by teachers and parents = commonsense knowledge. Meaning is constructed through typification.

1.4. Anti-racist education

1.4.1. "should be based on the assumption that any system or practice that discriminates against specific groups or individuals on the basis of their difference from the dominant group (in power) is unacceptable" (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

1.5. Foundational principles of First Nations education (Anuik, 2013)

1.5.1. nourishing the learning spirit

1.5.1.1. coming to know

1.5.1.2. validating learning process

1.5.1.3. knowledge as something to discover inside you rather than a product to consume

1.5.2. affirmation of cultural identies

1.5.2.1. enabling children to learn "the forces which shape him: the history of his people, their values and customs, their language" (NIB as cited in Anuik, 2013, p. 138)

1.5.3. Education should meet the needs of the whole child, and the school system has fallen short of this for Native students (Steinhauer, 2007)

1.5.4. Education is a treaty right

1.5.5. "People are 'empowered' when they have learned to control the development and maintenance of their own powers—when they know what to do to continue their learning and development without being told what to do. Educators call this lifelong learning. Our Elders call this wisdom, and it is what we all want for our children so that they may control their lives rather then being overly controlled by external forces" (Watt-Cloutier, as cited in Steinhauer, 2007, p. 140)

1.5.6. There must be a place for Aboriginal content in the curriculum

2. Sociology

2.1. Who has the power?

2.1.1. Social inequality

2.1.1.1. Race and ethnicity

2.1.1.1.1. "reverse racism"

2.1.1.1.2. race is not biologically determined (Ghosh, 2008)

2.1.1.1.3. race is a powerful social construct (Ghosh, 2008)

2.1.1.1.4. racism = discrimination + power (Ghosh, 2008)

2.1.1.2. Gender and sexuality

2.1.1.3. Socioeconomic status

2.1.2. difference is "that which is not in the image of the dominant group ... the other is never just there - it is always created" (Ghosh, 2008, p. 27)

2.1.3. the other is never just there - it is created

2.1.4. "difference is constructed through various representations and practices that name, legitimate, marginalize, and exclude the cultural capital and voices of various groups" (Giroux, as cited in Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009, pp. 134)

2.1.5. "loyal" Albertans vs. "special interest groups" (Kachur & Harrison, 1999)

2.2. Socialization: "the internalization of social norms, roles and values into [the individual's] own mind" (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009, p. 126).

2.2.1. primary: family

2.2.1.1. Aboriginal perspective: "Parents, families, and community support learners to engage new situations while also contributing to the shared collective consciousness" (Anuik, 2013, 144).

2.2.1.2. Conservatives fault education for undermining the stability of "traditional" family values (Kachur & Harrison, 1999)

2.2.1.3. Parents want their children to have the best education possible, including Aboriginal parents (Steinhauer, 2007)

2.2.1.3.1. this is why many Aboriginal parents choose to send their children off-reserve for school, despite serious tradeoffs

2.2.1.4. An extremely supportive family can sometimes counteract the negative impacts of schooling for Aboriginal youth... but it's way harder than it should be

2.2.2. secondary :school

2.2.2.1. teacher expectations

2.2.2.1.1. social inequality is perpetuated in the classroom

2.2.2.1.2. typification of pupil's character (speculation, inference, stereotypes

2.2.2.1.3. typification and classification "help teachers operate with minimal conflict in an otherwise bureaucratic organization" (p. 130), identifying students based on features that are valued in our society (which is not necessarily a good thing)

2.2.2.1.4. influences student achievement and future position in social structure

2.2.2.2. organizational features

2.2.2.2.1. the hidden curriculum

2.2.2.3. because education plays a major role in socialization, it is a scapegoat for many social issues (Kachur & Harrison, 1999)

2.2.3. Tacit infrastructures (Little Bear as cited in Anuik, 2013)

3. The Teacher (Me!)

3.1. The standard view of teaching

3.1.1. promotes and affirms hegemonic ideology (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.1.2. pass on knowledge noncritically (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.1.3. getting things taught efficiently and effectively, as well as classroom management, are prime concerns (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.1.4. depoliticizes and disempowers students (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.2. How can I respond to the hidden curriculum?

3.2.1. Teach the curriculum critically (Ghosh, 2008).

3.2.1.1. "the job of the teacher is to legitimate mass audience culture in order to criticize and transcend it, or discover whether genuine expressive forms are repressed within it" (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009, p. 133)

3.2.1.2. teachers should question "neutral" knowledge and taken-for-granted practices (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009, p. 133)

3.2.1.3. adopt comparative, critical, and feminist theory perspectives (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.2.1.4. "failing to recognize Canada's racist history and portraying a race-less and colour-blind society condones and continues white privilege" (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

3.2.1.5. teach multiple perspectives and ways of knowing, represent multiple cultural histories (Ghosh, 2008)

3.2.2. Empower students

3.2.2.1. "we must create the conditions necessary to enable individuals to participate in creating and, perhaps, changing meanings and values" (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009, p. 132)

3.2.2.2. emotional support: "nurture cultural wealth and a healthy inner being" (Ghosh, 2008, p. 29)

3.2.2.3. motivate students to strive for social justice and create a civil society (Ghosh, 2008).

3.2.3. Aim for equity

3.2.3.1. "Fairness is not equal treatment but equality of opportunity: it is to recognize difference without allowing it to categorize people" (Ghosh, 2008, p. 28)

3.2.3.2. cooperative learning groups, multisensory methods, variety of learning strategies (Ghosh, 2008)

3.3. The importance of reflection

3.3.1. Reflect on what kind of teacher I am and how I became that way (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

3.3.2. "Teachers must be made aware of the subtle ways in which they empower or disadvantage different students; the initial step in teaching must be to examine one's own values" (Ghosh, 2008, 28)

3.3.3. reflect on my own assumptions about Aboriginal students - resist the standard view that Aboriginal students will not be as academically successful as non-Aboriginal students

3.4. How can I honour the Aboriginal perspective?

3.4.1. recognize students and teachers as integrated people of heart, mind, soul, and body (Anuik, 2013)

3.4.2. nourish the learning spirit by engaging the curriculum critically and beyond

3.4.2.1. "inspire students to connect with the collective consciousness that is shared among their families and communities and to judge what is true in the modern curriculum" (Anuik, 2013, p. 144)

3.4.3. consider students' gifts

3.4.4. explore knowledge as a coming to know something already inside you instead of just a product to consume - be a catalyst, stimulate students

3.4.5. build relationships with Aboriginal community members to help me understand Aboriginal tacit infrastructures

3.4.6. challenge: "connect the wisdom of communities with modern curriculum that is designed currently to train learners to become citizens of the 21st-century Canada" (Anuik, 2013, p. 142)

3.4.7. empower Aboriginal students, and don't single them out

3.4.8. learn about Aboriginal epistemoligies

3.4.9. “teachers must demonstrate and model ‘the right of all those present to be there and to participate’ in curricular experiences which do not victimize, delegitimate, or denigrate some members with words and images” (D’Oyley and Stanley, as cited in Steinhauer, 2007, p. 152)

3.5. What does economics have to do with my teaching practice?

3.5.1. I can lead critical discussions of how economic paradigms shape our interpretation of the world, relationships, and education

4. History

4.1. A quick history of economic philosophies

4.1.1. "old" liberalism = 1170s-1920s, Adam Smith, capitalism with no restrictions; free trade; no government intervention

4.1.2. neoliberalism = 1980s to 2008(ish?), globalization, consumerism, competitive individualism, privatization (Kachur & Harrison, 1999).

4.1.2.1. Ralph Klein, New Right, Alberta 1993

4.1.2.1.1. neoliberal government education policies during this era...

4.1.3. the welfare state = 1930s-1970s, the Great Depression, Keynesian economics, government should intervene to advance the common good and increase employment

4.1.4. After neoliberalism? We're not sure yet...

4.2. Development of education in Canada

4.2.1. The British class model influenced our Canadian school system (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

4.2.1.1. separate schools for working class (education as reinforcement of status quo) and elite (education as preparation for leadership)

4.2.2. Various churches vied for control of schooling for the promotion of moral and political education (Barakett & Cleghorn, 2009)

4.2.3. Schooling helped shape national and regional identities

4.3. Racism in Canada

4.3.1. Racial minorities have experienced hate-motivated crimes and systemic racism in the Canadian justice system (Ghosh, 2008)

4.3.1.1. violence against Aboriginals since early colonization

4.3.1.2. Internment of Japanese-Canadians, WWII

4.3.1.3. Toronto subway attacks against South Asian community, 1970s

4.3.1.4. Ongoing attacks against Jews, Muslims, Sikhs

4.3.2. Racism is on the rise since 9/11 (Ghosh, 2008)

4.3.3. Definitions of race have changed over time (Ghosh, 2008)

4.3.3.1. Eastern Europeans once seen as a different race (race is a social construct)

4.3.4. Canada has one of the world's earliest multicultural policies (Ghosh, 2008).

4.4. Education of Aboriginal People in Canada

4.4.1. Policy (Anuik, 2013)

4.4.1.1. Indian Act amendments, 1951 integratiion agenda

4.4.1.2. The White Paper, 1969, proposed abolishing federal responsibilities promised in treaties, such as education

4.4.1.3. The National Indian Brotherhood statement, "Indian Control of Indian Education" accepted by Canadian government in 1973

4.4.1.3.1. First Nations could now consider alternatives to federally-controlled education (residential schools, days schools, public schools)

4.4.2. Federal funding (Steinhauer, 2007)

4.4.2.1. reserve school funding drastically lower than public school funding

4.4.2.1.1. results in lower academic levels

4.4.2.2. A treaty right of First Nations people (but not Metis or Inuit)

4.4.3. The legacy of residential schools in Canada still affects Aboriginal families today (Steinhauer, 2007)

5. The Texts

5.1. Anuik, J. (2013). Nourishing the learning spirit: Coming to know and validating knowledge: Foundational insights on Indian Control of Indian Education in Canada. In Contexts of Education: Second Custom Edition for University of Alberta. (2014). (pp. 137-148). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

5.1.1. Main Idea: The Aboriginal perspective on education is different from the mainstream perspective: Knowledge is not a product to be consumed but a gift innate within yourself to be found and nurtured.

5.2. Barakett, J., & Cleghorn, A. (2009). The school as an informal system of socialization. In Contexts of Education: Second Custom Edition for University of Alberta. (2014). (pp. 125-136). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

5.2.1. Main Idea: Schools socialize children through teacher expectations and the hidden curriculum. Teachers should recognize their own taken-for-granted knowledge and encourage critical engagement.

5.3. Ghosh, R. (2008). Racism: A hidden curriculum. Education Canada, 48(4), 26-29.

5.3.1. Main Idea: Racism is still prevalent in Canada, and schools further it through the hidden curriculum. However, schools also have the means to actively fight racism if they so choose.

5.4. Kachur, J. L., & Harrison, T. W. (1999). Public education, globalization, and democracy: Whither Alberta? In Contexts of Education: Second Custom Edition for University of Alberta. (2014). (pp. 201-216). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

5.4.1. Main Idea: Neoliberalism wrongly blamed education for economic problems and focused on creating a economically competitive labour force. Education should instead be focused on developing human potential and promoting democracy through social criticism

5.5. Steinhauer, E. (2007). The off-reserve schooling experience: Findings. In Parental school choice in First Nations Communities: Is there really a choice? Doctoral Dissertation. (pp. 103-159). Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta.

5.5.1. Main Idea: Aboriginal parents often choose to send their children to off-reserve schools because they feel this will be their best chance to succeed at school, despite the substantial tradeoffs of racism, low expectations, and loss of cultural knowledge.