Welcome, Paul's Intro, Who am I, Goals for class, Inspired learning, Useful outcomes, Stronger learner, writer, researcher, communicator, Have fun, Please write out, Name, Background & Major, Goals for education in general, Specific goals for class, What is easiest for you, What is hardest for you
Psychology, The study of behavior, cognition, emotion and humanity., Psychology today is a frontier of brain, drugs, genetics, medicine, money, politics, education, computers, big data, social-big-data, and positive psychology., Scientific Method, To study cause & effect, Brain, Drugs, Genetics, Big-data, Tracking all human behavior, Tracking all human cognition, Tracking all human emotion, Why? To understand (know), predict (forecast), and control (manipulate), Includes social-big-data, Health, Big-med data, Health predictors (Harvard), Avoiding cigarettes, Good adjustment or coping skills ("making lemonade out of lemons"), Keeping a healthy weight , * Exercising regularly, * Maintaining strong social relationships (including a stablemarriage), * Pursuing education, Influenced by, Takes ideas from all fields of science, Computing, Money, Marketing, Sales, Politics, Finance, Decision making, I/O Psychology, Big-data, Tracking all human behavior, Tracking all human cognition, Tracking all human emotion, Why? To understand (know), predict (forecast), and control (manipulate), Includes social-big-data, Job Types, Basic research, Clinical, Applied & Industrial, Videos (Psychopath), Fallon, Salon Article, Ronson, Group Discussion, Set up, Find the online course support, Look at the threaded discussions, Sign up for an evernote account, Day 2 or 3 we may add in a shared spreadsheet, Teaching Psychology, A balance between art/design/learning theory, simple boot camp and R.B Fuller, We have a month and the heavy lifting is all yours. My role is leadership, management, and coaching via introductions, questions, structuring the pile of information, and providing feedback, R.B. Fuller, R.B. Fuller - if you want to teach, don't teach, give people a tool, the use of which will cause the learning you desire in others., Evernote (personal), Google Docs (team), Freemind (personal) or Mindmeister, For me, what makes teaching interesting is that I get to create, show, tell, and test/ask how that works for you., Scientific Method, Discussion - what are the steps?, Steps, The scientist, The universe is amazing, Everything can be a question, Science is done by people, Creative genius, Untitled, Daily grind and a lifetime of digging trenches with spoons (and occasionally with supercomputers and an army of workers), Nothing is certain, Definition of science - empirical and falsifiable, Probabilistic / Statistical Uncertainty, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Cognitive biases, Experimental error, The place of science, Creation, pursuit, maintenance of: Valid, reliable observations and experimental methods, Least biased exploration techniques, Still full of bias, Funding bias, Hot-topics, Politics and economics still drive wide swaths of science, Censorship happens, Highest criterion for observable cause/effect, Not specifically a moral system, but uses moral frameworks, Conflict with other belief systems: Politics, religion, economics., It is easier to change the data or the observations instead of changing our opinion, We lie to ourselves naturally and unconsciously, so designs are set up to prevent bias. Unconscious behavior is real and has powerful effects.
Tools & Tech, https://www.evernote.com/Registration.action, Type out your learning goals, then share a few, Organizing Ideas, Information Processing (Cognitive Model), Encoding, storage, retrieval, I.C.O.P. - Steps, Identify interests/facts/arguments, Collect and Classify them - what are they? How do they relate?, Organize by theme or ease of knowing, Prioritize as you need (bring to top of your mind or front of your project list)., How to analyze information
Course Learning Outcomes:, Describe the scientific method as it applies to psychology., Define major processes of cognition and social cognition., List the major structures of the brain and endocrine system and describe their major functions., Explain the different states of consciousness and altered states of consciousness., List the major stages of development throughout the lifespan., Describe the psychological issues related to gender and sexuality., Describe the major theories of personality., Describe the major theories of emotion and motivation., Define the major psychological disorders and describe how they are identified.
Your Discoveries & Questions
Announcements, No pre/post-tests, Sat classes room available 8:30AM-12:30
History of Psychology, In your notes, type: History of Psychology, Philosophy, Greeks to Europe, then America, William James, Stream of Thought, Consciousness of Self, Will, Emotion, Method of Introspection, Classical Papers & Experiments, York University, York University, Today in the History of Psychology, Wundt & Freud (Structure of the Mind), Questions, How to help people, What is the mind?, How does it work., Answers, Basic parts, Id, Basic drives, Pleasure principle (seek pleasure, avoid pain), Modern research, people work to avoid pain more than seek pleasure - gambling losses are twice the emotional value of gambling winnings., Ego, Conscious self, Executive control, Superego, Conscience, Socially acquired attitudes & behavior, Good basic description here:, Basic drives, Sex & Libido, Fulfill needs, Basic mechanisms, Early childhood experience, Stages of sexual development, Unresolved conflicts, Conflict among mind's 3 parts, Pain or unfulfilled wishes leads to repression, Repressed pain seeks other outlets, Handled with defense mechanisms, Research News on Psychoanalysis, Methods, Psychoanalysis, Relieve pain by rooting out the original sources of pain rather than leaving them as unconscious drives seeking outlet., Free-association, Dream Interpretation, Talk therapy, "Ego psychology" Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, New parts of the mind, Argues for other drives instead of sex drive as primary., Behaviorism, Abandon introspection all ye who enter here, Focus on observable behavior & change driven by experience, Focus on observable behavior & change driven by experience, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner & Ivan Pavlov, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Edward Thorndike, Animal intelligence, Puzzle boxes, Law of effect, Connectionism, Tell students the story of ant navigation, Clark Hull, Habits, Drive --> Cue --> Behavior --> Reward, Used in marketing (Toothpaste story), Humanistic and Social Psychology, People centric, group behavior, observational learning, Al Bandura - Social learning, moral development, Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of needs, Carl Rogers - Client centered therapy, Cognitive "Revolution", Psychology gets back to "mental states", Noam Chomsky - Inherent mental/brain structures, not all is programmed by experience, Cognitive psychology, Mental rotation, Information Processing, Easier Classics in Cog Psy, 10 complicated classical experiments, Behavioral Economics, Daniel Kahneman, Classical Economics Papers, Bias in Decision Making (Roch Payare), Machine Learning, Reinforcement Learning, Robots, Software, 1990s- Today: Brain and Computers, WWW, Human Genome sequenced, neuroimaging, Today's mixture of All, Integrated by few, Interpreted selectively by all, Lively arguments, useful discoveries, but some of the same old problems.
Science, In your notes, type out, Purpose of science, Definition of the scientific method, Definition of empiricism, Discuss with each other your criteria for true science., Main Points, Empiricism, Observable, Replicable, Falsifiable, Methods, Valid, Reliable, Standard experimental designs, Known flaws & threats to validity, Peer review, Pseudoscience, Fantastic claims, little evidence, Compare to Slides
Debates, Science / Pseudoscience, Disease Model / Positive, Treatment / Performance Methods, Nature / Nurture, Mind / Body (Dualism), Ethics / Morals / Law, Justice / Crime / Punishment, Wealth / Poverty / Economics, Mind Control / Free Will, Change in society, Technology / Environment / Culture, Desired effects, Unknown side effects, Public policy (media, education, etc)
Biological Psychology, Crash Course in Neuroscience
Paper, Topic Head trauma & violent behavior, Introduction, Here we will discuss..., basic stats to show purpose and justification, Evidence, 20% of those with TBI report violent behavior in year 8, All TBI? Just some? Effects? How many people?, 1.7 million annual TBI (what kind of TBI, who?), Populations, Definitions: TBI is..., People we are discussing
In class examples, Reaction time and learning (Sheep Dart), Paper topics and research methods., Classical & operant conditioning video
Perspectives for learning, Awareness, Become aware of the first list of concepts, See the Gaps, Be aware that these lists are incomplete (are "Swiss Cheese")., Nervous system structure, Understand learning by getting a better picture of how the brain is organized., Brain as a scaffold, What structure supports learning?, Learning happens in an existing structure., What is the structure?, Levels of processing from perception to action, Sensory receptors, Pathways to cortex (brainstem, thalamus), Primary, Secondary, Association Cortices, Then this is turned into behavior, Reflexes, snap judgements, plans, Change happens at all levels, Example: All the maps in the brain, Maps of primary senses, Maps of space & body position, Shaped by learning, Influence future learning, Classes program your brain's information scaffold, software can write it out.
Learning Itself, Learning is experience based change in the nervous system., Most of the input to the brain is from the brain. Constant chatter, constant usage., But...we experience new situations and external stimuli all the time. These meet via perception, attention, & memory., Fast, Slow, Permanent, Short term, Pavlov & Classical Conditioning, Associative learning (linking correlated events), Linking events we don't control., Main Terms, Neutral stimulus, Unconditioned Response (salivation), Unconditioned Stimulus (tasty food), Conditioned Stimulus (bell/sound), Acquisition (The Joining), These correlate in time, over and over, neurons in the brain simply grow in response to the correlation (coincidence detection) and a new synaptic structure is created. A new linking in the brain., Conditioned Response (bell/salivate), Extinction, Weaken the response whenever the conditioned stimulus happens but the conditioned stimulus is not presented. bell followed by no meat., Spontaneous Recovery, Conditioned response returns after extinction, As if it was only weakened/suppressed rather than erased., Later Discoveries, Generalization, Every species, Objective psychology, Neural mechanisms, Taste aversions, cravings, Marketing, Examples, Pavlov's Dogs, Little Albert, Skinner & Operant Conditioning, Causing action through Consequences, Linking events we do control., Ideas, Your Behavioral Response, Consequence, Reinforcers, Increase likelihood of the behavior, Positive (Pleasure follows response), Negative (Removal of pain follows response), Strengthen the response, Our examples?, Punishment, Weaken the response, Decrease the likelihood of behavior, Consequence that decreases a behavior, Many unintended effects, Suppression, Discrimination (ok to steal when law isn't around), Fear, Modeling aggression?, Shows what not to do, Still need to show what to do, Change in behavior, Repeat the behavior, Decrease the behavior, Shaping, Law of effect, Pain/Pleasure, Responses followed by pleasure (more likely), Responses followed by pain (less likely), Reinforcement & Schedules, What follows a response?, Types, Primary (Food, sex), Secondary (Money, points), these are conditioned., Exactly when (timing), Immediately, Delayed, How often (frequency), Continuous (every time), Partial (intermittent), "hope springs eternal", Gambling, Stalking, Sales, Types of partial, Fixed ratio (frequent flyer), Variable ratio (gambling) - creates high rates of responding., Fixed interval (paycheck), Variable interval (email), Image, Tools, Operant chamber, Shaping behavior, "Cognitive learning", Observational learning, Al Bandura, "Bobo doll experiment", Mirror Neurons, Language learning, Cognitive maps, Latent learning (not reinforced, but learned anyway)
Learning & Memory Review
Discussions of learning & decision making examples
Presentation on Decision Making
Study Guide, Lists of heuristics, Lists of effects, See power point slides
Quiz 3 (25 min)
Decision making review (20 min)
Tower Building (20 min) & discussion (5-10 min)
Break (25 min)
Emotion Video (20 min)
Quiz 4 (Emotion & Thinking)
Big List of Online Tests
Short Term Letter Span
David Ropeik, Take more time to make decisions
Build a Tower
Antonio Damasio (Neurology), Logic vs Emotion, Antonio Damasio, Damasio 2, Decisions
Ekman on Lies
Tyranny of Positive Thinking, Cancer
Development, Issues, Developmental Psychologists, Nature/Nurture, Continuity / Stages, Stability / Change, Genetics, DNA, RNA, Genome, Epigenome, Chromosomes, Nucleus, Heredity, Life is sexually transmitted, Gametes (Sperm & Egg), Zygote, Embryo, Fetus, Identical / Fraternal Twins, Temperment, Reflexes, Twin studies (research), Environment (internal & external), Teratogen, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Autism (and theory of mind), Enriched vs impoverished environments., Brain, Development in every neural system (motor, sensory, cognitive, social, etc), Goes in stages, maturation, critical periods, relates to cell growth, cell death (neural pruning), and improving the wiring among cells (myelin is the insulation, myelination is the creation of that wrapping around ncurons), Theories & areas of study, Jean Piaget (Body & Mind), Child development, Stages, Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete operational, Formal operational, Schemas, Child's morality develops alongside cognitive development, Attachment, attachment styles, and what children need, Basic trust, Parenting styles, Authoritarian, Permissive, Authoritative, Kohlberg (Morals), Adolescent development, Puberty, Menarche, Stages of Moral Reasoning, A. PREMORAL OR PRECONVENTIONAL STAGES:, B. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY:, C. POSTCONVENTIONAL OR PRINCIPLED MORALITY:, Erik Erikson (8 Life Stages), Experience & move through each of these successfully on our developmental life path., Stages are "crises", Either resolved or not, consequences to both, Identity formation, Social identify formation, Intimacy, Links to study of early, middle, and late adulthood., We study everything that changes with age: feelings, cognition, memory, sexuality, all of it., Intelligence, Crystallized intelligence, Fluid intelligence, Social circles, Life, Death, Well-being
Gender & Sexuality, Definitions, the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones), "Sex" refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. "Gender" refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women., How many categories of gender?, How many sexes are there?, What are the typical traits?, What are typical differences between the sexes and/or genders?, Biology, Genetics, Hormones (Estrogen, Testosterone), Sexual differentiation in development, Sexual orientation, Society, List the social impact of sex and gender differences., Gender roles, identity, typing, schema, Sexual orientation, Sex, Physiology of, Stages, Genetics, Environmental influences, Psychology of, Drives, Relationships, Romance, Meaning, Impact on people, groups, society, Religion, Health vs Trauma, Behavior & Orientation, Sex differences (physiology, cognition, society), Development of sexual characteristics, behaviors, and beliefs, Evolution & natural selection, Culture, Evolutionary psychology (good evidence, or bogus stories)?
Sensation & Perception, Sensation (getting input), Perception (working with input), Processes, Transduction, Convert a physical stimulus into an electrical signal., Thresholds, Absolute thresholds, Priming, Subliminal, Just noticeable difference and the Weber/Fechner Law, Read about Weber's law, Sensory adaptation, Perceptual Set, Expectations, priming, Assumptions, beliefs, Effects of context (environment, where we are, other surroundings), Perceptual adaptation, Illusions, Parallel processing, Sensory receptors process the information, feature detection in brain via parallel processing, recognition, scene, attribute meaning. Behavior happens somewhere in there, some is reflexive and fast, other behavior happens after we "understand" what is going on., Mechanisms, Receptors, Different types for each system., They all convert a physical stimulus into an electrical signal (transduction), Sensory systems, Vision, Sensation, Transduction of light with rods and cones, Pathways, Eye, retina, optic nerve, LGN, primary visual cortex, rest of brain, Blind spot, Humans have a partially crossed visual system, Feature detection (common to all sensory systems, a general process), Detect wavelength, intensity, location, etc, Perception, Interpretation, Color, Movement, etc, Gestalt, Types of cues, Audition (Hearing), Sensation, Transduction of sound pressure waves with hair cells, Pathways, Ear, ear drum, cochlea, hair cells, auditory nerve, medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (MGN), primary auditory cortex, rest of brain., Frequency & Pitch detection, location is inferred by the brain during perception., Perception, Decoding sound waves, Olfaction (Smell), Sensation, Chemical odorants, transduced by olfactory receptor cells that bind with chemicals and change voltage accordingly., Pathways, Nose, olfactory epithelium, olfactory receptors, olfactory bulb, primary olfactory cortex., Presentation, See also, Taste, Sensation, Taste buds bind chemical molecules, change electrical potential, some have sodium channels so salt can directly stimulate them., Pathways, Mouth, tongue, taste buds, hair cells inside taste buds, cranial nerves, thalamus, and then primary gustatory cortex (insula and frontal operculum), From taste buds, The chorda tympani nerve conducts signals from the front and sides of the tongue., The glosso-pharyngeal nerve conducts signals from the back of the tongue., The vagus nerve conducts taste signals from the mouth and the larynx., Touch, Temperature, & Pain, Sensation, Multiple receptors, Some in skin, blood vessles, sweat glands, In and below skin, Pathways, Sensory receptors all over body, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, thalamus, primary somatosensory cortex and other regions, Phantom Limb, Endorphins, Hypnosis, Kinesthesthetic Systems, Body position & Movement, Vestibular (Balance), Inner ear (Otoliths & semicircular canals) -, Detects linear acceleration, and angular acceleration, Proprioception, Sense of limb position, Muscle stretch receptors, Chemosensation, Not on our test, this includes monitoring blood glucose levels and the presence of toxins, Pictures
Review major vocabulary related to classical and operant conditioning, then look at the readings on social learning and review out class 5 notes below.
Hijack Ladies Night
Female vs Male Orgasm
Forced Train Wreck