Inhorn Chapter 8 & 9

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Inhorn Chapter 8 & 9 by Mind Map: Inhorn Chapter 8 & 9

1. Gender

1.1. Infertility and Gender Responses

1.1.1. Men Hala is blamed by Moustafa for 'demoralizing' his manhood Moustafa is portrayed as the victim

1.1.2. Women Moustafa divorces his wife due to demoralization Hala's nagging is blamed for the divorce Shahira has to make the 'patriarchal bargain'

1.1.3. In Muslim societies, infertility is seen as grounds for divorce

1.2. Femininities, Masculinities, and Child Desire

1.2.1. Nobody in Egypt would ever admit to not wanting children Family life is ingrained culturally This occurs regardless of socioeconomic class

1.2.2. Many women admit to feeling 'incomplete' without children Many would give up successful careers for children Motherhood is considered a natural part of life Infertility is viewed as a life ruining situation

1.2.3. Even if men are the ones at fault, women are still afflicted by identity crises.

1.3. Conjugal Connectivity

1.3.1. Marriage is highly valued and normative In Islam, it is viewed as 'completion of half of the religion' Copts, once married, are forbidden to divorced Infertile marriages are nonetheless successful "Companionate" ideal of love, intimacy and companionship Couples without children know each other more deeply Children may be an intimacy distraction

1.4. Marriage and Divorce in the Age of ICSI

1.4.1. Since ICSI, most inferility cases are male Shift of the 'balance of power' in marriage Successful cases allow men to 'remasculanize' ICSI can only work if a woman's body will 'work'

2. Stigma

2.1. Couples seeking IVF are private and secretive about the procedure

2.1.1. Double stigmatization Stigma of infertility Top-secret stigma of morally ambivalent/disreputable test-tube baby making Forces couples 'underground' in order to hide treatments Surrounded by shame, paranoia, fear, dishonesty, and cover-ups Stigma- attribute that makes one different from others in the category of persons available for that individual to be, and of a less desirable kind

2.2. Views by Society

2.2.1. Infertile women are described as 'missing' motherhood, or 'mother of the missing one'. Women carry the worst/almost exclusive stigmas Women are sometimes under marital threat for infertility Women often help to keep male infertility a secret, taking on the 'blame' Women are constantly reminded of their infertility

2.2.2. Infertile men are viewed as 'weak' or 'ineffective'

2.2.3. IVF remains 'hidden' in spite of Egypt being at the forefront of NRTs in the Arab world If it is successful, then you can let people know. If it is unsuccessful, you can keep the 'shame' to yourself Maisa believes she lost her ICSI pregnancy due to 'envy' of another infertile woman

2.3. Disclosure

2.3.1. Tell or Don't Tell? Illegality of donor insemination Donations may still occur Limited disclosures Only telling certain family members, usually mothers For men, they can usually never tell any of their family, as it would be admitting to the 'shame' Fear of future stigmatization against the children

2.3.2. Stigma of Support Couples often feel alone Lack of family support leads to psychological issues Fear of support groups making the problems worse