French/English Relations 1600-2000

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French/English Relations 1600-2000 by Mind Map: French/English Relations 1600-2000

1. Historical Background 1600-1944

1.1. Brit defeated Fr @Battle of Plains of Abraham

1.1.1. retain Catholic religion

1.1.2. retain Fr. culture

1.1.3. retain Fr culture

1.2. Canada Fr. colony till 1763

1.3. Seven Year War 1763

1.3.1. Treaty of Paris 1763 Fr Cdn betrayed France gave up New France

1.4. Quebec Act 1774

1.4.1. first constitution

1.4.2. entrenched Fr. Cdn rights

1.5. Confederation 1867

1.5.1. Fr. rights would be protected


1.6.1. Riel executed

1.6.2. Boer War

1.6.3. Conscription Crisis WWI and WWII

2. 50-60's


2.1.1. DUPLESSIS Union Nationale premier 1936-39, 44-59 Catholic, conservative, "le chef" avoided Eng influence at all cost refused fed govt funding discouraged unions bad working conditions OLD-FASHIONED - LOST SUPPORT


2.2.1. QUIET REVOLUTION Maitres chez mon (Masters of our own house) Jean Lesage Lib premier 60-66 CHARACTERISICS secularization strengthen welfare education unionized civil service nationalism economic control


2.3.1. 1967 French Pres Charles DeGaulle pronouncement @ Expo 67

2.3.2. encouraged nationalism

2.4. Official Languages Act

2.4.1. Trudeau 1969

2.4.2. legal right to deal w/govt in Fr or Eng

2.4.3. all product labeling in both languages

2.4.4. Fr immersion programs

3. 1970's


3.1.1. FLQ-Front de Liberation de Quebec separatist group est. '60's Maxist objectives Quebec leave Canada use violence if necessary trained by 1963-1970 over 200 political actions

3.1.2. kidnappings James Cross Brit trade commissioner Oct 5, 1970 demanded Pierre Laporte Que Vice-Premier & Minster of Labour Oct 10, 1970 kidnapped by Chenier cell writes letter to Premier Bourassa

3.1.3. War Measures Act Oct 16,1970 govt power to take away certain civil rights anyone arrested w/o charge for 90 days thousand of searches 400 arrests membership in FLQ criminal Trudeau "Just watch me"

3.1.4. Laporte's dead body discovered found in trunk of car Oct 17th Cdn govt agreed to broadcast FLQ manifesto transport 5 FLQ terrorists to Cuba eventually returned to Can

3.1.5. Cross released 60 days in captivity it was over

3.2. Parti Quebecois

3.2.1. founded in 1968

3.2.2. non-violent separatism

3.2.3. elected to form govt first time 1976

3.2.4. Rene Leveque Premier

3.3. fear French language disappear

3.3.1. birth rate declining/immigration up

3.3.2. Bill 22 1974 Fr official language of Quebec child pass Eng proficiency test to register in Eng schools

3.3.3. Bill 101 Fr languages used by govt, courts, business commercial signs in Fr stricter access to Eng schools 1977

4. 1980's-1990's

4.1. Referendum 1980

4.1.1. sovereignty association

4.1.2. Trudeau promises new constitution distinct society

4.1.3. 60% vote "NON" to Quebec as independent politically w/ close economic ties

4.2. Constitution Act 1982

4.2.1. repatriated by Trudeau

4.2.2. 10 premiers met Nov 1981 "Kitchen Accord" negotiated over coffee w/o Quebec Que feels betrayed Quebec feared Charter could override language laws cracks in unity

4.2.3. Quebec refuses to sign Leveque protests

4.2.4. Amending Formula make changes to Constitution w/o Brit parliament

4.2.5. Charter of Rights and Freedoms Notwithstanding Clause can opt out of some clauses

4.3. Meech Lake Accord 1987

4.3.1. PM & 10 premiers meet change constitution to add Quebec come to agreement

4.3.2. Concerns "distinct society" open to interpretation aboriginals not given special consideration, so none for Que

4.3.3. not ratified by all provinces issues in Manitoba & NFLD

4.4. Reform Party

4.4.1. coalition of discontented Western interest groups in 1987

4.4.2. decentralizing/reducing the size, scope and cost of govt

4.4.3. opposition to Québec's demands for special status

4.4.4. became Canadian Alliance Party in 2000 merged with Progressive Conservatives 2003 becomes Conservative Party of Canada

4.5. Charlottetown Accord 1992

4.5.1. provisions for aboriginal self-government senate reform universal health care workers rights environmental protection

4.5.2. rejected in referendum opposed by aboriginals women Reform Party

4.6. Bloc Quebecois 1993

4.6.1. federal separatist party

4.6.2. form the Official Opposition

4.6.3. led by Lucien Bouchard

4.7. Parti Quebecois 1994

4.7.1. defeat Lib in prov election

4.8. 1995 Québec referendum

4.8.1. separate from Canada

4.8.2. 49.4% result for the Yes side? "Do you agree that Québec should become sovereign, after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership, within the scope of the Bill respecting the future of Québec and of the agreement signed on 12 June 1995?"

4.9. Calgary Declaration 1997

4.9.1. Quebec as "unique society"

4.9.2. Cdn govt gesture of good will

4.10. 1998 Supreme Court ruling

4.10.1. Que did not have right to separate unilaterally

4.10.2. must negotiate w/ fed/ prov govt & aboriginals

4.10.3. must have clear "yes" in referendum

4.11. Clarity Act 1999

4.11.1. any referendum question must be clear