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chinaaa by Mind Map: chinaaa

1. Military presence is difficult in mainland China

2. Political

2.1. Used the 5 year plans to solve agricultural and industrial problems

3. Ian

3.1. Political

3.1.1. "Hong Kong 1967 Leftist Riots" is one of the large scale riots in Hong Kong during the period of the Cultural Revolution.

3.1.2. originally a minor labour dispute

3.1.2.1. but the tension was heightened by the ongoing Cultural Revolution in China

3.1.2.1.1. a mass scale demonstration against British colonial rule government

3.1.3. Major Reasons

3.1.3.1. Macau 12-3 Incident (happened on Dec 3rd 1966)

3.1.3.2. Influence from Mao's China and Cultural Revolution

3.1.3.3. The Hong Kong 1966 riots due to the increasing fare of star ferry crossing by 25%.

3.1.3.4. Political climate in Hong Kong was tensed due to people's dissatisfaction towards the colonial government.

3.1.3.5. Flash point: Labour dispute in the Hong Kong Artificial Flower Works

3.1.4. Propaganda

3.1.4.1. Hong Kong Leftist propaganda is also a major way that leads to the riot in a short period of time.

3.1.4.1.1. In Hong Kong's Central District, large loudspeakers were placed on the roof of the Bank of China Building, broadcasting pro-communist rhetoric and propaganda.

3.1.4.1.2. students distributed newspapers carrying information about the disturbances and pro-communist rhetoric to the public.

3.1.4.1.3. The newspaper in PRC supported the leftists' activities, the event became more radical and violent.

3.2. Economic

3.2.1. Huge economic loss due to the social unrest

3.2.1.1. Many transport services and factories were being interrupted due to strikes by workers,

3.2.1.2. Millions of dollars in property damage

3.3. Social

3.3.1. The society was unrest due to the Leftist Riots.

3.3.1.1. A curfew was even imposed and all police forces were called into duty.

3.3.1.2. Citizens tended not to come out in order to avoid the fake and real bombs

3.3.1.3. A British Army explosives disposal expert and a firefighter were killed in the riots.

3.3.1.4. Bombs killed 15 people and over 350 people injured

3.3.1.5. Millions of dollars in property damage

3.3.1.6. Created fear towards the leftists to most of the Hong Kong people.

3.3.1.7. On the other hand, social reform was carried out by the government after this riots.

3.4. Cultural

3.4.1. Many people were blindly followed the leftist leaders without critical thinking.

3.5. Historical Perspectives

3.5.1. Most of the HongKongese fear and being very sensitive towards the leftists and pro-beijing parties since the riots shadowed hong-kongese's mind

3.5.2. China government and pro-beijing parties seldom mention this riots since the leftists failed to take over Hong Kong in the riots

3.5.3. HongKongese tended to trust the Britsih colonial government more than the Leftists

4. Nanking Massacre By: Emily Chen

4.1. Political

4.1.1. Japan invaded Chinese Manchuria after a bomb incident at a railway that was caused by the Japanese

4.1.2. Japanese took advantage of the fact that China was suffering from a civil war between the CCP and GMD

4.1.3. Japanese wanted to increase their influence

4.1.4. Japan's military dictators saw China as the main opening for their imperial and expansionist ambitions

4.1.5. Emperor Hirohito suggested the invasion of China in 1937

4.2. Economic

4.2.1. Two largest economies in Asia

4.3. Social

4.3.1. Safety zones were set up by foreigners to protect as many citizens of Nanking that they can

4.3.2. Estimated that there were about 250,000 to 300,000 people were killed

4.3.3. About 20,000 women were raped

4.3.4. Chiang Kai – Shek’s troops left Nanjing, thus Japanese army had occupied it

4.3.5. Japanese appeared to be enjoying themselves

4.3.6. Killed not only every prisoner that they could find but a huge number of regular citizens of all ages

4.3.7. Some victims were buried alive

4.3.8. All women were at risk

4.3.9. Japanese forced incest rape upon fathers and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons and mothers

4.3.10. Chinese men were taken to the Yangtze River to be executed so that their bodies would pile on top

4.3.11. The streets of Nanjing was full of dead bodies

4.3.12. Killed the Chinese soldiers that surrendered

4.3.13. During World War II

4.4. Cultural

4.4.1. Gendercide against Chinese women and Chinese men

4.4.2. Remembered for the invading forces and barbaric treatment of Chinese women

4.4.3. Women were killed in indiscriminate acts of terror and execution

4.4.4. All Chinese military men were taken as prisoners

4.4.5. Chinese women were gang raped by the Japanese and then brutally killed afterwards

4.4.6. Prince Asaka, Emperor Hirohito's uncle, commanded the Japanese to "kill all captives"

4.4.7. Japanese papers had competitions for junior officers to kill the most Chinese

4.4.8. 200 Chinese men were executed in 10 minutes with machine guns

4.5. Historical Perspective

4.5.1. Historical revisionists and Japanese nationalists claimed that the massacre has been exaggerated or wholly fabricated for propaganda purposes

4.5.2. Japanese scholars deny that the widespread, systematic massacre occurred

4.5.3. Japanese officials argued that no such crimes ever occurred and that death is what happens during wars

4.5.4. Denial of the massacre became a staple of Japanese nationalism

5. Jane

5.1. Political

5.1.1. Communist party expanded to 100 million people

5.1.2. Mao becomes leader of PRC in 1949-1976

5.1.3. China becomes a single party state

5.1.4. Tense arguments arose between PRC and PRC (Taiwan), US siding with Taiwan

5.1.5. U.S aided KMD, so which lead the group to lose support because of foreign influence

5.1.6. The PLA is put to rebuilding China and infrastructure (A method Mao uses to unite China into a whole)

5.1.7. 1949 PRC is formed- inherited to corrupt local governments because nationalism created much bribery\corruption

5.1.8. Terror and doubt from USA and West due to the spread of Communism

5.1.9. USA opposes the expansion of communism around the world in Asia (1945-1991)

5.1.10. Part of USA containment theory to prevent the domino effect of spread of communism

5.1.11. US wars in Korea 1950-1952 and in Vietnam in 1965-1975

5.1.12. PRC forms an alliance with USSR (Soviet) Treat of Mutual Aid and Assistance in 1950, soviet sends advisers and gives credits to China

5.2. Economic

5.2.1. US gave the Nationalists massive economic loads, but since the Communist won, affected US-Chia relations

5.2.2. Railways dams, canals and farms were destroyed during war; huge amount of money to pair the damages

5.2.3. Food shortages due to limited amount of resources

5.2.4. High amount of unemployment

5.2.5. 1950 Land Reform Law

5.2.6. Inflation (sliver)

5.2.7. Most industries were governmentally owned to prepare for the war

5.2.8. Rapid growth in Taiwan due to the economic miracle

5.2.9. Rural economy of RPC was in great depression which made China import from the foreign countries

5.3. Social

5.3.1. KMD was never able to take full control of the countryside of China

5.3.2. 25% of the world’s population became communist

5.3.3. This lead to less Asian advisors in government

5.3.4. 1949 Nation form a gain in Taiwan

5.3.5. The CCP used guerilla tactics affectively, which depressed the KMD

5.3.6. Boxer Rebellion: group of people hated Chinese people who converted to Christianity- often called them “Foreign Devils”, harsh methods that were used to end this rebellion made the Chinese hate the Europeans more, exposed weakness of the Manchus Dynasty

5.3.7. Revolution of 1911: Sun Yat Sun leader of revolution, wanted to eliminate the Manchus and Monarchy

5.4. Cultural

6. Michelle: Cultural Revolution of China

6.1. Economic

6.1.1. Great Leap Forward

6.1.2. The five year plans

6.1.3. Caused china’s economy to collapse

6.1.4. The amount of rice grains produced a year decreased greatly and cotton production also dropped dramatically

6.1.5. Due to the decreased production, the price for rice increased and the price for cotton fabrics and clothes also increased

6.2. Political

6.2.1. After CCP victory in 1949: problems confronting CCP and how the government came to resolve them

6.2.1.1. Transportation became a problem for the people of China because industrial production dropped during the 10 harsh years

6.2.2. The GMD still represented a threat to the new regime

6.2.3. CCP needed to strengthen hold over the outlying areas of China

6.2.4. Government of the CCP known only to be instable and impermanent (40 years)

6.2.5. Used collectivism to control its people

6.2.6. Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution = absolute control of China

6.2.7. Anti-campaigns (propaganda)

6.2.8. The Hundred Flower

6.2.9. The One-party state government

6.3. Social

6.3.1. Many citizens lost their possessions

6.3.2. Young citizens became red guards (that fought against the democratic society)

6.3.3. Respect and rewards were given to the Red Guards

6.3.4. Mao was able to gather many student volunteers

6.3.5. Educated individuals were sent to the countryside

6.3.6. Mao thought it would be necessary for graduates to be re-educated by farmers and peasants

6.3.7. 20 million students were sent to farmlands, they ended up working the farms and performing manual labour

6.3.8. Student talents were wasted, because they were stuck working the fields

6.4. Cultural

6.4.1. Cultural revolution was based on the belief that school should be simpler

6.4.2. More books a person reads = more unintelligent they become

6.4.3. Mao wanted to brainwash Chinese society – create chinese citizens who would grow up to become uneducated and mindless

7. South China Sea Dispute by Daryl Lam

7.1. Historical perspective

7.1.1. China released a map showing the Spratly and Paracel Islands as Chinese territory in 1947

7.1.2. Vietnam disputes China's claim saying China never claimed sovereignty before the 1940's and views China's claims supiciously

7.1.3. Vietnam declares that the Spratly and Paracel Islands have been under Vietnamese control since the 17th century

7.1.4. Taiwan's claims to the SCS is identical to that of China's

7.2. Economic

7.2.1. $5.3 Trillion of trade goes through the South China Sea, with the US accounting for $1.3 trillion (25%)

7.2.2. Regional communities would suffer in the event of a crisis due to increased insurance costs and longer transportation times

7.2.3. The World Bank estimates the South China Sea contains proven reserves of at least 9 trillion barrels of oil and 900 trillion cubic feet of natural gas

7.2.4. China's claims to the South China Sea overlap EEZ zones set out by UNCLOS of neighbouring: Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. In the event that China obtains it's claims to the South China Sea, it could threaten the ability of these countries to carry out natural resource within their own maritime borders

7.3. Social

7.4. Political

7.4.1. USA signed a mutual defence treaty with the Philippines in 1951. In the event of an attack on either party in the Pacific arena, both parties would have to address the attack/provocation as a common threat and follow constitutional processes. This leaves the US with a delicate balancing act of fulfilling it's defence treaty with the Philippines, at the same time trying not to anger China in the event of a confrontation

7.4.2. The Philippines is seeking arbitration to nullify China's claim to the South China Sea at the UN arbitrial tribunal (2013). This move angers China, who favours bilateral talk behind closed doors with individual claimants

7.5. Cultural