Project Management

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Project Management by Mind Map: Project Management

1. Introduction to PM

1.1. Production systems

1.1.1. Mass

1.1.2. Batch

1.1.3. Project

1.2. What is

1.2.1. One-off process (unique, temporary, unfamiliar)

1.2.2. Definable end-result or product

1.2.3. 3 key variables (constraints) - continuum

1.2.3.1. Time

1.2.3.2. Cost

1.2.3.3. Quality

1.2.4. Also

1.2.4.1. Secondary importance

1.2.4.2. Complex

1.2.4.3. Part of interlinked process

1.3. Types

1.3.1. Internal / non-executive - External / executive

1.3.2. Hardware - software

1.4. Characteristics

1.4.1. Concerned with multiple objectives (3 categories)

1.4.2. PM advice covers complete life-cycle

1.4.2.1. Inception

1.4.2.2. Feasibility

1.4.2.3. Prototype

1.4.2.4. Full design devt

1.4.2.5. Tendering & contacting

1.4.2.6. Manufacturing

1.4.2.7. Commissioning

1.4.2.8. Operation

1.4.2.9. Decommissioning

1.4.2.10. Removal / recycling

1.4.3. International profession with standards

1.4.4. Multi-industry, not specific to any one

1.4.5. But also industry specific standards

1.5. History

1.5.1. Great works of history (eg. pyramids)

1.5.2. Guilds & leagues, establish standards, qualifications and membership

1.5.3. Industrial rev. - from craftsmen to supervisors

1.5.4. 1900s Gantt Chart

1.5.5. 1940s Los Alamos

1.5.6. 1950s

1.5.6.1. Du Pont - CPM

1.5.6.2. US Navy - PERT

1.5.7. 1960s - PMI, APM and computer technology

1.5.8. 1990s - BS6079 & ISO10006

2. Individual & Team Issues

2.1. The PM

2.1.1. Is in charge for organizing and managing the team

2.1.2. Meeting objectives (time, cost, quality)

2.1.3. Needs influence in order to get it done

2.1.4. Needs both soft and hard skills

2.2. PM's primary functions

2.2.1. Project planning

2.2.1.1. Most intense at beginning, diminishing as project progresses

2.2.1.2. Good planning is critical, spend time on it

2.2.1.3. Planning activities, their sequence, their budget

2.2.1.4. Planning authority and communication relationships: TRM (who is responsible for what and when)

2.2.2. Authorizing

2.2.2.1. Given from above

2.2.2.2. Is ability to direct and control

2.2.2.3. 2 things

2.2.2.3.1. Get enough to get the job done

2.2.2.3.2. Decide how much to delegate

2.2.3. Team organizing

2.2.3.1. To get the job done, PM needs to devise the organizational structures and team management approaches

2.2.3.2. Needs to understand the current modes of organization, not clash with them

2.2.3.3. Theories (PM tend to favor Decision and Systems)

2.2.3.3.1. Classical - people are components of production process

2.2.3.3.2. Empirical - observe, interpret, correct process will emerge

2.2.3.3.3. Behavioral

2.2.3.3.4. Decision - study org mathematically, model

2.2.3.3.5. Systems management - consider input, processing and output as part of a whole

2.2.3.4. First meeting with PT is crucial

2.2.3.4.1. OBS

2.2.3.4.2. TRM

2.2.3.4.3. Authority, communication, responsibilities

2.2.3.4.4. The project programme

2.2.4. Controlling (measuring performance against targets, correcting when necessary)

2.2.4.1. Targeting

2.2.4.2. Measuring

2.2.4.3. Evaluating

2.2.4.4. Correcting

2.2.5. Directing - transform goals into reality using resources, including people

2.2.6. Team building - wield a group of people together into a team (10 steps)

2.2.7. Leadership

2.2.7.1. Decision making

2.2.7.2. Problem solving

2.2.7.3. Integrate new members

2.2.7.4. Interpersonal skills

2.2.7.5. Identify and manage conflict

2.2.7.6. Communication skills

2.2.7.7. Interface management skills

2.2.7.8. Factor-balancing skills

2.2.7.9. Life-cycle leadership

2.2.7.9.1. Task - stronger at inception and development

2.2.7.9.2. People - stronger at development and stabilisation

2.2.7.9.3. Both low at maturity - telling, persuading, participating, delegating

2.3. Project Team

2.3.1. Within functional organizations

2.3.1.1. Advantages

2.3.1.2. Disadvantages

2.3.2. Multidisciplinary & heterogeneity issues

2.3.2.1. Sentience

2.3.2.2. Interdependency

2.3.2.2.1. pooled

2.3.2.2.2. sequential

2.3.2.3. Differentiation

2.3.2.4. Integration

2.3.3. Difference

2.3.3.1. Groups - collection of indiv. with common goal, formal or informal

2.3.3.2. Teams, + under direction of a team leader

2.3.4. Performance

2.3.4.1. Heterogeneity

2.3.4.2. Cohesiveness

2.4. Team staffing

2.4.1. Ensure balance of skills and experience

2.4.2. Think of PT in wide terms

2.4.3. Essential staff

2.4.3.1. PM (CEO)

2.4.3.2. Project Planner (COO)

2.4.3.3. Project Controller (CFO)

2.5. Team evolution

2.5.1. Through project life-cycle

2.5.2. 4 stages (Tucker)

2.5.2.1. Forming (first meeting, TRM, OBS)

2.5.2.2. Storming (conflict, establish cohesiveness)

2.5.2.3. Norming (formal and informal norms)

2.5.2.4. Performing

2.5.3. Groupthink

2.6. Team motivation

2.6.1. Mc Gregor

2.6.1.1. Type X

2.6.1.2. Type Y

2.6.2. Maslow

2.6.2.1. Hierarchy of needs

2.6.2.2. PM perspective

2.6.2.2.1. Relative importance of needs

2.6.2.2.2. Time-based requirements, higher level more complex, take more time

2.6.2.2.3. Unsatisfied needs

2.6.2.2.4. Anticipation

2.6.3. Equity theory

2.6.3.1. Perception of what I do and how rewarded compared to other

2.6.3.2. Inequality motivates

2.6.4. Expectancy theory

2.6.4.1. Motivation is related to personal goal

2.6.4.2. Align project/org and individual goals

2.7. Team communications

2.7.1. Inward, outward

2.7.2. Formal, informal

2.7.3. Internal, external

2.7.4. Operational islands

2.8. Team stress

2.8.1. Sources

2.8.1.1. Environmental

2.8.1.2. Personal

2.8.1.3. Work

2.8.2. Symptoms

2.8.2.1. Physiological

2.8.2.2. Psychological

2.8.2.3. Behavioral

2.8.3. Management

2.8.3.1. Individual (diet, exercise, holiday)

2.8.3.2. Team

2.8.3.2.1. Deregulation

2.8.3.2.2. Reasonableness

2.8.3.2.3. Fairness

2.8.3.2.4. Open-mindedness

2.8.3.2.5. Flexibility

2.8.3.2.6. Approachebleness

2.9. Conflict

2.9.1. characteristics

2.9.1.1. + heterogeneity, multidisciplinarity + conflict

2.9.1.2. - PM power and authority + conflict

2.9.1.3. - specific/quantifiable objectives + conflict

2.9.1.4. - communication within + conflict

2.9.1.5. + change + conflict

2.9.1.6. - perceived prestige of the project + conflict

2.9.2. Approaches

2.9.2.1. Conflict is bad - avoid, suppress

2.9.2.2. Conflict is natural - use it

2.9.3. Management

2.9.3.1. Avoid

2.9.3.2. Absorb

2.9.3.3. Impose resolution

2.9.3.4. Negotiate resolution

3. Risk

3.1. Concept

3.1.1. Risk=f(event, likelihood, consequences)

3.1.2. Risk=f(event, hazard, safeguard)

3.1.3. Other measures

3.1.3.1. Exposure

3.1.3.2. Sensitivity

3.1.4. Not bad

3.2. Human cognitive process

3.2.1. 3 phases

3.2.1.1. Pattern recognition

3.2.1.2. Attention

3.2.1.3. Memory

3.2.2. Bounded rationality

3.2.3. Risk forecasting

3.2.4. Intuition and bias

3.3. Risk handling

3.3.1. Assessment

3.3.1.1. Identify

3.3.1.2. Analyse

3.3.1.3. Classify

3.3.1.4. Prioritize

3.3.2. Control

3.3.2.1. Measure

3.3.2.2. Respond

3.3.2.3. Mitigate residual risk

3.3.2.4. Establish contingencies

3.4. Types

3.4.1. Generic types

3.4.1.1. Strategic

3.4.1.2. Operational

3.4.1.3. Financial

3.4.1.4. Knowledge

3.4.1.5. Catastrophic

3.4.2. Market & Static

3.4.2.1. Market

3.4.2.1.1. MBR

3.4.2.1.2. MFR

3.4.2.2. Static

3.4.3. External & Internal

3.4.3.1. External = no control

3.4.3.2. Internal = should some control

3.4.4. Predictable & unpredictable

3.4.4.1. Predictable = known unknowns

3.4.4.2. Unpredictable = unknown unknowns

3.5. Risk conditions and decision making

3.5.1. Certainty

3.5.2. Risk

3.5.3. Uncertainty

3.5.3.1. Hurcwitz (maximax)

3.5.3.2. Wald (maximin)

3.5.3.3. Savage (minimax)

3.5.3.4. Laplace

3.6. Management system

3.6.1. Identification

3.6.2. Classification

3.6.2.1. Type

3.6.2.2. Extent

3.6.2.3. Impact

3.6.3. Analysis

3.6.3.1. Risk map

3.6.3.2. Risk grid

3.6.4. Attitude

3.6.4.1. Averse

3.6.4.2. Neutral

3.6.4.3. Taker

3.6.5. Response

3.6.5.1. Retention

3.6.5.2. Reduction

3.6.5.3. Transfer (contract, insurance)

3.6.5.4. Avoidance

3.6.5.5. Seek further info

3.7. Thus, contract to control risk

3.7.1. Completion (one-off)

3.7.2. Term (long-term)

3.7.3. SLA

3.8. Contracts

3.8.1. Basic contract theory

3.8.1.1. For contract to be

3.8.1.1.1. Mutual agreement

3.8.1.1.2. Consideration

3.8.1.1.3. Capacity

3.8.1.1.4. Legal relations

3.8.1.1.5. Communication

3.8.1.2. Alternatives to performance

3.8.1.2.1. Breach

3.8.1.2.2. Frustration

3.8.1.2.3. Rescission

3.8.1.2.4. Rectification

3.8.1.2.5. Void

3.8.1.2.6. Termination / Determination

3.8.2. Characteristics

3.8.2.1. Controllable or uncontrollable risks

3.8.2.2. Express or implied terms

3.8.3. Transfer of risk

3.8.4. Variation orders

3.8.5. Claims

3.8.6. Types

3.8.6.1. Professional services

3.8.6.2. Standard form

3.8.6.3. Nominated sub-contracts

3.8.6.4. Utilities pro-forma

3.8.6.5. Statutory contracts

3.9. Procurement

3.9.1. Types

3.9.1.1. Strategic

3.9.1.2. Project

3.9.2. Phases

3.9.2.1. Establish objectives

3.9.2.2. Exposure

3.9.2.3. Alternatives

3.9.2.4. Documentation

3.9.2.5. Tendering

3.9.2.6. Award

3.9.2.7. Contract administration

4. PM Organizational Structures and Standards

4.1. Internal (non-executive) PM

4.1.1. Functional Structure

4.1.1.1. Split into functional units of specialization

4.1.1.2. Vertical hierarchy

4.1.1.3. Functional boundaries

4.1.1.4. Typical

4.1.1.4.1. Govt

4.1.1.4.2. Police, army

4.1.1.4.3. Large corporations

4.1.1.5. Advantages

4.1.1.5.1. Intuitive, clear reporting

4.1.1.5.2. Repetitive, learning curve, develops specialist knowledge

4.1.1.6. Disadvantages

4.1.1.6.1. Inflexible, rigid

4.1.1.6.2. Functional output becomes the focus

4.1.1.6.3. Tends to develop operational islands

4.1.2. Pure project structure

4.1.2.1. Antithesys of functional structure

4.1.2.2. Also within functional structure

4.1.2.3. Appropriate when dealing with more uncertainty, difficult to plan

4.1.2.4. PM draws resources from a pool, they stay together until Project is finished, then disband

4.1.2.5. Can also be set up as separate org, parent company

4.1.2.6. Advantages

4.1.2.6.1. Flexible

4.1.2.6.2. Clear PM authority

4.1.2.6.3. Encourages innovation

4.1.2.6.4. Team members have no functional loyalties, less conflict

4.1.2.7. Disadvantages

4.1.2.7.1. Several projects running concurrently = duplication of efforts

4.1.2.7.2. Competition btw projects

4.1.2.7.3. Can cause prolonged absence of team members from functions = loss of specialization / skill

4.1.2.7.4. High staffing costs

4.1.3. Matrix structure (internal, non-executive PM)

4.1.3.1. Project teams are formed across functional boundaries

4.1.3.2. A blend, very popular

4.1.3.3. Functional (vertical) and Power (horizoontal) boundaries

4.1.3.4. Weak or Strong matrix structures

4.1.3.5. Project sponsor

4.1.3.5.1. Executive decisions when required

4.1.3.5.2. Adjudicates disputes

4.1.3.5.3. Allocates resources

4.1.3.6. The PM

4.1.3.6.1. Subordinate to project sponsor, Peer to function manager, Boss to team members

4.1.3.6.2. Interfaces through horizontal and vertical boundaries

4.1.3.6.3. Bidding to resource

4.1.3.6.4. Needs accurate time recording and cost-center charging to avoid conflict

4.1.3.7. Advantages

4.1.3.7.1. Retains flexibility, works with functional units, is a compromise btw pure and function

4.1.3.7.2. Operates as self-contained unit, balancing of resources

4.1.3.7.3. Promotes innovation

4.1.3.8. Disadvantages

4.1.3.8.1. Conflict when balancing function and project responsibilities (2 bosses)

4.1.3.8.2. Needs a sponsor

4.1.3.8.3. Project tends to get robbed of resources through its life-cycle

4.2. External (executive) PM

4.2.1. What is

4.2.1.1. Specialist PM consultants hired

4.2.1.2. Can use

4.2.1.2.1. All internal

4.2.1.2.2. All external

4.2.1.2.3. A mixture

4.2.1.3. Consider

4.2.1.3.1. Surrogacy

4.2.1.3.2. Risk transfer

4.2.2. External contractual linkages

4.2.2.1. Risk increases with external dependency (different from Internal PM)

4.2.2.2. Pricing and arrangement

4.2.2.2.1. Competitive (tender, bids)

4.2.2.2.2. Negotiated

4.2.2.2.3. Examples include

4.2.2.2.4. Different forms (standard forms, professional services, supply, sub-contract, pro-forma)

4.2.2.3. Typical linkages

4.2.2.3.1. Client to PM, P design Team

4.2.2.3.2. Client to main contractor

4.2.2.3.3. Client to service authorities

4.2.2.3.4. Client to subcontractors and suppliers

4.2.2.3.5. Client to local authority

4.2.3. External non-contractual linkages

4.2.3.1. Authority links

4.2.3.2. Communication links

4.2.4. Fee structures

4.2.4.1. Open and competitive, fee bid package approach

4.2.4.2. Paid in blocks, at milestones

4.2.4.2.1. completion of pre-contract works

4.2.4.2.2. post-contract works

4.2.4.2.3. Final account

4.2.4.3. Percentage fees

4.2.4.3.1. Measured works

4.2.4.3.2. Final account total

4.2.5. Advantages

4.2.5.1. Is flexible, can respond rapidly to change

4.2.5.2. External specialists can bring new ideas and skills

4.2.5.3. Can be established and disbanded quickly

4.2.5.4. Keeps internal talent available for other things

4.2.6. Disadvantages

4.2.6.1. Expensive

4.2.6.2. No loyalty

4.2.6.3. Risk profile changes - Recourse against poor performance can be difficult, possibility of arbitration and litigation enters

4.2.6.4. Additional admin and control, rigid communications

4.2.6.5. PM job becomes more complex

4.3. Criteria for choosing the OS

4.3.1. Broad considerations

4.3.1.1. Authority

4.3.1.2. Communication

4.3.1.3. Knowledge transfer

4.3.1.4. Loyalty

4.3.1.5. Technology

4.3.1.6. Cost

4.3.1.7. Coordination

4.3.1.8. Support required

4.3.2. Based on project objectives

4.3.2.1. Pure function

4.3.2.1.1. Infrequent, small projects

4.3.2.1.2. Full outsourcing

4.3.2.2. Matrix

4.3.2.2.1. Reduce OH

4.3.2.2.2. Research & Innovation is required

4.3.2.2.3. Common use of resources

4.3.2.3. Pure project

4.3.2.3.1. Projects occur frequently / are dominant

4.3.2.3.2. Complex production systems

4.3.2.3.3. Fast response times needed

4.3.2.3.4. High degree of uncertainty

4.3.2.3.5. Long term projects

4.3.2.3.6. Large numbers of people

4.4. Type of links

4.4.1. Authority

4.4.2. Communication

4.4.3. Contractual

5. Time planning & control

5.1. What is

5.2. Process of time planning

5.2.1. Factors influencing it

5.2.1.1. Sources of data

5.2.1.1.1. Own knowledge / experience

5.2.1.1.2. Historical data

5.2.1.1.3. Industry specific data

5.2.1.1.4. Environmental conditions (e.g. competition)

5.2.1.1.5. Contract / client requirements

5.2.1.1.6. Stakeholder preferences

5.2.1.1.7. Govt regulation

5.2.1.2. Project uniqueness

5.2.1.3. People issues

5.2.1.4. Complexity - leads to WBS

5.2.1.5. Uncertainty and change

5.2.1.6. Communication

5.2.2. TDS approach

5.2.2.1. SOW

5.2.2.2. WBS

5.2.2.2.1. Purpose

5.2.2.2.2. Level of definition

5.2.2.2.3. Numbering to accommodate CAC

5.2.2.2.4. Preparing the WBS

5.2.2.3. PLE

5.2.2.3.1. Logic driven

5.2.2.3.2. Resource driven

5.2.2.3.3. > Precedence diagram

5.2.2.4. DMS

5.2.2.4.1. Networking

5.2.2.4.2. Scheduling

5.2.2.4.3. CPM

5.2.2.4.4. PERT

5.3. Project replanning

5.3.1. Change

5.3.2. Mostly about time and cost

5.3.3. Crash analysis

5.3.3.1. Typical T-C curve

5.3.3.2. Steps

5.3.3.2.1. Establish CP

5.3.3.2.2. Calculate cost of crashing each activity

5.3.3.2.3. Calculate cost per time unit

5.3.3.2.4. Calculate crash sequence

5.3.3.2.5. Re-check CP

5.4. Trade off analysis

5.4.1. Methodology

5.4.1.1. 1. Identify reason for problem

5.4.1.2. 2. Reevaluate project objectives

5.4.1.3. 3 Allow for any other factors

5.4.1.4. 4. Assemble a short list of solution scenarios

5.4.1.5. 5. Select and test best alternative

5.4.1.6. 6. Implement approved alternative

5.4.2. Classification

5.4.2.1. One variable fixed

5.4.2.1.1. time

5.4.2.1.2. cost

5.4.2.1.3. performance

5.4.2.2. Two variables fixed

5.4.2.2.1. time & cost fixed

5.4.2.2.2. time & performance fixed

5.4.2.2.3. cost & performance fixed

5.4.2.3. Everything is fixed

5.4.2.4. Nothing is fixed

5.4.3. Curve examples

5.5. Resource scheduling

5.5.1. 7 types of resources

5.5.1.1. People

5.5.1.2. materials

5.5.1.3. equipment

5.5.1.4. funds

5.5.1.5. information

5.5.1.6. technology

5.5.1.7. space

5.5.2. 2 considerations

5.5.2.1. productivity (logic driven)

5.5.2.2. availability (resource driven)

5.5.3. Aggregation

5.5.4. Utilization

5.5.5. Levelling

5.6. Software

5.6.1. ++

5.6.2. --

5.6.3. General considerations

5.6.4. General features

5.6.5. Examples

6. Project Cost Planning & Control

6.1. Concept

6.1.1. Cost planning (strategic)

6.1.2. Cost control (tactical)

6.1.3. Use same WBS as time planning

6.1.4. Requirements

6.1.4.1. SOW

6.1.4.2. Clear scope of work

6.1.4.3. Reliable estimating system

6.1.4.4. Realistic budget

6.1.4.5. Clear authorization system / signatories

6.1.4.6. Flexible to allow change

6.1.4.7. Reliable approach to tracking and variance analysis

6.1.4.8. Variance sensitivity envelop time-dependent

6.1.4.9. Contingency reserve (5-10%)

6.2. Types of control systems

6.2.1. Cybernetic

6.2.1.1. High level

6.2.1.2. Mid level

6.2.1.3. Low level

6.2.2. Analogue

6.2.3. Feedback

6.3. Costs and allowances

6.3.1. Classification

6.3.1.1. Fixed and variable

6.3.1.2. Direct and indirect

6.3.1.3. Measured works

6.3.1.4. Contingencies and reserve

6.3.1.5. Fluctuation (inflation)

6.3.1.6. Prime costs and provisional sums

6.3.1.7. Direct payments

6.3.1.8. Bonds and warrenties

6.3.1.9. Exchange rates and currency fluctuations

6.3.1.10. Insurance

6.3.2. Life cycle costs

6.3.2.1. Life-cycle phases

6.3.2.2. Process

6.4. PCCS

6.4.1. Planning

6.4.1.1. Estimating

6.4.1.1.1. Who

6.4.1.1.2. What

6.4.1.1.3. Data gathering

6.4.1.1.4. Presenting the estimate

6.4.1.1.5. CDES

6.4.1.2. Project estimating

6.4.1.2.1. Top-down

6.4.1.2.2. Bottom-up

6.4.1.2.3. Iterative

6.4.1.2.4. Bidding strategy

6.4.1.3. Project budget plan

6.4.1.3.1. Across the project, for each work package

6.4.1.3.2. 1. Preliminaries

6.4.1.3.3. 2. Prime costs

6.4.1.3.4. 3. Provisional sums

6.4.1.3.5. 4. Direct payments

6.4.1.3.6. 5. Dayworks

6.4.1.3.7. 6. Measured works

6.4.1.3.8. 7, Contingency

6.4.2. Work initiation

6.4.3. Cost data collection

6.4.3.1. Milestone monitoring

6.4.3.2. EVA

6.4.3.2.1. 7 considerations

6.4.3.2.2. Variables

6.4.3.2.3. Can be rolled up

6.4.4. Generation of variances

6.4.4.1. Use both CV, SV and CVI and SVI

6.4.4.2. Interpret

6.4.4.3. Variance tracking

6.4.4.4. Critical Ratio

6.4.5. Cost reporting

6.4.5.1. Types

6.4.5.1.1. routine

6.4.5.1.2. development

6.4.5.1.3. exceptional

6.4.5.1.4. subject-specific

6.4.5.1.5. PVAR

7. Quality

7.1. Story

7.1.1. <1940s Protected economies

7.1.2. 1940s> increased competition

7.1.3. Focus: minimize costs

7.1.4. 1960s>80s: Japanese dominate

7.1.5. From equal quality - better price, to better quality - better price

7.2. Japanese view

7.2.1. Overall value of Quality

7.2.2. Overall cost of defect

7.2.3. Quality dividends

7.2.4. Involving people

7.2.5. Proactive planning

7.2.6. Whole organization (TQM)

7.2.7. Educate the customer to expect quality

7.3. Quality gurus

7.3.1. Agree

7.3.1.1. Whole Org.

7.3.1.2. Focus on process defects, before employee defects

7.3.1.3. Quality process must be structured

7.3.1.4. To exceed customer expectations

7.3.1.5. Rely on commitment

7.3.2. Deming 50s

7.3.2.1. QM improves production

7.3.2.2. 85% is up to management

7.3.2.3. managements needs to focus on tomorrow

7.3.2.4. Worker oriented, democratic type of M

7.3.3. Juran

7.3.3.1. Top-down: plan, control, improve

7.3.3.2. Boss type of M

7.3.4. Crosby

7.3.4.1. Q is the universal goal

7.3.4.2. Prevention, rather than detection/correction

7.3.4.3. HR type of M

7.3.5. Imai

7.3.5.1. Process approach, not results

7.3.5.2. Continuous improvement, slow and consistent

7.3.5.3. Like coach says: quality is a by-product, not our focus"

7.4. Quality standards

7.4.1. Early history

7.4.2. US Mil (1963)

7.4.3. BS5750

7.4.4. ISO9000

7.5. Quality control tools

7.5.1. Identification

7.5.1.1. Pareto analysis

7.5.1.1.1. Basic

7.5.1.1.2. Comparative

7.5.1.1.3. Weighted

7.5.1.2. Brainstorming techniques

7.5.1.2.1. Delphi

7.5.1.2.2. Nominal group technique

7.5.1.2.3. SWOT analysis

7.5.2. Analysis

7.5.2.1. Scatter diagrams

7.5.2.2. Control charts

7.5.3. Identification & analysis

7.5.3.1. Cause and effect analysis

7.5.3.2. Trend analysis

7.6. QM Six Pack

7.6.1. Policy

7.6.2. Objectives

7.6.3. Assurance

7.6.4. Control

7.6.5. Audit

7.6.6. Q Assurance plan & review

7.7. TQM

7.7.1. Quality is both a production and organizational concern

7.7.2. Enterprise wide

7.7.3. Continuous

7.7.4. Based on employee committment

7.7.5. Structured, 8 phases

7.7.6. Implemented 3 components

7.7.6.1. Breakthrough

7.7.6.2. DAM

7.7.6.3. CFM

7.8. Configuration management

7.8.1. Format and layout (OBS)

7.8.2. Identification specification

7.8.3. Change control system

7.8.4. Status accounting and reporting

7.8.5. Audit and feedback

7.8.6. Baseline (to monitor change against)

7.9. Concurrent engineering

7.9.1. Characteristics

7.9.2. Phased

7.9.3. Fast track