The Computer of the system unit

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The Computer of the system unit by Mind Map: The Computer of the system unit

1. The system unit

1.1. The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

1.2. The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes

1.2.1. Drive bay

1.2.2. Power supply

1.2.3. Sound card

1.2.4. Video card

1.2.5. Processor

1.2.6. Memory

1.3. The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit

1.3.1. A computer chip contains integrated circuits

2. Processor

2.1. The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

2.2. The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

2.3. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

2.4. For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

2.5. Most current personal computers support pipelining

2.6. The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD

2.7. Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processor

2.8. A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up

2.9. Require additional cooling

2.10. Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task

3. Data Representation

3.1. Most computers are digital

3.2. The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1)

3.3. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

4. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

4.1. An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

4.2. An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

4.2.1. Sound card and video card

4.3. With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them

4.4. Removable flash memory includes

4.4.1. Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules

5. Ports and Connectors

5.1. A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)

5.2. A connector joins a cable to a port

5.3. On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides

5.4. A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector

5.4.1. You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub

5.5. Other types of ports include

5.5.1. Firewire port

5.5.2. Bluetooth port

5.5.3. SCSI port

5.5.4. eSATA port

5.5.5. IrDA port

5.5.6. Serial port

5.5.7. MIDI port

6. Buses

6.1. A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

6.1.1. Data bus

6.1.2. Address bus

6.2. Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time

6.3. Expansion slots connect to expansion buses

6.4. Common types of expansion buses include

6.4.1. PCI bus

6.4.2. PCI Express bus

6.4.3. Accelerated Graphics Port

6.4.4. USB and FireWire bus

6.4.5. PC Card bus

7. Bays

7.1. A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment

7.1.1. A drive bay typically holds disk drives

8. Power Supply

8.1. The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power

8.2. Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supply

9. Putting It All Together

9.1. Home Intel Core 2 Duo or Intel Celeron Dual Core or AMD Sempron Minimum RAM: 2 GB

9.2. Small Office/ Home Office Intel Core 2 Quad or Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Athlon X2 Dual-Code Minimum RAM: 4 GB

9.3. Mobile Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Turion X2 Minimum RAM: 2 GB

9.4. Power Intel Itanium 2 or AMD Quad Core Opteron or Intel Quad Core Xeon or Sun UltraSPARC T2 Minimum RAM: 8 GB

9.5. Enterprise Intel Core 2 Quad or Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Athlon X2 Dual-Core Minimum RAM: 4 GB

10. Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean

10.1. Clean your computer or mobile device once or twice a year

10.2. Turn off and unplug your computer or mobile device before cleaning it

10.3. Use compressed air to blow away dust

10.4. Use an antistatic wipe to clean the exterior of the case and a cleaning solution and soft cloth to clean the screen

11. Memory

11.1. Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

11.2. Stores three basic categories of items

11.2.1. The operating system and other system software

11.2.2. Application programs

11.2.3. Data being processed and the resulting information

11.3. Each location in memory has an address

11.4. Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)

11.5. The system unit contains two types of memory

11.5.1. Volatile memory

11.5.1.1. Loses its contents when power is turned off

11.5.1.2. Example includes RAM

11.5.2. Nonvolatile memory

11.5.2.1. Does not lose contents when power is removed

11.5.2.2. Examples include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS

11.6. Three basic types of RAM chips exist

11.6.1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

11.6.2. Static RAM (SRAM)

11.6.3. Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM)

11.7. RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots

11.8. The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use

11.9. Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data

11.10. Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten

11.10.1. CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little power

11.11. Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory

11.11.1. Measured in nanoseconds