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The Computer of the system unit by Mind Map: The Computer of the system unit
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The Computer of the system unit

The system unit

The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes

The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit


The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

Most current personal computers support pipelining

The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD

Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processor

A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up

Require additional cooling

Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task

Data Representation

Most computers are digital

The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1)

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them

Removable flash memory includes

Ports and Connectors

A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)

A connector joins a cable to a port

On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides

A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector

Other types of ports include


A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time

Expansion slots connect to expansion buses

Common types of expansion buses include


A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment

Power Supply

The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power

Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supply

Putting It All Together

Home Intel Core 2 Duo or Intel Celeron Dual Core or AMD Sempron Minimum RAM: 2 GB

Small Office/ Home Office Intel Core 2 Quad or Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Athlon X2 Dual-Code Minimum RAM: 4 GB

Mobile Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Turion X2 Minimum RAM: 2 GB

Power Intel Itanium 2 or AMD Quad Core Opteron or Intel Quad Core Xeon or Sun UltraSPARC T2 Minimum RAM: 8 GB

Enterprise Intel Core 2 Quad or Intel Core 2 Extreme or AMD Athlon FX or AMD Athlon X2 Dual-Core Minimum RAM: 4 GB

Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean

Clean your computer or mobile device once or twice a year

Turn off and unplug your computer or mobile device before cleaning it

Use compressed air to blow away dust

Use an antistatic wipe to clean the exterior of the case and a cleaning solution and soft cloth to clean the screen


Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

Stores three basic categories of items

Each location in memory has an address

Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)

The system unit contains two types of memory

Three basic types of RAM chips exist

RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots

The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use

Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data

Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten

Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory