(CRITICAL REVIEW) "Exploring pedagogical competence in a distance education program: A case study...

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(CRITICAL REVIEW) "Exploring pedagogical competence in a distance education program: A case study" by Anne Vioral by Mind Map: (CRITICAL REVIEW) "Exploring pedagogical competence in a distance education program: A case study" by Anne Vioral

1. GENERAL ISSUE: Pedagogical competence in programs transitioning to distance delivery

1.1. Worldwide shortage of nurses

1.2. Introduction of technology-mediated distance education in nursing

1.3. Faculty hired based on need, not based on pedagogical preparation and competence

1.4. Faculty must learn new pedagogical roles to develop and implement distance education that incorporates the use of technology

2. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe how a nursing program delivering online education meets the NLN Nurse Educator Core Competencies and the iNACOL National Standards of Quality for Online Courses

2.1. RESEARCH QUESTION #1: How are leaders in a distance education nursing program ensuring the faculty have the pedagogical skills necessary to teach online?

2.2. RESEARCH QUESTION #2: How is a nursing program addressing pedagogical competence in distance education nursing programs according to the selected standards set forth by the NLN and iNACOL?

3. STUDY METHODOLOGY: Case study research design utilizing mixed-methods. Study and analysis conducted simultaneously.

3.1. SUBJECT RECRUITMENT:

3.1.1. Purposive sampling

3.1.1.1. Target: N=6

3.1.1.1.1. 3 x nursing program administrators

3.1.1.1.2. 3 x nursing program faculty

3.1.2. Inclusion Criteria:

3.1.2.1. Nursing programs in US that had been awarded the NLN Center of Excellence Award twice in past decade

3.1.2.1.1. Awarded the NLN Center of Excellence Award at least twice in past decade

3.1.2.1.2. Offered online BSN, MSN, PHD, and/or DNP programs

3.1.2.2. Nursing program faculty

3.1.2.2.1. Had taught an online nursing course in past year

3.1.2.3. Nursing program administrators

3.2. INSTRUMENTS:

3.2.1. Pre-Interview Surveys

3.2.1.1. Nursing Administrator Self-Assessment Survey of Quality for Online Courses

3.2.1.1.1. Part One: Demographic characteristics

3.2.1.1.2. Part Two: Selected standards of practice from the Core Competencies of Nurse Educators with Task Statements (NLN)

3.2.1.1.3. Part Three: Selected performance standards from iNACOL National Standards of Quality for Online Courses

3.2.1.1.4. Utilized scoring subscale

3.2.1.2. Nursing Faculty Self-Assessment Survey of Quality for Online Courses

3.2.1.2.1. Part One: Demographic characteristics

3.2.1.2.2. Part Two: Selected standards of practice from the Core Competencies of Nurse Educators with Task Statements (NLN)

3.2.1.2.3. Part Three: Selected performance standards from the iNACOL National Standards of Quality for Online Courses

3.2.2. Audio-taped Interviews

3.2.2.1. Explored subjects' perceptions regarding aspects of online nursing programs

3.2.2.1.1. instructional design

3.2.2.1.2. nursing faculty training requirements

3.2.2.1.3. training provided

3.2.2.1.4. performance ratings below "3" on subject's pre-interview survey

3.2.2.1.5. examples of how NLN and iNACOL standards were integrated in subject's program

3.2.2.2. 30-60 minutes

3.2.3. Additional data collected from administrative documents:

3.3. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES:

3.3.1. Study information mailed to Dean of each eligible nursing program

3.3.1.1. Study information forwarded by Dean to eligible faculty

3.3.2. First responding administrator and faculty member from each program were selected as participants for study

3.3.3. Consent completed electronically

3.3.4. Pre-interview surveys e-mailed to each participant

3.3.4.1. Completed within one week and returned to researcher

3.3.5. Audio-taped interview conducted

3.3.5.1. In-person? Telephone? Skype?

3.4. DATA ANALYSIS:

3.4.1. Inductive process used to gather, sort and analyse data

3.4.2. Audio-recorded interviews transcribed by professional transcriber

3.4.2.1. Input into study database

3.4.2.1.1. NVivo? Atlas.ti? hyperRESEARCH?

3.4.2.2. Researcher identified key words and phrases in transcripts

3.4.2.2.1. Tentative categories and themes extracted

4. STUDY RESULTS

4.1. RESPONSE RATE

4.1.1. Received response from only one nursing program

4.1.1.1. Only two subjects recruited to study

4.1.1.1.1. Administrator (N=1)

4.1.1.1.2. Faculty Member (N=1)

4.1.1.2. Time constraints prevented researcher from obtaining additional subjects

4.2. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

4.2.1. Large institution in mid-USLarge institution in mid-US

4.2.2. Program offered online nursing courses for 15+ years

4.2.3. Participant age range: 48-57 years

4.2.4. Administrator: 25+ years teaching, 11-15 years teaching online

4.2.5. Faculty member: 6-10 years teaching, <5 years teaching online

4.3. THEMES

4.3.1. Technological Environment

4.3.1.1. Sub-theme: Learning styles, communication, interactivity, resources, technology

4.3.2. Pedagogy

4.3.2.1. Sub-themes: Training, support, resources, experience, competence

4.3.3. Leadership

4.3.3.1. Sub-themes: Structure, administrative support, resources

5. STRENGTHS

5.1. STRENGTHS OF STUDY

5.1.1. Applied the Contingency Leadership Theory as a theoretical framework

5.1.1.1. Appropriate and relevant for research regarding institutional and organizational processes

5.1.1.2. Application of Contingency Leadership Theory contribution to this study’s generalizability

5.1.2. Research questions were relevant to the general issues

5.1.3. Case study design

5.1.3.1. Followed standard case study protocols

5.1.3.2. Generalizability is a characteristic in case study design

5.1.3.2.1. What is found to be true in one case may be true in other cases; what is found to be false in one case may be false in other cases

5.1.4. Defined the study’ target participants, measures, and protocols for data collection and analysis

5.1.4.1. Provided rationale for the inclusion criteria with links to background literature

5.1.5. Incorporated analytical strategy for internal validity... HOWEVER

5.1.5.1. Pattern-matching logic and idealized theoretic patterns as comparators are not described

5.1.6. The findings flow from the data and appropriately address the research questions

5.1.7. Findings provide insights that may be relevant / generalizable to other distance education programs.

5.2. STRENGTHS OF ARTICLE

5.2.1. Article was well written, well organized with section headings, and easy to follow

5.2.2. Rich review of literature

5.2.3. Provided rationale for utilizing case study design, grounded in the background literature

5.2.4. Research questions addressed a gap in existing literature

5.2.5. Adequate detail is provided to allow for this study to be replicated

5.2.6. Detailed description of how categories and themes emerged from the data

5.2.7. Findings provide insights that may be relevant / generalizable to other distance education programs.

5.2.8. Contributes to existing literature by providing an alternative view focusing on the levels of preparedness amongst DE faculty

5.2.9. Addresses a gap in the existing research literature

6. LIMITATIONS / WEAKNESSES

6.1. LIMITATIONS / WEAKNESSES

6.1.1. No rationale for target sample size (N=6)

6.1.2. Small sample size recruited (N=2)

6.1.2.1. Homogeneous, from a single program/institution

6.1.2.2. Additional participants not recruited due to time constraints of the researcher

6.1.2.3. Limited the richness and internal validity of the study

6.1.2.3.1. Including participants representing other roles in the distance education team – at minimum, an instructional designer – would have strengthened this study

6.1.2.4. Participant bias in quantitative and qualitative data

6.1.2.4.1. No anonymity due to recruitment strategy

6.1.3. Potential survey bias?

6.1.3.1. Author makes contradictory statements about the surveys encompassing and not encompassing NLN and iNACOL standards

6.1.4. What was the rationale for using these surveys?

6.1.4.1. Superficial use of combined quantitative and qualitative dataSuperficial use of combined quantitative and qualitative data

6.1.4.1.1. Surveys ultimately provided little value beyond collecting demographic data

6.1.4.1.2. Unclear how interview data was used to validate survey data (inconsistency: as a limitation, author describes that this study didn’t include activties to validate the survey tools used

6.1.4.1.3. Survey results do not appear to be included in the analysis

6.1.4.1.4. Pattern-matching logic and idealized theoretic patterns as comparators are not described

6.1.5. “Additional data” collected from administrative documents reported descriptively, but did they contribute to the analysis and findings?

6.1.6. Author suggests case study design limits generalizability of this study’s findings... HOWEVER

6.1.6.1. Generalizability is a characteristic in case study design

6.1.6.2. Application of Contingency Leadership Theory contribution to this study’s generalizability

6.1.6.2.1. Pattern-matching logic and idealized theoretic patterns as comparators are not described

7. RELEVANCE TO DISTANCE EDUCATION

7.1. Explores topics of great importance to the study of distance education because it provides insights on the supports and barriers to successfully implementing distance programs that center learning around the student

7.2. Upholds that leadership, administrative support and technical support as critical factors contributing to faculty pedagogical competence

7.3. Provides evidence-based information that can inform program/institutional processes and policies for preparing and supporting faculty teaching in the online setting

7.4. Presents a specific target for nursing program leadership for supporting/improving the pedagogical competence of their faculty

7.4.1. Implement NLN and iNACOL competency standards, or standards of good practice based on these

7.5. Contributes to existing literature by providing an alternative view focusing on the levels of preparedness amongst DE faculty

7.6. Addresses a gap in the existing research literature

7.7. Provides background and a mandate for future research

8. SEARCH STRATEGY

8.1. A peer-reviewed journal article search was done by utilizing the Athabasca Library databases. Amongst those that resulted, an article was chosen that best reflected nursing and online or distance education research done in the last decade

9. FINDINGS/INTERPRETATION

9.1. Technological Environment

9.1.1. Online environmental demands require resources and instructional design competence to meet learner needs

9.2. Pedagogy

9.2.1. Nursing faculty does not receive formal training in online course development and delivery

9.3. Leadership

9.3.1. Program leadership is critical in providing support and resources to support pedagogical competence amongst faculty delivering distance education courses

9.3.1.1. The program studied incorporates principles of good practice that coincide with NLN and iNACOL competency standards, but do not specifically incorporate NLN and iNACOL competency standards

9.4. Application of Contingency Leadership Theory

9.4.1. Successful distance education programs are contingent on the interconnected variables of technological environment, pedagogy, and leadership

10. THEORETCIAL FRAMEWORK: Contingency Leadership Theory

10.1. Focuses on relationship between an organization and the environment

10.2. Effective patterns of organizational structure and behaviour are contingent on environmental and task demands

10.3. Changes in an environment require appropriate changes in patterns of the organization to deal with the environment