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1.1. Structure :

1.1.1. Main clause

1.1.2. "...THAT..."

1.1.3. Subordinate clause

1.2. Example :

1.2.1. Sarah said that she had bought two tickets for the concert.

1.2.2. Greg said he would have pizza Prosciutto.

1.3. Change of tenses

1.3.1. Simple Present Simple Past

1.3.2. Present Continuous Past Continuous

1.3.3. Present Perfect Past Perfect

1.3.4. Simple Past Past Perfect

1.3.5. Past Continuous Past continuous Past Perfect Continuous

1.3.6. Simple Future Conditional

1.3.7. Future Continuous Conditional Continuous

1.3.8. Perfect Future Perfect Conditional

1.3.9. Past Perfect Past Perfect

1.4. Other words

1.4.1. Demonstratives This That These Those

1.4.2. Adverbs Now Then Ago Before Here There Yesterday The previous day Tomorrow The following day The next .... The following... Last... The previous... The ....before

1.4.3. Possesives

1.4.4. Personal Pronouns I, you, he, she,it, we, you, they


2.1. Yes /No Questions

2.1.1. Structure Main clause He asked me ...IF... My, your, his, her, its, our, their ...if... Subordinate clause ... I had been to the US.

2.1.2. Example Norah asked me if I had brought my umbrella.

2.1.3. Changes Same changes in other words

2.2. Wh- pronoun questions

2.2.1. Same changes in verbal tenses

2.2.2. Structure Main clause He asked us... WH-PRONOUN ...what... Subordinate clause ...we were doing.

2.2.3. Example Norah asked him where he had bought his umbrella Same changes in other words

2.2.4. Changes: Same changes in verbal tenses


3.1. Affirmative

3.1.1. Structure Main clause ...TO... ...infinitive + complements

3.1.2. Example The gardener told us to keep off the grass.

3.2. Negative

3.2.1. Structure Main clause ...NOT TO... infinitive + complements

3.2.2. example The policeman told us not to feed the ducks.


4.1. Statements

4.1.1. Say Decir He said to me that... He said that...

4.1.2. Tell Contar He told me that... He told me that..

4.1.3. State Declarar He stated that ...

4.1.4. Declare Declarar He declared that...

4.1.5. Explain Explicar He explained to me that... He explained that...

4.1.6. Reply Replicar He replied that...

4.1.7. Answer Contestar He answered me that... He answered that...

4.1.8. Add Añadir He added that...

4.2. Questions

4.2.1. Ask Pedir

4.2.2. Enquire Inquirir

4.2.3. Want to know Quere saber

4.2.4. Wonder Preguntarse a sí mismo

4.3. Commands

4.3.1. Tell Decir a alguien que haga algo

4.3.2. Ask Pedir a alguien que haga algo

4.3.3. Beg Rogar He begged me to ...

4.3.4. Force Obligar

4.3.5. Order Ordenar

4.3.6. Instruct Dar instrucciones para

4.3.7. Ban Prohibir

4.3.8. Forbade Prohiibir

4.4. Others

4.4.1. Suggest Sugerir He suggested ordering Chinese food. He suggested that we should order Chinese food.

4.4.2. Warn Advertir o avisar

4.4.3. Advise Aconsejar

4.4.4. Threaten Amenazar

4.4.5. Invite Invite

4.4.6. Promise Prometer

4.4.7. Apologize Disculpar(se) He apologized for being late.

4.4.8. Accuse Acusar He accused me of stealing the money.

4.4.9. Deny Negar He denied having stolen the money.

4.4.10. Refuse Rehusar He refused to go to her birthday party.