1. Intro: What is an ideology? A false belief held out of self-interest. Examples: False beliefs in inferiority of African Americans; that expanding slavery Westward is good for whole country, not just for plantations; that U.S. is taking California and New Mexico in order to win the war with Mexico.
8. Which side was which in the Civil War?: a preview of the Civil War: America's second revolution
7. How did American politics change? There's a new party alignment, and the moves toward a showdown, both over slavery. Republicans become "free soil" party. African Americans pay close attention to election. Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision in 1857 rejects that Scott became free when his master took him out of the South. John Brown raids Harpers Ferry to seize arms and liberate slaves in Virginia. Defeated by U.S. Marines under Robert E. Lee. Brown was hung, but "John Brown's Body" became the Battle Hymn of the Republic.
6. How did the compromise of 1850 change things? The compromise preserves Union, but at great cost to escaped slaves: After Gold Rush of 1849, California and New Mexico and Utah are admitted as territories without slavery being banned there. New Fugitive Slave Law passed to fight Underground Railroad. It inflames anti-slavery feeling, making something far away a more immediate issue for many whites. Conflict becomes increasingly violent in Kansas-Nebraska, where John Brown, a white New Englander, fought against slavery.
5. Why did Western expansion lead to Civil War? Northerners and Southerners agree on Western expansion, but for different reasons: The North for industrial capitalism, the South to expand slavery and plantations. Texas fights for independence from Mexico, and U.S. annexes Texas in 1845. James Polk uses war as excuse to take what becomes California and New Mexico. Discovery of gold feeds rush Westward. But debate intensified over whether slavery should extend there.
4. Why did abolitionists not catch on universally with Northern workers opposed to slavery? And why did they frighten slaveowners? Garrison leads white abolitionists, while David Walker, son of slave father, issues call to action among slaves rather than appeal to slave-owners; slaveowners counter with their own propaganda, a terror campaign against Southern free blacks. Crackdown fails: Movement against slavery grows, but Northern white workers hate slavery and slaves alike, and Garrison doesn't make common cause with labor movement against employers.
3. Why did poor Southerners make common cause with slavery? White Southerners of little or no property demand equal rights, but don't address the source of planter's power: chattel slavery, because they view blacks as competition. Missouri Compromise of 1820 pleases neither abolitionists nor slaveholders. South Carolina defies federal government.
2. How did slaves resist? The Haitian revolution (1792-1804) inspires African Americans; slave uprisings of Gabriel Prosser (1800), Denmark Vesey (1822), and Nat Turner (1831); the Seminole Wars, 1812 and 1835; the Amistad Rebellion, 1839; and the everyday resistance of slaves (1619-1865).