LOOP Key Themes and Concepts Chapters 2 and 3

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LOOP Key Themes and Concepts Chapters 2 and 3 by Mind Map: LOOP Key Themes and Concepts Chapters 2 and 3

1. Class Structure of Brazil

1.1. Low Class

1.1.1. Domestic Worker

1.1.1.1. Gloria agreed to be Dona Beth's Domestic worker

1.1.1.1.1. She would be earning 5 minimum wages for a 6 day work week

1.1.1.1.2. Typically, a domestic worker only gets paid 1 minimum wage a week

1.1.1.2. Gloria's Old Job

1.1.1.2.1. She would be working 14 hour shifts at her employers

1.1.1.2.2. She was a superfiicient cleaning lady

1.1.1.2.3. Many of her past employers helped her in times of need

1.1.1.3. The bonds of patronage, dependency, and deference are illustrated through the domestic worker and patron relationship.

1.1.2. According to Brazil's demographics, Gloria fits into the lowest paying job sector. Due to years of hard work and dedication, she finally got a job which pays for all her family's expenses.

1.1.3. "Another way to view this situation is to understand that the system demands that domestic work be the lowest paid, affordable to event the lowest ranks of the middle class, since it is in and of itself a distinguishing feature of the middle-class life." (page 61)

1.1.4. Poverty in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil

1.1.4.1. Rio is the world's second largest city and second most important port is located here as well

1.1.4.2. Rio de Janeiro is only for 7% of the country's 26% of manufacturing production.

1.1.4.2.1. Due to the economic decline, Rio's banks, industries and research and development headquarters relocated to Sao Paulo

1.1.4.3. Rio has the most unequal distribution of income of any metropolitan area in Brazil

1.2. Middle Class

1.2.1. A domestic worker is necessary

1.2.1.1. Perceived as a class marker

1.2.1.2. Form of identity

1.2.2. Expected to be able to afford a person who cooks and cleans for them

1.3. Elite Class

1.3.1. Having servants is perceived as a class marker

1.3.2. The more workers a person hires, the more prestige they obtain. This also determines their social status.

1.4. Working Class

1.4.1. Rarely has maids

1.5. "For Bourdieu, hegemically constructed forms of cultural capital are a possession of the dominant classes and are acquired through the process of class production and reproduction." (Page 91)

2. Local Inhabitants

2.1. Dona Beth

2.1.1. Knew how to prepare a wide array of Brazilian dishes

2.1.2. Gloria's new employer for the past year

2.1.3. In her 50's and a middle class Brazilian

2.1.4. Has received a letter from her daughter (early 20s) who was studying abroad far away for college

2.1.4.1. She stated that she was having a good time and she knows that being far away from her family is difficult. She also said that she wants more independence away from her mother.

2.1.4.1.1. Dona Beth was upset as a result

2.1.5. Beth's Family

2.1.5.1. Husband's career

2.1.5.1.1. industrialist

2.1.5.2. Her career

2.1.5.2.1. Social Worker for the National Foundation for the Well Being of The Minor

3. Gloria

3.1. Gloria's daughters

3.1.1. Over the years, Gloria helped raise many children. When they hit a certain age, they enter the real world and get a job and move out

3.1.2. Some of Gloria's daughters had a difficult time finding a job due to their observable racial and class characteristics

3.1.3. Her daughters also suffered even more due to the economy which rewards Afro- Brazilian women the lowest pay within the Brazilian economy

3.1.4. Many jobs require a "boa aparencia"

3.1.4.1. Good appearance

3.1.5. "Domestic work, one of the few employment opportunities readily accessible to them, is distinguished by the fact that it is both one of the lowest- paying jobs available and its filled disproportionately by Afro- Brazilian women." (page 60)

3.2. Key characteristics:

3.2.1. Hardworking

3.2.2. Independent

3.2.3. Reliable

4. Demographics

4.1. Changes

4.1.1. Increase in femnization in the workforce

4.1.2. Growing participation of children in the economy

4.1.3. Migration to the city has been contributing to the growth

4.1.3.1. Migrants of the Rio metropolitan area make up 22% of the total population

4.1.3.1.1. Came from economically impoverished states of the North

4.2. Many poor women end up living in Rio to seek domestic work

4.2.1. Work without benefits

4.2.2. No healthcare

4.2.3. Very few employment opportunities available

4.3. From Slavery to Servitude

4.3.1. Gloria grew up in Minas Gerais in a town called Bom Jesus de Moreira

4.3.1.1. Worked on a farm as a servant supporting her family

4.3.2. In the 1950's, her family migrated to Rio de Janeiro

4.3.2.1. Her mother began laboring as a domestic worker

5. History

5.1. Rio de Janeiro

5.1.1. During the Colonial Period, slaves, ex- slaves, and domestic workers were closely related to one another

5.1.2. Cultural practices are produced and reproduced through domestic workers and their employers

5.1.3. Rio's elites traveled to Paris and recreated their architecture to make it look like Paris.

5.1.4. "Historian Thomas Skidmore addresses the question of how Brazilian elites thought about race and national identity in the years immediately preceding and following the abolition of slavery, approximately the period between 1870 and 1940." (page 76)

5.1.5. Modernist Movement

5.1.5.1. Brazilian elites weighed their own identity in relation to the Old World

5.1.6. The Modern Art Week

5.1.6.1. A significant artistic event when the ideas of "whitening" and how scientific racism are in the process of transformation

5.1.7. Masters and the Slaves

5.1.7.1. A social history and ethnography of the plantation life during the 16th and 17th century

6. Urban and Architectural Planning

6.1. Brazilian Middle Class Apartment

6.1.1. Divided into 3 independent zones

6.1.1.1. Social Area

6.1.1.2. Intimate Area

6.1.1.3. Service Area

7. Race and Class

7.1. People in Brazil are uncomfortable talking about race and racism

7.2. Mesticagem

7.2.1. The blending of indigenous American, Iberian and Africans into a single national identity

7.3. "As a method of escaping from poverty, however, marrying or seducing a coroa is based on gendered and radicalized values of attractiveness in an erratic market." (page 110)

7.4. Coroa

7.4.1. Categorized in:

7.4.1.1. Age

7.4.1.2. Class

7.4.1.3. Sexuality

7.4.1.4. Gender

7.4.2. A story of hope told among the low income women

7.5. "The idea that Brazil is a color blond erotic democracy- that the power associated with gender, race, and class plays no role in sexual partnerships- helps to mask and normalize everyday racism and internalized racism in Brazil." (Page 135)