Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Chapter 3 by Mind Map: Chapter 3

1. Eliana

1.1. one of Gloria's best friends from childhood

1.2. a very dark-skinned Afro-Brazillian

1.3. Elzina, her daughter and also dark-skinned like her, got pregnant by a white boy who didn't acknowledge the relationship with Elzina or his peternity; had the baby, Fausto, who turned out to be very light skinned, despite attempts to abort him

1.4. when in public often mistaken as Fausto's "baba"/nanny- a position she held for a long time before retiring

2. Race and Class

2.1. Color

2.1.1. light vs. dark, well to do vs. poor accordingly

2.1.2. an indicator of clas for the most part

2.2. North Americans

2.2.1. poverty is often spoken in terms of race

2.2.2. in the Unted States, African American mothers are often fallaciously percieved as "on welfare" despite the fact that there are more White Americans on welfare

2.2.3. far more comfortable talking about racial topics

2.2.4. United States uses race to separate kind of people

2.3. Brazil

2.3.1. race and racism is an uncomfatable topic

2.3.2. never had a powerful civil rights Black power movement

2.3.3. embrce "mesticagem" which is the blending of indegenous Americak, Iberian, and African people in a single national identity

2.3.4. Afro-Brazilian traditions such as Umbanda, sometimes referred to as Brazil's national religion, as well as samba are sometimes appropriated and de-Africanized

2.3.5. existence of more of a "class" problem rather than race

2.3.6. evaluate race according to appearance

2.3.7. color terms; "racial identities" black, "preto/negro" white, "branco" brown or mixed, "moreno/mulato" dark, "escuro" light, "claro" closed, "fechado" freckled, "sarara"

2.3.8. blackness is still associated with slavery, dirty, and ugliness; only highly policitized people talk about their color/race openely without shame Ana Flavia Pencanha Azerado was physically and verbally assaulted for delaying an elevator in a middle class apartment building in 1992 perpetrators didn't know she was the daughter of the governor and assumed that she was poor because of her skin color she filed a lawsuit, racial discrimination, against the assailants

2.3.9. being lighter-skinned are believed to have more chances in life than those whose skin is darker

3. Erotic Democracies

3.1. women beleived that their best way out of poverty or get ahead is to marry coroas, which are often "whiter" men with money

3.2. Janaina, afriend of Gloria's whose employer, an older rich white widower, developed special affections for her; offered to give her and her children a better life

3.3. Janaina's case according to Gloria is about a man who's "logically" not racist because they sexually desire black women

3.4. the risk or trade off for women like Janaina is the reception of "whiteness" and wealth but lack of sexual/romantic passion

4. Aluisio Azevedo's "O Cortico" or "The Slum"

4.1. the book was written in 1890 that connects erroticism, social mobility, and race relations in Brazil

4.2. story was about Jeronimo, one of the 3 Portuguese migrants that sailed into Brazil

4.3. Jeronimo fell in love with a beautiful "mulstta" woman named Rita Bahiana

4.4. Jeronimo later became more easygoing as time passed by, quicker to spend rather than save, snd less concerned about tomorrow; he became a "Brazilian"

4.5. the book provides a view of a "mulatta" seductress

5. Mulatta Dancer

5.1. studied by Giacomini in 1990

5.2. Professionalf of Carnival, Rio's nighclubs, and traveling show- part of promotion of Rio de Janeiro

5.3. "mulatta" colors are some of the not so rigid requirements

5.4. sexualized image of "mulatta" women

5.5. must know how to "samba" and must have certain body type- shape and size of buttocks is important

5.6. must learn how to defend themselves and their profession as to not be mistaken as prostitutes

6. Brazilian Sexuality

6.1. Brazil, "erotic paradise"

6.1.1. celebrated in the hisotriopgraphy and academic literature in the 1980'a and 1990's

6.1.2. Also featured in tourist brochures

6.1.3. celebrate during Carnival

6.2. Gilberto Freyre

6.2.1. unequal love affair between white males and indigenous females is a celebration of interracial sexuality as well as being morally better than those in the United States

6.2.2. it was the indigenous women who initiated the interracial, or "mixing of races" with the Europeans

6.2.3. picture these women as sexually insatianle and seductresses that used their sexaulity to elslave the men

6.3. Ann Stoler

6.3.1. points out the representation of colonial sexuality in European literature

6.4. Thomas Skidmore

6.4.1. a historian that recognized Freyre's work as a promotion of the "whitening" or gradual purification of Brazil

6.5. after Freyre, racial coupling and sexuality as pertaining to Brazilian sexuality disappeared from scholarly work

7. Beauty and Social Mobility

7.1. being mixed race is not enough to be considered as a hot and sexual mulatta in Felicidade Eterna but rather having the ability to successfully seduce a coroa

7.2. a seductress can overcome her negative value as a dark skinned Afro-Brazillian by seducing a coroa successfully

7.3. White characteristics alone alone can qualify as beautiful

7.4. a mixed white and black races can create a "mulatta" beauty

7.5. being purely black - flat noses and kinky hair- is equated to ugliness

7.6. Isadora, the white friend of Gloria's who own a botiquim, was encouraged by Gloria to send her two daughter to Xuxa modeling school however the encouragement wasn't returned since Gloria's children were very dark skinne like her

8. Coroa and the "Whitening"

8.1. the seduction of Afro-Brazillian by white men enables them to be empowered by their black sensuality/sexuality

8.2. a way for social mobilty

8.3. Frantz Fanon

8.3.1. romatically desiring a white man can create inner issues

8.3.2. desires can stem from desire to enter the master's worls, the white world

8.3.3. their , the blacks and mixed, inferiorities and apirations to be in the "white world" enslaves them

8.4. Marilia, a resident of Felicidade Eterna, once promised her sister-in-law's coroa sexual favors in return for financial help when her baby got sick with pneumonia and needed hospitalization; she never performed any favors- she lied to him

9. Gloria's Views of Racism

9.1. if a coroa "falls" for a black or mixed woman, he's not racist

9.2. when the white employer who gave Donna Goldstein two kisses, as a sign of greeting, and barely acknowledged her and her friend Janaina, he's therefore racist

9.3. physical contact, sexual or otherwise, is a proof of a nonracist while aversion to such contact is considered racism

10. Roberto

10.1. one of Celina's, Gloria's sister than passed away, children that Gloria took in

10.2. got Geni, a morena who lived in Felicidade Eterna, pregnant; didn't end with her but took reponsibility for his child by giving financial support

10.3. joined the military and after worked at a grocery chain where he rose the professional ladder

10.4. a joke that Roberto didn't like, which he assumed was directed at his choosing to be with Geni at that time, drove a wedge between him and his aunt, Gloria

10.5. was seen by Gloria as a positive male role model for her children

10.6. according to Gloria, he ought to know that he owed her better treatment for taking him in after his mother's death

10.7. his color/"race" did not hinder him from climbing the professional/career ladder