Grammar Workout

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Grammar Workout by Mind Map: Grammar Workout

1. Past Simple

1.1. When

1.1.1. To talk about something that happened in the past which is not continuing now.

1.2. Example

1.2.1. I worked for a Portuguese company for two years. (I left them after two years. I have different job now).

1.3. Tip

1.3.1. No link to the present

2. Present Perfect

2.1. When

2.1.1. Direct link to the present

2.2. Example

2.2.1. I have had a driving licence for seven years. (I got my driving licence seven years ago, and I still have itI have had a driving licence for seven years.

2.3. Tip

2.3.1. Connected to the present

2.4. Can´t be used

2.4.1. For something that happened at a specific time in the past.

2.4.2. with time phrases such as

2.4.2.1. last week, last..., on Saturday, five minutes ago, When ...? in 1918, etc

2.5. Use

2.5.1. with for, since and how long

2.5.1.1. To talk about something that started in the past and continues up to the present

2.5.1.1.1. They have lived in Oxford since June.

2.5.2. with ever, never, yet, before, this morning, this year

2.5.2.1. For things which happened during a period of time that continues up to the present.

2.5.2.1.1. Have you ever been to Africa?

2.5.2.1.2. I have never climbed a mountain

2.5.2.1.3. Have you finished yet?

2.5.3. without any time referente

2.5.3.1. I have been to Egypt

2.5.4. To talk about past actions when we can see the result of the action at a present time.

2.5.4.1. He has cleaned the windows. (The windows are now clean.)

2.5.5. To announce news.

2.5.5.1. The President has arrived in London. (He is now in London.)

2.5.6. To announce news.

2.5.6.1. The President has arrived in London. (He is now in London.)

2.5.7. With already for something that happened sooner than expected.

2.5.7.1. Where´s that letter? "Anna has already posted it."

2.5.8. with just

2.5.8.1. for recent past events

2.6. Remember

2.6.1. Always has a connection with the present.

2.6.1.1. She has worked in South America for two years. (She´s still there.)

3. Reported Requests

3.1. Form

3.1.1. whether (the same as reporting a yes/no question)

3.1.2. Reported verb + if

3.1.3. Infinitive

3.1.3.1. Command

3.1.4. 2 ways

3.1.4.1. ask + (person) + if I whether + ....

3.1.4.2. ask + person + to infinitive + ....

3.2. What

3.2.1. is not question

3.3. Adjusts

3.3.1. Subject

3.3.2. Verb Tense

3.3.3. Pronouns

4. Present Perfect Continuous

4.1. To talk about something which started in the past and is still continuing in the present time.

4.1.1. It´s been snowing all morning. I hope it stops soon.

4.2. When an action has recently stopped, especially when the action has results in the present.

4.2.1. It´s been snowing. (It isn´t snowing now but there is snow on thec ground.)

4.3. to talk about repeated actions or situations in a period up to the present (or the recent past).

4.3.1. How long have you been living in Manchester?

4.3.2. I´ve been having driving lessons for six months.

4.4. Usually use it if we want to focus on the action, not the result.

4.4.1. We´ve been waiting for an hour. (the action of waiting)

4.4.2. We´ve waited an hour and they haven´t come (the result - the people haven´t come)

4.5. Remember

4.5.1. Some verbs that we don´t normally use in the continuous forms

4.5.1.1. Be, believe, know, like, need

4.5.1.1.1. He´s been on the telephone for hours. NOT He´s been being on the telephone for hours.

4.5.1.1.2. I´ve known him for a long time. NOT I´ve been knowing him for a long time.

4.5.2. Stative verbs

4.5.2.1. Know, remember, want, etc.

4.5.2.1.1. not usually used in the continuous forms.

4.5.3. Some situations can use both

4.5.3.1. My brother has been living in New your for three years.

4.5.3.2. My brother has lived in New Youk for three years.

4.6. When

4.6.1. The action may be finished or not finished.

4.6.1.1. She´s been doing her homework. (Perhaps she has finished it, perhaps she has not.)

4.6.2. To talk about how long something has been in progress.

4.6.2.1. The tourists have been walking for ten hours.

4.6.2.2. How long have you been driving?

4.6.3. To talk about an action that has finished recently, but which has a result in the present.

4.6.3.1. The children are wet. They´ve been playing football in the rain.

5. Present Perfect Simple

5.1. When the action is finished and the result is important.

5.1.1. I´ve read that book. (=I have finished reading it).

5.1.2. I´ve written an email. (= It´s ready. I can send it.)

5.2. Permanent situations or situations that last a long time.

5.2.1. He´s always worked hard.

5.2.2. I´ve lived in the same house all my life.

5.3. To say how many times something has happened.

5.3.1. We´ve played three matches this week.