ACID AND BASES

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ACID AND BASES by Mind Map: ACID AND BASES

1. ACIDS

1.1. PROPERTIES

1.1.1. HAVE SOUR TASTE

1.1.2. CORROSIVE

1.1.3. pH VALUE LESSER THAN 7

1.1.4. TURNS DAMP BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED

1.1.5. CONDUCT ELECTRICITY WHEN DISSOLVED IN WATER

1.2. EXAMPLES

1.2.1. SULFURIC ACID

1.2.2. HYDROCHLORIC ACID

1.2.3. PHOSPHORIC ACID

1.2.4. ETHANOIC ACID

1.3. DEFINITION

1.3.1. SUBSTANCE THAT PRODUCES HYDROGEN IONS,H+ WHEN DISSOLVED IN WATER.

1.4. USES

1.4.1. REMOVES IMPURITIES FROM METALS

1.4.2. MANUFACTURE OF DETERGENTS

1.4.3. BATTERY ACIDS IN CARS

1.4.4. FOOD PERSERVATIVE AND FLAVOUR EHANCER

1.5. IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION ,PRODUCE H+IONS

1.6. CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS

1.6.1. WEAK ACID~~~~ONLY PARTIALLY IONISE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

1.6.1.1. EXAMPLE =EHTANOIC ACID

1.6.2. STRONG ACIDS~~~~COMPLETELY IONISE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

1.6.2.1. EXAMPLE=HYDROCHLORIC ACID&SULFURIC ACID

1.7. ACID REACTS

1.7.1. ALKALI~~~NEUTRALISATION OCCURS~~~SALT AND WATER IS PRODUCED

1.7.2. METAL~~~PRODUCE :::SALT+WATER+HYDROGEN

1.7.3. CARBONATE~~~PRODUCE:::SALT+WATER+CARBON DIOXIDE

1.7.4. NOT ALL METAL REACTS WITH ACIDS!!!!!!!!!!!!EXAMPLE COPPER OR SILVER

1.8. INDICATORS USED

1.8.1. METHYL ORANGE

1.8.1.1. COLOUR IN ACIDIC SOLUTION::RED

1.8.2. PHENOLPHTHALEIN

1.8.2.1. COLOURLESS

1.8.3. BROMOTHYMOL BLUE

1.8.3.1. YELLOW

1.8.4. BLUE LITMUS PAPER

1.8.4.1. TUENS MOIST BLUE LITMUS PAPER RED

1.8.5. UNIVERSAL INDICATORS

2. BASES

2.1. DEFINITION

2.1.1. A BASE IS ANY METAL OXIDE OR METAL HYDROXIDE

2.2. EXAMPLES

2.2.1. CALCIUM OXIDE

2.2.2. SODIUM HYDROXIDE

2.2.3. AQUEOUS AMMONIA

2.2.4. MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

2.3. PROPERTIES

2.3.1. CONDUCT ELECTRICITY WHEN DISSOLVED IN WATER

2.3.2. HAVE pH LEVEL GREATER THAN 7

2.3.3. TURNS DAMP RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE

2.3.4. SOAPY/SLIPPERY FEEL

2.3.5. HAVE BITTER TASTE

2.4. USES

2.4.1. MAKE FERTILISERS

2.4.2. MAKES SOAP OR DETERGENTS

2.4.3. NEUTRALISE EXCESS ACIDITY IN SOIL

2.4.4. USED IN TOOTHPASTE TO NEUTRALISE ACIDS ON OUR TEETH

2.4.5. USED IN ANTACIDS TO RELIEVE PAIN OF INDIGESTION

2.4.6. USED IN WINDOW CLEANERS TO REMOVE GREASE

2.5. IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION,PRODUCE OH- IONS

2.6. ALKALI REACTS

2.6.1. ACIDS,~~~NEUTRALISATION OCCURS`````PRODUCE SALT AND WATER

2.6.2. AMMONIUM SALTS~~~PRODUCE SALT+WATER+AMMONIA(NH3)

2.6.3. SOLUTION OF ONE METAL SALT TO GIVE ANOTHER METAL SALT AND METAL HYDROXIDE~~~PRODUCING SALT(OF metal A)+METAL HYDROXIDE(PF metal B)

2.7. INDICATOR USED

2.7.1. METHYL ORANGE

2.7.1.1. COLOUR IN ALKALINE SOLUTION::::YELLOW

2.7.2. PHENOLPHTHALEIN

2.7.2.1. PINK

2.7.3. BROMOTHYMOL BLUE

2.7.3.1. BLUE

2.7.4. RED LITMUS PAPER

2.7.4.1. TURNS MOIST RED LITMUS PAPER BLUE

2.7.5. UNIVERSAL INDICATORS

3. TYPES OF OXIDES

3.1. FORMED WHEN METAL REACT WITH OXYGEN

3.1.1. AMPHOTERIC OXIDES

3.1.1.1. REACT WITH BOTH ACIDS AND ALKALIS TO FORM SALTS AND WATER

3.1.2. BASIC OXIDES

3.1.2.1. REACT WITH ACIDS TO FORM A SALT AND WATER

3.2. FORMED WHEN NON-METAL REACT WITH OXYGEN

3.2.1. NEUTRAL OXIDES

3.2.1.1. NEITHER ACIDIC NOR BASIC

3.2.2. ACIDIC OXIDES

3.2.2.1. REACTS WITH ALKALIS TO FORM A SALT AND WATER